Egg: Substitutes

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Egg: Substitutes

Post by ThreeperMan on Sun 12 Jul 2009, 16:05

Althaea officinalis - L.
Marsh Mallow
Author L. Botanical references 17, 200
Family Malvaceae Genus Althaea
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Range Central and southern Europe, including Britain, to N. Africa and W. Asia.
Habitat The upper margins of salt and brackish marshes, sides of ditches and grassy banks near the sea[7, 17].
Edibility Rating apple iconapple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 5 (1-5) Medicinal Rating apple iconapple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 5 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of perennial/biennial/annual Perennial growing to 1.2m by 0.75m.
It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from July to September, and the seeds ripen from August to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees. The plant is self-fertile. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in saline soil. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil.
Habitats
Cultivated Beds;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves; Root.
Edible Uses: Egg; Tea.
Leaves - raw or cooked[2, 4, 100]. They are used as a potherb or to thicken soups[62, 183]. When used as a small proportion with other leaves, the taste and texture is acceptable, but if a lot of the leaves are cooked together their mucilaginous texture makes them unpalatable[K]. The leaves can be eaten raw but are rather fibrous and somewhat hairy, though the taste is mild and pleasant[K]. We have found them to be quite acceptable in salads when chopped up finely[K]. Root - raw or cooked[61]. When boiled and then fried with onions it is said to make a palatable dish that is often used in times of shortage[4]. The root is used as a vegetable[62, 141, 183], it is also dried then ground into a powder, made into a paste and roasted to make the sweet 'marshmallow'[4, 5, 7, 17, 61]. The root contains about 37% starch, 11% mucilage, 11% pectin[254]. The water left over from cooking any part of the plant can be used as an egg-white substitute in making meringues etc[62]. The water from the root is the most effective[183], it is concentrated by boiling until it has a similar consistency to egg white. A tea is made from the flowers[183]. A tea can also be made from the root[183].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Antitussive; Demulcent; Diuretic; Emollient; Laxative; Odontalgic.
Marsh mallow is a very useful household medicinal herb. Its soothing demulcent properties make it very effective in treating inflammations and irritations of the mucous membranes such as the alimentary canal, the urinary and the respiratory organs[4, 254]. The root counters excess stomach acid, peptic ulceration and gastritis[254]. It is also applied externally to bruises, sprains, aching muscles, insect bites, skin inflammations, splinters etc[4, 238]. The whole plant, but especially the root, is antitussive, demulcent, diuretic, highly emollient, slightly laxative and odontalgic[4, 17, 21, 46, 165]. An infusion of the leaves is used to treat cystitis and frequent urination[254]. The leaves are harvested in August when the plant is just coming into flower and can be dried for later use[4]. The root can be used in an ointment for treating boils and abscesses[254]. The root is best harvested in the autumn, preferably from 2 year old plants, and is dried for later use[238].
Other Uses
Adhesive; Fibre; Oil; Teeth.
The dried root is used as a toothbrush or is chewed by teething children[6, 7]. It has a mechanical affect on the gums whilst also helping to ease the pain. The root is also used as a cosmetic, helping to soften the skin[7]. A fibre from the stem and roots is used in paper-making[46, 61, 74, 115]. The dried and powdered root has been used to bind the active ingredients when making pills for medicinal use[268]. A glue can be made from the root[74]. The root is boiled in water until a thick syrup is left in the pan, this syrup is used as a glue. An oil from the seed is used in making paints and varnishes[74].
Cultivation details
Succeeds in almost any soil and situation[1, 4, 200], though it prefers a rich moist soil in a sunny position[4, 200]. It also tolerates fairly dry soil conditions[1]. Plants are hardy to about -25°c[187]. Marsh mallow is often cultivated in the herb garden, as a culinary and medicinal herb as well as for ornament[61]. Its roots were at one time the source of the sweet 'marsh mallow', but this sweet is now made without using the plant[4].
Propagation
Seed - sow spring or autumn in a cold frame. The seed is best sown as soon as it is ripe in late summer, the germination is often erratic[238]. Stratification can improve germination rates and time. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and plant them out in the summer[K]. Division in spring or autumn. Fairly easy, it is best to pot up the divisions in a lightly shaded position in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are growing away well and then plant them out into their permanent positions. Root cuttings in December.
Links
This plant is also mentioned in the following PFAF articles: Vegtable Oils.
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
[5] Mabey. R. Food for Free. Collins 1974 ISBN 0-00-219060-5
Edible wild plants found in Britain. Fairly comprehensive, very few pictures and rather optimistic on the desirability of some of the plants.
[6] Mabey. R. Plants with a Purpose. Fontana 1979 ISBN 0-00-635555-2
Details on some of the useful wild plants of Britain. Poor on pictures but otherwise very good.
[7] Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald 1984 ISBN 0-356-10541-5
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.
[17] Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press 1962
A very comprehensive flora, the standard reference book but it has no pictures.
[21] Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books 1983 ISBN 0-553-23827-2
Lots of information tightly crammed into a fairly small book.
[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[62] Elias. T. and Dykeman. P. A Field Guide to N. American Edible Wild Plants. Van Nostrand Reinhold 1982 ISBN 0442222009
Very readable.
[74] Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation 1968
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers.
[100] Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press 1969 ISBN 0192176218
An excellent and well illustrated pocket guide for those with very large pockets. Also gives some details on plant uses.
[115] Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. 0
Written about a hundred years ago, but still a very good guide to the useful plants of Britain.
[141] Carruthers. S. P. (Editor) Alternative Enterprises for Agriculture in the UK. Centre for Agricultural Strategy, Univ. of Reading 1986 ISBN 0704909820
Some suggested alternative commercial crops for Britain. Readable. Produced by a University study group.
[165] Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. 0
An excellent small herbal.
[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[187] Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Perennials Volumes 1 and 2. Pan Books 1991 ISBN 0-330-30936-9
Photographs of over 3,000 species and cultivars of ornamental plants together with brief cultivation notes, details of habitat etc.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
[254] Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London 1996 ISBN 9-780751-303148
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.
[268] Stuart. M. (Editor) The Encyclopedia of Herbs and Herbalism Orbis Publishing. London. 1979 ISBN 0-85613-067-2
Excellent herbal with good concise information on over 400 herbs.
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Ceratonia siliqua - L. Carob

Post by ThreeperMan on Sun 12 Jul 2009, 16:07

Ceratonia siliqua - L.
Carob
Author L. Botanical references 89, 200
Family Leguminosae Genus Ceratonia
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Range S. Europe.
Habitat Rocky places near the sea shore[89].
Edibility Rating apple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5) Medicinal Rating apple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of decid tree An evergreen Tree growing to 15m.
It is hardy to zone 8 and is frost tender. It is in leaf all year, in flower from August to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)It can fix Nitrogen. The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Canopy; Secondary; South Wall By; West Wall By;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Seed; Seedpod.
Edible Uses: Chocolate; Coffee; Egg; Gum.
Seedpods - raw or ground into a powder[1, 7, 74, 89, 177]. The seedpods are filled with a saccharine pulp and can be eaten both green or dried[2]. They are very sweet but fibrous[183], the pulp can be used as a chocolate substitute in cakes, drinks etc[183]. It is rich in sugars and protein[183]. The pods contain about 55% sugars, 10% protein[100] and 6% fat[74]. Seed - rich in protein. A flour is made from them which is 60% protein, it is free from sugar and starch and is suitable for baking[64, 171]. It can be used as a chocolate substitute[148]. An edible gum is extracted from the seed, a substitute for Gum Tragacanth (see Astragalus species)[64]. A stabilizer and thickening agent[142, 183], it is also used as an egg substitute[61, 64, 142]. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute[61, 105, 183].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Astringent; Demulcent; Emollient; Purgative.
The pulp in the seedpods of carob is very nutritious and, due to its high sugar content, sweet-tasting and mildly laxative[254]. However, the pulp in the pods is also astringent and, used in a decoction, will treat diarrhoea and gently help to cleanse and also relieve irritation within the gut[240, 254]. Whilst these appear to be contradictory effects, carob is an example of how the body responds to herbal medicines in different ways, according to how the herb is prepared and according to the specific medical problem[254]. The seedpods are also used in the treatment of coughs[240]. A flour made from the ripe seedpods is demulcent and emollient[7]. It is used in the treatment of diarrhoea[7]. The seed husks are astringent and purgative[240]. The bark is strongly astringent[254]. A decoction is used in the treatment of diarrhoea[254].
Other Uses
Cosmetic; Tannin; Wood.
A flour made from the seedpods is used in the cosmetic industry to make face-packs[7]. Tannin is obtained from the bark[7]. Wood - hard, lustrous. Highly valued by turners, it is also used for marquetry and walking sticks[7, 61, 89, 100].
Cultivation details
Requires a very sunny position in any well-drained moderately fertile soil[200]. Does well in calcareous, gravelly or rocky soils[132, 166]. Tolerates salt laden air[132]. Tolerates a pH in the range 6.2 to 8.6. The tree is very drought resistant, thriving even under arid conditions, the roots penetrating deep into the soil to find moisture[4, 64, 132, 200]. This species is not very hardy in Britain but it succeeds outdoors in favoured areas of S. Cornwall[1], tolerating temperatures down to about -5°c when in a suitable position[200]. The young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun[K]. The carob is frequently cultivated in warm temperate zones for its edible seed and seed pods[1]. Mature trees in a suitable environment can yield up to 400 kilos of seedpods annually[64]. There are named varieties with thicker pods[64, 183]. Seeds are unlikely to be produced in Britain since the tree is so near (if not beyond) the limits of its cultivation[K]. The seed is very uniform in size and weight, it was the original 'carat' weight of jewellers[1, 89]. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[200].
Propagation
Seed - pre-soak for 24 hours in warm water prior to sowing. If the seed has not swollen then give it another soaking in warm water until it does swell up. Sow in a greenhouse in April[200]. Germination should take place within 2 months. As soon as they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual deep pots and grow them on in a greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Give them some protection from the cold for their first few winters outdoors.
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Kosteletzkya pentacarpos - (L.)Ledeb.

Post by ThreeperMan on Sun 12 Jul 2009, 16:08

Kosteletzkya pentacarpos - (L.)Ledeb.
Author (L.)Ledeb. Botanical references 74, 200
Family Malvaceae Genus Kosteletzkya
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Range Europe - Italy to the Caspian sea.
Habitat Seaside bogs of the Caspian littoral, along the west and south coasts[74].
Edibility Rating apple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5) Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of perennial/biennial/annual Perennial growing to 1m.
It is hardy to zone 7. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires moist soil.
Habitats
Cultivated Beds;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Root.
Edible Uses: Egg; Tea.
Leaves - raw or cooked[2, 4, 100]. They are used as a potherb or to thicken soups[62, 183]. The leaves can be eaten raw but are rather fibrous and somewhat hairy, though the taste is pleasant[K]. Flowers - raw. Added to salads[61]. The following uses are recorded for Althaea officinalis, they are said to also apply to this species[61]:- Root - raw or cooked[61]. When boiled and then fried with onions it is said to make a palatable dish that is often used in times of shortage[4]. The root is used as a vegetable[62, 141, 183], it is also dried then ground into a powder, made into a paste and roasted to make the sweet 'marshmallow'[4, 5, 7, 17, 61]. The water left over from cooking any part of the plant can be used as an egg-white substitute in making meringues etc[62]. The water from the root is the most effective[183], it is concentrated by boiling until it has a similar consistency to egg white. A tea is made from the flowers[183]. A tea can also be made from the root[183].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
None known
Other Uses
Adhesive; Fibre; Oil.
A strong fibre is obtained from the stems. It is used for making string, nets etc[74]. The following uses are recorded for Althaea officinalis, they are said to also apply to this species[61]:- A glue can be made from the root[74]. An oil from the seed is used in making paints and varnishes[74].
Cultivation details
Prefers a deep rich moist sandy soil in a warm sunny position[1, 200]. Plants are hardy to at least -15°c[200].
Propagation
Seed - sow spring in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Division in spring.
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Malva neglecta - Wallr. Dwarf Mallow

Post by ThreeperMan on Sun 12 Jul 2009, 16:10

Malva neglecta - Wallr.
Dwarf Mallow
Author Wallr. Botanical references 17, 200
Family Malvaceae Genus Malva
Synonyms
Known Hazards warning signWhen grown on nitrogen rich soils (and particularly when these are inorganic), the plant tends to concentrate high levels of nitrates in its leaves[76]. The leaves are perfectly wholesome at all other times.
Range Most of Europe, including Britain, south and east to N. Africa and Asia.
Habitat Waste and cultivated ground[17], usually on dry soils, frequently in coastal habitats, on dry walls or as a weed of cultivated ground[200].
Edibility Rating apple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 4 (1-5) Medicinal Rating apple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of perennial/biennial/annual Annual growing to 0.6m.
It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from June to September, and the seeds ripen from July to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies. The plant is self-fertile. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires dry or moist soil.
Habitats
Cultivated Beds; East Wall In; South Wall In; West Wall In;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves; Seed.
Edible Uses: Egg; Tea.
Leaves and young shoots - raw or cooked[2, 9, 13, 74, 85]. A mild pleasant flavour[K], they are said to be highly nutritious[222]. They can be added in quantity to salads, and make an excellent lettuce substitute, they can also be cooked as greens[183, K]. The leaves are mucilaginous, when cooked in soups etc they tend to thicken it in much the same way as okra (Abelmoschatus esculenta)[222]. Some people find this mucilaginous texture unpleasant, especially if the leaves are cooked[K]. Immature seeds - raw or cooked[74, 85, 183]. A pleasant nutty flavour, they are nice as a nibble but too small for most people to want to collect in quantity[K]. A decoction of the roots is used as an egg-white substitute for making meringue[183]. The roots are brought to the boil in water and then simmered until the water becomes quite thick. This liquid can then be whisked in much the same way as egg whites[K]. A tea can be made from the dried leaves[85, 183].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Antiinflammatory; Antiphlogistic; Astringent; Demulcent; Diuretic; Emollient; Expectorant; Laxative; Poultice; Purgative; Salve.
All parts of the plant are antiphlogistic, astringent, demulcent, diuretic, emollient, expectorant, laxative, salve[9, 222, 238]. The leaves and flowers can be eaten as part of the diet, or a tea can be made from the leaves, flowers or roots[222]. The leaves and flowers are the main part used, their demulcent properties making them valuable as a poultice for bruise, inflammations, insect bites etc, or taken internally in the treatment of respiratory system diseases or inflammation of the digestive or urinary systems[222, 238]. They have similar properties, but are considered to be inferior to the marsh mallow (Althaea officinalis), though they are stronger acting than the common mallow (M. sylvestris). They are seldom used internally[4]. The plant is an excellent laxative for young children[7].
Other Uses
Dye; Teeth.
Cream, yellow and green dyes can be obtained from the plant and the seed heads[168]. The root is used as a toothbrush[74].
Cultivation details
A very easily grown plant, succeeding in ordinary garden soil, though it prefers a reasonably well-drained and moderately fertile soil in a sunny position. It also succeeds in dry soils. At one time this plant was often cultivated for its edible leaves[2]. Plants seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits[233]. Prone to infestation by rust fungus.
Propagation
Seed - sow early spring or autumn in situ. Germination should take place within 2 weeks. The seed germinates in the autumn in the wild.
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Nicotiana tabacum - L. Tobacco

Post by ThreeperMan on Sun 12 Jul 2009, 16:17

Nicotiana tabacum - L.
Tobacco
Author L. Botanical references 200
Family Solanaceae Genus Nicotiana
Synonyms
Known Hazards warning signAll parts of the plant are poisonous[4, 19, 65, 76]. They contain a volatile oil called nicotine, this is a virulent poison that produces nausea, vomiting, sweating, palpitations and nausea[232].
Range S. America. Naturalized in C. and S. Europe.
Habitat Not known in a truly wild situation.
Edibility Rating apple iconapple icon 2 (1-5) Medicinal Rating apple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of perennial/biennial/annual Annual growing to 1.2m.
It is hardy to zone 8 and is frost tender. It is in flower from July to September, and the seeds ripen from August to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, Lepidoptera (Moths & Butterflies). It is noted for attracting wildlife. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires moist soil.
Habitats
Cultivated Beds;
Cultivars: (as above except)
'Monte Calme Yellow'
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves.
Edible Uses: Egg.
A protein can be extracted from the leaves. It is an odourless, tasteless white powder and can be added to cereal grains, vegetables, soft drinks and other foods[183]. It can be whipped like egg whites, liquefied or gelled and can take on the flavour and texture of a variety of foods[183]. It is 99.5% protein, contains no salt, fat or cholesterol[183]. It is currently (1991) being tested as a low calorie substitute for mayonnaise and whipped cream[183].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Antispasmodic; Diuretic; Emetic; Expectorant; Homeopathy; Irritant; Narcotic; Sedative; Sialagogue.
Tobacco has a long history of use by medical herbalists as a relaxant, though since it is a highly additive drug it is seldom employed internally or externally at present[4, 254]. The leaves are antispasmodic, discutient, diuretic, emetic, expectorant, irritant, narcotic, sedative and sialagogue[4, 192, 213]. They are used externally in the treatment of rheumatic swelling, skin diseases and scorpion stings[240]. The plant should be used with great caution[4], when taken internally it is an addictive narcotic[222]. The active ingredients can also be absorbed through the skin[4]. Wet tobacco leaves can be applied to stings in order to relieve the pain[213]. They are also a certain cure for painful piles[4]. A homeopathic remedy is made from the dried leaves[232]. It is used in the treatment of nausea and travel sickness[232].
Other Uses
Insecticide; Oil; Repellent.
All parts of the plant contain nicotine, this has been extracted and used as an insecticide[20, 37, 46]. The dried leaves can also be used, they remain effective for 6 months after drying[169]. The juice of the leaves can be rubbed on the body as an insect repellent[213]. The leaves have been dried and chewed as an intoxicant. The dried leaves are also used as snuff or smoked. This is the main species that is used to make cigarettes and cigars. A drying oil is obtained from the seed[57, 171].
Scented Plants

Flowers: Fresh
The sweetly scented flowers release most of their scent in the evening and attract moths.

Cultivation details
Prefers a well-drained deep rich moist soil in a sunny position[1, 200]. Plants are not very hardy in Britain, but they can be grown as biennials in areas where winter temperatures do not fall below about -5°c[200]. A polymorphic species[50]. Tobacco is very widely cultivated for its leaves, there are many named varieties[183]. As well as being used as an insecticide, the leaves are used to make cigarettes, cigars, snuff and for chewing. There are many long-term health problems associated with these uses, especially from cancer, lung, circulatory and heart diseases. The plant accumulates potassium[18]. The plant has sweetly scented flowers that release most of their scent in the evening and attract moths[30]. Plant requires more than 14 hours daylight per day in order to induce flowering[169].
Propagation
Seed - surface sow in a warm greenhouse about 10 weeks before the last expected spring frosts. The seed usually germinates in 10 - 20 days at 20°c. Keep the soil moist and pot up as soon as the plants are big enough to handle, planting them out after the last expected frosts.
Cultivars

'Monte Calme Yellow'
Cultivated for tobacco, this form has a rich flavour of high quality[183]. The plant grows up to 2.4 metres tall with leaves up to a metre long and 30mm wide[183]. Very productive, the plants are slightly tolerant of frosts[183].

Links
References
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
[18] Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants. Watkins 1979
Details of beneficial and antagonistic relationships between neighbouring plants.
[19] Stary. F. Poisonous Plants. Hamlyn 1983 ISBN 0-600-35666-3
Not very comprehensive, but easy reading.
[20] Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening. Garden Way, Vermont, USA. 1978 ISBN 0-88266-064-0
Fairly good.
[30] Carter D. Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe. Pan 1982 ISBN 0-330-26642-x
An excellent book on Lepidoptera, it also lists their favourite food plants.
[37] Thompson. B. The Gardener's Assistant. Blackie and Son. 1878
Excellent general but extensive guide to gardening practices in the 19th century. A very good section on fruits and vegetables with many little known species.
[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[50] ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press 1964
An immense work in 6 volumes (including the index). The standard reference flora for europe, it is very terse though and with very little extra information. Not for the casual reader.
[57] Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. 0
Fairly readable but not very comprehensive. Deals with plants from around the world.
[65] Frohne. D. and Pfänder. J. A Colour Atlas of Poisonous Plants. Wolfe 1984 ISBN 0723408394
Brilliant. Goes into technical details but in a very readable way. The best work on the subject that I've come across so far.
[76] Cooper. M. and Johnson. A. Poisonous Plants in Britain and their Effects on Animals and Man. HMSO 1984 ISBN 0112425291
Concentrates mainly on the effects of poisonous plants to livestock.
[169] Buchanan. R. A Weavers Garden. 0
Covers all aspects of growing your own clothes, from fibre plants to dyes.
[171] Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press 1952
Not very comprehensive, but it is quite readable and goes into some a bit of detail about the plants it does cover.
[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[192] Emboden. W. Narcotic Plants Studio Vista 1979 ISBN 0-289-70864-8
A lot of details about the history, chemistry and use of narcotic plants, including hallucinogens, stimulants, inebriants and hypnotics.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[213] Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books 1980 ISBN 0-449-90589-6
A nice book to read though it is difficult to look up individual plants since the book is divided into separate sections dealing with the different medicinal uses plus a section on edible plants. Common names are used instead of botanical.
[222] Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1990 ISBN 0395467225
A concise book dealing with almost 500 species. A line drawing of each plant is included plus colour photographs of about 100 species. Very good as a field guide, it only gives brief details about the plants medicinal properties.
[232] Castro. M. The Complete Homeopathy Handbook. Macmillan. London. 1990 ISBN 0-333-55581-3
A concise beginner's guide to the subject. Very readable.
[240] Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. 1986
Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader.
[254] Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London 1996 ISBN 9-780751-303148
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.
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