Chocolate substitutes

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Chocolate substitutes

Post by ThreeperMan on Sun 12 Jul 2009, 17:44

Castanea dentata - (Marshall.)Borkh.
American Sweet Chestnut
Author (Marshall.)Borkh. Botanical references 11, 43, 200
Family Fagaceae Genus Castanea
Synonyms Castanea americana - (Michx.)Raf.
Known Hazards None known
Range Eastern N. America - Maine and Ontario to Michigan, Georgia and Arkansas.
Habitat Dry, gravelly or rocky, mostly acid soils[43]. This species is virtually extinct in America due to chestnut blight[11].
Edibility Rating apple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5) Medicinal Rating apple icon 1 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of evergreen tree A decidious Tree growing to 30m by 15m.
It is hardy to zone 4. It is in flower in July, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Insects. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils and can grow in very acid soil. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Canopy;
Cultivars: (as above except)
'Kelly'
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Seed.
Edible Uses: Chocolate; Coffee; Oil.
Seed - raw or cooked[2, 62, 63, 102, 117]. Rather on the small side, but these are the sweetest seeds of any species in this genus[183]. The seed contains about 7% fat, 11% protein[159]. It can be dried, ground into powder and then be added to cereals when making bread, cakes etc[213]. A delicious oil can be extracted from the seed by crushing the nuts, boiling them in water and then skimming off the oil as it comes to the surface[213]. It can be used as a topping for various puddings[213]. The roasted nut can be used as a coffee substitute and a chocolate substitute can also be made from it[183] (no further details).
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Astringent; Expectorant.
A warm water infusion of the leaves has been used to calm the respiratory nerves and promote expectoration[213, 257]. The infusion has also been used in the treatment of whooping cough but modern opinion is that the leaves are no more than a mild astringent[213].
Other Uses
Dye; Tannin; Wood.
The bark is a good source of tannin[46, 61, 171, 223]. The dried leaves contain 9% tannin[213]. The wood and the seed husks also contain tannin[223]. The husks contain 10 - 13% tannin[223]. A brown dye is obtained from the bark[257]. Wood - soft, not strong, light, very durable, liable to warp. It weighs 28lb per cubic foot. Easy to split, it is used for making cheap furniture, fence posts, in construction etc[61, 82, 117, 171, 229, 235].
Cultivation details
Prefers a good well-drained slightly acid loam but succeeds in dry soils and in hot sunny sites[1, 11, 188, 200]. Once established, it is very drought tolerant[11, 200]. Very tolerant of highly acid, infertile dry sands[200]. Averse to calcareous soils but succeeds on harder limestones[11, 200]. Although it is very winter-hardy, this species only really thrives in areas with hot summers[200]. A tree at Kew in 1985 was 15 metres tall and thriving[11]. At one time widely cultivated in N. America for its edible seed, it is now virtually extinct in the wild due to chestnut blight[11]. There are some named varieties[183]. Trees are possibly becoming resistant, some suckering stands in America are producing fruit[11]. Suckers often reach 4 - 6 metres tall before succumbing to blight, but they rarely manage to produce fruit[229]. An excellent soil-enriching understorey in pine forests[200]. Flowers are produced on wood of the current year's growth[229]. Plants are fairly self-sterile[200]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[200]. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200].
Propagation
Seed - where possible sow the seed as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame or in a seed bed outdoors[78]. The seed must be protected from mice and squirrels. The seed has a short viability and must not be allowed to become dry. It can be stored in a cool place, such as the salad compartment of a fridge, for a few months if it is kept moist, but check regularly for signs of germination. The seed should germinate in late winter or early spring. If sown in an outdoor seedbed, the plants can be left in situ for 1 - 2 years before planting them out in their permanent positions. If grown in pots, the plants can be put out into their permanent positions in the summer or autumn, making sure to give them some protection from the cold in their first winter[K].
Cultivars

'Essex'
A small nut with a very good flavour and good kernel filling[183]. A hardy and productive tree, this is a selection from the wild that shows good resistance to blight in America[183].
'Kelly'
The small to medium-size nuts have a very good flavour[183]. A vigorous, upright healthy tree, this cultivar has exhibited the most resistance to blight in America, and is a very consistent bearer in Ontario[183].
'Watertown #3'
A small nut with a very good flavour and good kernel filling[183]. A hardy and productive tree, selected from the wild in New York[183].

Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[43] Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. 1950
A bit dated but good and concise flora of the eastern part of N. America.
[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[62] Elias. T. and Dykeman. P. A Field Guide to N. American Edible Wild Plants. Van Nostrand Reinhold 1982 ISBN 0442222009
Very readable.
[63] Howes. F. N. Nuts. Faber 1948
Rather old but still a masterpiece. Has sections on tropical and temperate plants with edible nuts plus a section on nut plants in Britain. Very readable.
[78] Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co 1948
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
[82] Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. 1965 ISBN 0-486-20278-X
Two volumes, a comprehensive listing of N. American trees though a bit out of date now. Good details on habitats, some details on plant uses. Not really for the casual reader.
[102] Kavasch. B. Native Harvests. Vintage Books 1979 ISBN 0-394-72811-4
Another guide to the wild foods of America.
[117] Rosengarten. jnr. F. The Book of Edible Nuts. Walker & Co. 1984 ISBN 0802707699
A very readable and comprehensive guide. Well illustrated.
[159] McPherson. A. and S. Wild Food Plants of Indiana. Indiana University Press 1977 ISBN 0-253-28925-4
A nice pocket guide to this region of America.
[171] Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press 1952
Not very comprehensive, but it is quite readable and goes into some a bit of detail about the plants it does cover.
[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[188] Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. 1990 ISBN 0-86318-386-7
Excellent range of photographs, some cultivation details but very little information on plant uses.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[213] Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books 1980 ISBN 0-449-90589-6
A nice book to read though it is difficult to look up individual plants since the book is divided into separate sections dealing with the different medicinal uses plus a section on edible plants. Common names are used instead of botanical.
[223] Rottsieper. E.H.W. Vegetable Tannins The Forestal Land, Timber and Railways Co. Ltd. 1946
A fairly detailed treatise on the major sources of vegetable tannins.
[229] Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. 1980 ISBN 0442238622
A very good concise guide. Gives habitats, good descriptions, maps showing distribution and a few of the uses. It also includes the many shrubs that occasionally reach tree proportions.
[235] Britton. N. L. Brown. A. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada Dover Publications. New York. 1970 ISBN 0-486-22642-5
Reprint of a 1913 Flora, but still a very useful book.
[257] Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. 1998 ISBN 0-88192-453-9
Very comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to further information. Not for the casual reader.
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Ceratonia siliqua - L. Carob

Post by ThreeperMan on Sun 12 Jul 2009, 17:51

Ceratonia siliqua - L.
Carob
Author L. Botanical references 89, 200
Family Leguminosae Genus Ceratonia
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Range S. Europe.
Habitat Rocky places near the sea shore[89].
Edibility Rating apple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5) Medicinal Rating apple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of decid tree An evergreen Tree growing to 15m.
It is hardy to zone 8 and is frost tender. It is in leaf all year, in flower from August to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)It can fix Nitrogen. The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Canopy; Secondary; South Wall By; West Wall By;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Seed; Seedpod.
Edible Uses: Chocolate; Coffee; Egg; Gum.
Seedpods - raw or ground into a powder[1, 7, 74, 89, 177]. The seedpods are filled with a saccharine pulp and can be eaten both green or dried[2]. They are very sweet but fibrous[183], the pulp can be used as a chocolate substitute in cakes, drinks etc[183]. It is rich in sugars and protein[183]. The pods contain about 55% sugars, 10% protein[100] and 6% fat[74]. Seed - rich in protein. A flour is made from them which is 60% protein, it is free from sugar and starch and is suitable for baking[64, 171]. It can be used as a chocolate substitute[148]. An edible gum is extracted from the seed, a substitute for Gum Tragacanth (see Astragalus species)[64]. A stabilizer and thickening agent[142, 183], it is also used as an egg substitute[61, 64, 142]. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute[61, 105, 183].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Astringent; Demulcent; Emollient; Purgative.
The pulp in the seedpods of carob is very nutritious and, due to its high sugar content, sweet-tasting and mildly laxative[254]. However, the pulp in the pods is also astringent and, used in a decoction, will treat diarrhoea and gently help to cleanse and also relieve irritation within the gut[240, 254]. Whilst these appear to be contradictory effects, carob is an example of how the body responds to herbal medicines in different ways, according to how the herb is prepared and according to the specific medical problem[254]. The seedpods are also used in the treatment of coughs[240]. A flour made from the ripe seedpods is demulcent and emollient[7]. It is used in the treatment of diarrhoea[7]. The seed husks are astringent and purgative[240]. The bark is strongly astringent[254]. A decoction is used in the treatment of diarrhoea[254].
Other Uses
Cosmetic; Tannin; Wood.
A flour made from the seedpods is used in the cosmetic industry to make face-packs[7]. Tannin is obtained from the bark[7]. Wood - hard, lustrous. Highly valued by turners, it is also used for marquetry and walking sticks[7, 61, 89, 100].
Cultivation details
Requires a very sunny position in any well-drained moderately fertile soil[200]. Does well in calcareous, gravelly or rocky soils[132, 166]. Tolerates salt laden air[132]. Tolerates a pH in the range 6.2 to 8.6. The tree is very drought resistant, thriving even under arid conditions, the roots penetrating deep into the soil to find moisture[4, 64, 132, 200]. This species is not very hardy in Britain but it succeeds outdoors in favoured areas of S. Cornwall[1], tolerating temperatures down to about -5°c when in a suitable position[200]. The young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun[K]. The carob is frequently cultivated in warm temperate zones for its edible seed and seed pods[1]. Mature trees in a suitable environment can yield up to 400 kilos of seedpods annually[64]. There are named varieties with thicker pods[64, 183]. Seeds are unlikely to be produced in Britain since the tree is so near (if not beyond) the limits of its cultivation[K]. The seed is very uniform in size and weight, it was the original 'carat' weight of jewellers[1, 89]. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[200].
Propagation
Seed - pre-soak for 24 hours in warm water prior to sowing. If the seed has not swollen then give it another soaking in warm water until it does swell up. Sow in a greenhouse in April[200]. Germination should take place within 2 months. As soon as they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual deep pots and grow them on in a greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Give them some protection from the cold for their first few winters outdoors.
Cultivars

No entries have been made for this species as yet.

Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
[7] Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald 1984 ISBN 0-356-10541-5
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.
[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[64] Howes. F. N. Vegetable Gums and Resins. Faber 0
A very good book dealing with the subject in a readable way.
[74] Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation 1968
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers.
[89] Polunin. O. and Huxley. A. Flowers of the Mediterranean. Hogarth Press 1987 ISBN 0-7012-0784-1
A very readable pocket flora that is well illustrated. Gives some information on plant uses.
[100] Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press 1969 ISBN 0192176218
An excellent and well illustrated pocket guide for those with very large pockets. Also gives some details on plant uses.
[105] Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing 1976
The most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.
[132] Bianchini. F., Corbetta. F. and Pistoia. M. Fruits of the Earth. 0
Lovely pictures, a very readable book.
[142] Brouk. B. Plants Consumed by Man. Academic Press 1975 ISBN 0-12-136450-x
Readable but not very comprehensive.
[148] Niebuhr. A. D. Herbs of Greece. Herb Society of America. 1970
A pleasant little book about Greek herbs.
[166] Taylor. J. The Milder Garden. Dent 1990
A good book on plants that you didn't know could be grown outdoors in Britain.
[171] Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press 1952
Not very comprehensive, but it is quite readable and goes into some a bit of detail about the plants it does cover.
[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[240] Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. 1986
Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader.
[254] Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London 1996 ISBN 9-780751-303148
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.
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Geum canadense - Jacq. White Avens

Post by ThreeperMan on Sun 12 Jul 2009, 18:00

Geum canadense - Jacq.
White Avens
Author Jacq. Botanical references 200, 204, 235
Family Rosaceae Genus Geum
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Range Eastern N. America - Nova Scotia to Ontario, Georgia, Minnesota and Kansas.
Habitat Rich thickets and borders of woods in various soils[204, 274].
Edibility Rating apple iconapple icon 2 (1-5) Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of perennial/biennial/annual Perennial growing to 0.8m.
It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from July to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge;
Edible Uses
Edible Uses: Chocolate.
The boiled roots are a chocolate substitute[183]. The roots are also gathered in spring before the plant comes into growth and are used as a flavouring and preservative in ale[207].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
None known
Other Uses
None known
Cultivation details
Easily grown in any moderately good garden soil that is well-drained[1]. Prefers a soil rich in organic matter[200]. Plants are hardy to at least -15°c[200]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200].
Propagation
Seed - sow spring or autumn in a cold frame[200]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer' Division in spring or autumn. This should be done every 3 - 4 years in order to maintain the vigour of the plant[200]. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.
Links
References
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[204] Livingstone. B. Flora of Canada National Museums of Canada 1978 ISBN 0-660-00025-3
In 4 volumes, it does not deal with plant uses but gives descriptions and habitats.
[207] Coffey. T. The History and Folklore of North American Wild Flowers. Facts on File. 1993 ISBN 0-8160-2624-6
A nice read, lots of information on plant uses.
[235] Britton. N. L. Brown. A. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada Dover Publications. New York. 1970 ISBN 0-486-22642-5
Reprint of a 1913 Flora, but still a very useful book.
[274] Diggs, Jnr. G.M.; Lipscomb. B. L. & O'Kennon. R. J Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas Botanical Research Institute, Texas. 1999 ISBN 1-889878-01-4
An excellent flora, which is also available on-line.
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Geum rivale - L. Water Avens

Post by ThreeperMan on Sun 12 Jul 2009, 18:03

Geum rivale - L.
Water Avens
Author L. Botanical references 17, 200
Family Rosaceae Genus Geum
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Range Europe, including Britain, from Iceland south and east to Spain, Siberia and W. Asia. N. America.
Habitat Damp places, such as moist ditches and streamsides, most frequently in the shade[9, 17].
Edibility Rating apple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5) Medicinal Rating apple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of perennial/biennial/annual Perennial growing to 0.3m by 0.3m.
It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May to September, and the seeds ripen from June to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees. The plant is self-fertile. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist or wet soil.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; Ground Cover; Hedgerow; Bog Garden;
Edible Uses
Edible Uses: Chocolate; Condiment; Drink.
The dried or fresh root can be boiled in water to make a delicious chocolate-like drink[85, 95, 106, 183, 213]. It can also be used as a seasoning[102, 183]. It is best harvested in the spring or autumn but can be used all year round[213]. Fragrant[161], it was once used to flavour ales[2, 183].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Antiinflammatory; Antiseptic; Aromatic; Astringent; Diaphoretic; Febrifuge; Stomachic; Styptic; Tonic.
The root is anti-inflammatory, antiseptic, aromatic, astringent, diaphoretic, febrifuge, stomachic, styptic and tonic[4, 21]. An infusion is taken internally in the treatment of diarrhoea (and is suitable for children to use), intestinal and stomach complaints, liver disorders etc, it is also applied externally as a wash to various skin afflictions - it is said to remove spots, freckles and eruptions from the face[4, 9]. This plant has similar properties but is less active than the related G. urbanum and so is seldom used medicinally[9, 238]. The root is best harvested in the spring, since at this time it is most fragrant[4]. Much of the fragrance can be lost on drying, so the root should be dried with great care then stored in a cool dry place in an airtight container, being sliced and powdered only when required for use[4]. The root is rich in tannin and is a powerful astringent[213, 222].
Other Uses
Ground cover; Repellent.
The dried root repels moths. Plants are suitable for ground cover when spaced about 30cm apart each way[208]. The cultivar 'Leonard's Variety' is the best for this purpose[208].
Scented Plants

Root: Crushed
The bruised root is aromatic.

Cultivation details
Easily grown in any moderately good garden soil that is well-drained[1]. Easily grown in a moist or shady border[28, 187]. Prefers a soil rich in organic matter[200]. Prefers a base rich soil[17]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus, especially with G. urbanum[187]. There are some named varieties selected for their ornamental value[208, 233].
Propagation
Seed - sow spring or autumn in a cold frame[200]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer' Division in spring or autumn. This should be done every 3 - 4 years in order to maintain the vigour of the plant[200]. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant them out in the spring.
Cultivars

'Leonard's Variety'
This cultivar is slightly smaller than the species and makes a better ground cover plant[208].

Links
References
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
[9] Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn 1981 ISBN 0-600-37216-2
Covers plants in Europe. a drawing of each plant, quite a bit of interesting information.
[17] Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press 1962
A very comprehensive flora, the standard reference book but it has no pictures.
[21] Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books 1983 ISBN 0-553-23827-2
Lots of information tightly crammed into a fairly small book.
[28] Knight. F. P. Plants for Shade. Royal Horticultural Society. 1980 ISBN 0-900629-78-9
A small but informative booklet listing plants that can be grown in shady positions with a few cultivation details.
[85] Harrington. H. D. Edible Native Plants of the Rocky Mountains. University of New Mexico Press 1967 ISBN 0-8623-0343-9
A superb book. Very readable, it gives the results of the authors experiments with native edible plants.
[95] Saunders. C. F. Edible and Useful Wild Plants of the United States and Canada. Dover Publications 1976 ISBN 0-486-23310-3
Useful wild plants of America. A pocket guide.
[102] Kavasch. B. Native Harvests. Vintage Books 1979 ISBN 0-394-72811-4
Another guide to the wild foods of America.
[106] Coon. N. The Dictionary of Useful Plants. Rodale Press 1975 ISBN 0-87857-090-x
Interesting reading but short on detail.
[161] Yanovsky. E. Food Plants of the N. American Indians. Publication no. 237. U.S. Depf of Agriculture. 0
A comprehensive but very terse guide. Not for the casual reader.
[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[187] Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Perennials Volumes 1 and 2. Pan Books 1991 ISBN 0-330-30936-9
Photographs of over 3,000 species and cultivars of ornamental plants together with brief cultivation notes, details of habitat etc.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[208] Thomas. G. S. Plants for Ground Cover J. M. Dent & Sons 1990 ISBN 0-460-12609-1
An excellent detailled book on the subject, very comprehensive.
[213] Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books 1980 ISBN 0-449-90589-6
A nice book to read though it is difficult to look up individual plants since the book is divided into separate sections dealing with the different medicinal uses plus a section on edible plants. Common names are used instead of botanical.
[222] Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1990 ISBN 0395467225
A concise book dealing with almost 500 species. A line drawing of each plant is included plus colour photographs of about 100 species. Very good as a field guide, it only gives brief details about the plants medicinal properties.
[233] Thomas. G. S. Perennial Garden Plants J. M. Dent & Sons, London. 1990 ISBN 0 460 86048 8
A concise guide to a wide range of perennials. Lots of cultivation guides, very little on plant uses.
[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
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Tilia americana - L. American Basswood

Post by ThreeperMan on Sun 12 Jul 2009, 18:07

Tilia americana - L.
American Basswood
Author L. Botanical references 11, 82, 200
Family Tiliaceae Genus Tilia
Synonyms
Known Hazards warning signFrequent consumption of the tea made from the flowers may cause heart damage[222].
Range Central and Eastern N. America - New Brunswick to Florida, west to Texas and Manitoba.
Habitat Rich, often moist, soils of woods and bottomlands, often forming pure stands[82, 227].
Edibility Rating apple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5) Medicinal Rating apple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of evergreen tree A decidious Tree growing to 25m by 12m at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in July, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees. It is noted for attracting wildlife. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Canopy;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Sap.
Edible Uses: Chocolate; Sweetener; Tea.
Young leaves - raw or cooked[257]. A mild flavour and a tender but mucilaginous texture, they are very nice in salads[K]. The leaves can be cooked as greens[257]. Sap - obtained from next to the bark and used as a refreshing drink[105, 161, 177]. It can also be concentrated into a syrup and used as a sweetener[183]. Flowers - raw. They can be added to salads[183]. The flowers are used as a tea substitute. They are sweet and fragrant[183]. A very good chocolate substitute is made from a paste of the ground fruits and flowers[2, 105, 177, 183]. Trials on marketing the product failed because the paste decomposes readily[2].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Antispasmodic; Demulcent; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Ophthalmic; Poultice; Sedative; Vermifuge.
A tea made from the inner bark is applied to burns - it soothes and softens the skin[213]. It is taken internally in the treatment of lung complaints, dysentery, heart burn and weak stomach[222, 257]. The bark is diuretic[257]. An infusion has been taken to promote urination[257]. A decoction of the bark, mixed with cornmeal, has been used as a poultice to draw out boils[222, 257]. A tea made from the fresh or dried flowers is antispasmodic, diaphoretic and sedative[226]. It is used in the treatment of hypertension, hardening of the arteries, digestive complaints associated with anxiety, feverish colds, respiratory catarrh, migraine etc[238]. Lime flowers are said to develop narcotic properties as they age and so they should only be harvested when freshly opened[238]. An infusion of the leaves has been used as an eyewash[257]. A poultice of the leaves has been used in the treatment of burns and scalds, broken bones and swollen areas[257]. A tea or tincture made from the leaves, flowers and buds has traditionally been used for nervous headaches, restlessness and painful digestion[222]. Use with caution, see notes above on toxicity. A decoction of the roots and the bark has been taken in the treatment of internal haemorrhaging[257]. A decoction of the roots has been used as a vermifuge to rid the body of worms[257].
Other Uses
Fibre; Shelterbelt; Wood.
A tough fibre is obtained from the inner bark[46, 227]. The bark is soaked in water then boiled. It is then rubbed on a stick to separate the fibres which can then be used for making thread for sewing, fine yarn for weaving bags, clothing etc and cordage for making nets, shoes, twine, mats etc[189, 226, 227, 257]. A fairly wind resistant tree, it can be grown as part of a shelterbelt planting[200]. Wood - soft, straight grained, light, weak, not durable, easily worked, resistant to splitting, it holds nails badly, holds glue, paint and lacquer well, seasons well but shrinks considerably. It weighs 28lb per cubic foot[227], is odourless and bland-tasting[226]. A commercially important timber in its native range[226, 229]. The white wood is excellent for turning and carving, it is used for making woodenware such as spoons, cheap furniture, pulp etc[46, 82, 171, 227, 229].
Cultivation details
Prefers a good moist loamy alkaline to neutral soil but succeeds on slightly acid soils[11, 200]. Grows poorly on any very dry or very wet soils[200]. Dislikes exposed positions[200]. Another entry in the same book says that it is fairly wind tolerant[200]. Succeeds in full sun or semi-shade[188]. A fast-growing and moderately long-lived tree in the wild, it starts producing seed when about 15 years old and continues for at least another 85 years[229]. It is generally unsatisfactory in Britain, preferring a continental climate and growing more slowly and not usually producing fertile seed in areas with cool summers[200]. Grows best in a woodland situation, young plants tolerate a reasonable level of side shade[200]. They are highly shade-tolerant according to another report[226]. Trees respond well to coppicing, sending up lots of suckers from the roots[226]. Lime trees tend to hybridise freely if other members of the genus are growing nearby[238]. If growing plants from seed it is important to ensure the seed came from a wild source or from an isolated clump of the single species[K]. A good bee plant[61, 159]. Trees are usually attacked by aphids which cover the ground and the leaves with a sticky honeydew[188]. Quite tolerant of root disturbance, semi-mature trees up to 5 metres tall have been transplanted successfully. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200].
Propagation
Seed - much of the seed produced in Britain is not viable, cut a few seedcases open to see if there is a seed inside[80]. If possible, obtain fresh seed that is ripe but has not as yet developed a hard seed coat and sow it immediately in a cold frame. It may germinate in the following spring though it could take 18 months[80]. Stored seed can be very slow to germinate. It has a hard seed coat, embryo dormancy and a hard coat on the pericarp. All these factors mean that the seed may take up to 8 years to germinate[80]. One way of shortening this time is to stratify the seed for 5 months at high temperatures (10°c at night, up to 30°c by day) and then 5 months cold stratification[80]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Layering in spring just before the leaves unfurl. Takes 1 - 3 years[78]. Suckers, when formed, can be removed with as much root as possible during the dormant season and replanted immediately[200].
Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[78] Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co 1948
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
[80] McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books 1985 ISBN 0-901361-21-6
Does not deal with many species but it is very comprehensive on those that it does cover. Not for casual reading.
[82] Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. 1965 ISBN 0-486-20278-X
Two volumes, a comprehensive listing of N. American trees though a bit out of date now. Good details on habitats, some details on plant uses. Not really for the casual reader.
[105] Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing 1976
The most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.
[159] McPherson. A. and S. Wild Food Plants of Indiana. Indiana University Press 1977 ISBN 0-253-28925-4
A nice pocket guide to this region of America.
[161] Yanovsky. E. Food Plants of the N. American Indians. Publication no. 237. U.S. Depf of Agriculture. 0
A comprehensive but very terse guide. Not for the casual reader.
[171] Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press 1952
Not very comprehensive, but it is quite readable and goes into some a bit of detail about the plants it does cover.
[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[188] Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. 1990 ISBN 0-86318-386-7
Excellent range of photographs, some cultivation details but very little information on plant uses.
[189] Bell. L. A. Plant Fibres for Papermaking. Liliaceae Press 1988
A good practical section on how to make paper on a small scale plus details of about 75 species (quite a few of them tropical) that can be used.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[213] Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books 1980 ISBN 0-449-90589-6
A nice book to read though it is difficult to look up individual plants since the book is divided into separate sections dealing with the different medicinal uses plus a section on edible plants. Common names are used instead of botanical.
[222] Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1990 ISBN 0395467225
A concise book dealing with almost 500 species. A line drawing of each plant is included plus colour photographs of about 100 species. Very good as a field guide, it only gives brief details about the plants medicinal properties.
[226] Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. 1989 ISBN 0889025649
Very good on identification for non-experts, the book also has a lot of information on plant uses.
[227] Vines. R.A. Trees of North Texas University of Texas Press. 1982 ISBN 0292780206
A readable guide to the area, it contains descriptions of the plants and their habitats with quite a bit of information on plant uses.
[229] Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. 1980 ISBN 0442238622
A very good concise guide. Gives habitats, good descriptions, maps showing distribution and a few of the uses. It also includes the many shrubs that occasionally reach tree proportions.
[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
[257] Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. 1998 ISBN 0-88192-453-9
Very comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to further information. Not for the casual reader.
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Tilia cordata - Mill. Small Leaved Lime

Post by ThreeperMan on Sun 12 Jul 2009, 18:31

ilia cordata - Mill.
Small Leaved Lime
Author Mill. Botanical references 11, 17, 200
Family Tiliaceae Genus Tilia
Synonyms Tilia microphylla - Vent.
Tilia parvifolia - Ehrh.
Tilia ulmifolia - Scop.
Known Hazards warning signIf the flowers used for making tea are too old, they may produce symptoms of narcotic intoxication[4].
Range Europe, including Britain, from Norway south and east to Spain, Siberia, Crimea and Caucasus.
Habitat Woods on most fertile soils, especially limestone, it is commonly found on wooded limestone cliffs[17].
Edibility Rating apple iconapple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 5 (1-5) Medicinal Rating apple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of evergreen tree A decidious Tree growing to 30m by 12m at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from June to July, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees. It is noted for attracting wildlife. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Canopy;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves; Sap.
Edible Uses: Chocolate; Tea.
Young leaves - raw[2]. They make an excellent salad or sandwich filling, they are mild tasting and somewhat mucilaginous[K]. The leaves can be available from spring until early autumn from the young growths at the base of the tree[K]. A very acceptable chocolate substitute can be made from a paste of the ground-up flowers and immature fruit. Trials on marketing the product failed because the paste is very apt to decompose[2, 115]. A popular herb tea is made from the flowers, it has a sweet, fragrant pleasant flavour[46]. Some caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity. Sap - harvested in the spring, it is sweet and can be used as a drink or concentrated into a syrup[4].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Antispasmodic; Diaphoretic; Expectorant; Hypotensive; Laxative; Sedative; Skin.
Lime flowers are a popular domestic remedy for a number of ailments, especially in the treatment of colds and other ailments where sweating is desirable[9]. A tea made from the fresh or dried flowers is antispasmodic, diaphoretic, expectorant, hypotensive, laxative and sedative[4, 9, 13, 226, 238]. Lime flower tea is also used internally in the treatment of indigestion, hypertension, hardening of the arteries, hysteria, nervous vomiting or palpitation[4, 238]. The flowers are harvested commercially and often sold in health shops etc[226]. Lime flowers are said to develop narcotic properties as they age and so they should only be harvested when freshly opened[238]. A charcoal made from the wood is used in the treatment of gastric or dyspeptic disturbances and is also made into a powder then applied to burns or sore places[4].
Other Uses
Charcoal; Fibre; Paper; Wood.
A fibre from the inner bark is used to make mats, shoes, baskets, ropes etc[1, 13, 14, 46, 61, 100]. It is also suitable for cloth[115]. It is harvested from trunks that are 15 - 30cm in diameter[115]. The fibre can also be used for making paper[189]. The stems are harvested in spring or summer, the leaves are removed and the stems steamed until the fibres can be stripped. The outer bark is removed from the inner bark by peeling or scraping. The fibres are cooked for 2 hours with lye and then beaten in a ball mill. The paper is beige in colour[189]. Wood - soft, white, easily carved. It is very suitable for carving domestic items and small non-durable items[4, 13, 46, 61, 115]. A charcoal made from the wood is used for drawing[46, 61, 115].
Cultivation details
Prefers a good moist loamy alkaline to neutral soil but it also succeeds on slightly acid soils[200]. Grows poorly on any very dry or very wet soil[200]. Tolerates considerable exposure[125, K]. Succeeds in sun or semi-shade[188]. Plants can be transplanted quite easily, even when large, trees up to 60 years old have been moved successfully[1, 74]. Trees are very amenable to coppicing or pollarding[186]. They produce numerous suckers from the base[98]. Suckers are produced but not freely according to another report[186]. This species produces far less suckers than T. platyphyllos or T. x vulgaris[238]. This species grows well in Britain, but it rarely produces viable seed in areas with cool summers[200]. Lime trees tend to hybridise freely if other members of the genus are growing nearby[238]. If growing plants from seed it is important to ensure the seed came from a wild source or from an isolated clump of the single species[K]. Grows best in a woodland situation, young plants tolerate a reasonable level of side shade[186]. Mature trees cast a dense shade[186]. A very valuable bee plant, producing an abundance of nectar[186]. A valuable species for wildlife, there are 31 species of insects associated with this tree[24]. The leaves are very attractive to leaf aphis and these aphis produce an abundance of sweet secretions which drip off the leaves to the ground below and also attract sooty mould fungus[186]. This makes the tree unsuitable for street planting. This species, however, is less likely to become infested with aphis than T. platyphyllos or T. x vulgaris[238]. There are some named varieties selected for their ornamental value[188]. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200].
Propagation
Seed - much of the seed produced in Britain is not viable, cut a few seedcases open to see if there is a seed inside[80]. If possible, obtain fresh seed that is ripe but has not as yet developed a hard seed coat and sow it immediately in a cold frame. It may germinate in the following spring though it could take 18 months[80]. Stored seed can be very slow to germinate. It has a hard seed coat, embryo dormancy and a hard coat on the pericarp. All these factors mean that the seed may take up to 8 years to germinate[80]. One way of shortening this time is to stratify the seed for 5 months at high temperatures (10°c at night, up to 30°c by day) and then 5 months cold stratification[80]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Layering in spring just before the leaves unfurl. Takes 1 - 3 years[78]. Suckers, when formed, can be removed with as much root as possible during the dormant season and replanted immediately[200].
Cultivars

No entries have been made for this species as yet.

Links
This plant is also mentioned in the following PFAF articles: Woodland Garden Plants, Alternative Edible Leaves.
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
[9] Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn 1981 ISBN 0-600-37216-2
Covers plants in Europe. a drawing of each plant, quite a bit of interesting information.
[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[13] Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants. Hamlyn 1975 ISBN 0-600-33545-3
Very interesting reading, giving some details of plant uses and quite a lot of folk-lore.
[14] Holtom. J. and Hylton. W. Complete Guide to Herbs. Rodale Press 1979 ISBN 0-87857-262-7
A good herbal.
[17] Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press 1962
A very comprehensive flora, the standard reference book but it has no pictures.
[24] Baines. C. Making a Wildlife Garden. 0
Fairly good with lots of ideas about creating wildlife areas in the garden.
[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[74] Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation 1968
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers.
[78] Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co 1948
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
[80] McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books 1985 ISBN 0-901361-21-6
Does not deal with many species but it is very comprehensive on those that it does cover. Not for casual reading.
[98] Gordon. A. G. and Rowe. D. C. f. Seed Manual for Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. 0
Very comprehensive guide to growing trees and shrubs from seed. Not for the casual reader.
[100] Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press 1969 ISBN 0192176218
An excellent and well illustrated pocket guide for those with very large pockets. Also gives some details on plant uses.
[115] Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. 0
Written about a hundred years ago, but still a very good guide to the useful plants of Britain.
[125] ? The Plantsman. Vol. 5. 1983 - 1984. Royal Horticultural Society 1983
Excerpts from the periodical giving cultivation details and other notes on some of the useful plants..
[186] Beckett. G. and K. Planting Native Trees and Shrubs. Jarrold 1979
An excellent guide to native British trees and shrubs with lots of details about the plants.
[188] Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. 1990 ISBN 0-86318-386-7
Excellent range of photographs, some cultivation details but very little information on plant uses.
[189] Bell. L. A. Plant Fibres for Papermaking. Liliaceae Press 1988
A good practical section on how to make paper on a small scale plus details of about 75 species (quite a few of them tropical) that can be used.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[226] Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. 1989 ISBN 0889025649
Very good on identification for non-experts, the book also has a lot of information on plant uses.
[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.

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Tilia platyphyllos - Scop. Large Leaved Lime

Post by ThreeperMan on Sun 12 Jul 2009, 18:33

Tilia platyphyllos - Scop.
Large Leaved Lime
Author Scop. Botanical references 11, 17, 200
Family Tiliaceae Genus Tilia
Synonyms Tilia grandifolia - Ehrh.
Tilia officinarum - Crantz. pro parte
Known Hazards warning signIf the flowers used for making tea are too old, they may produce symptoms of narcotic intoxication[4].
Range Europe, from Britain and Belgium south and east to Spain, Crimea, Caucasus and W. Asia.
Habitat Woods on good calcareous or base rich soils[17].
Edibility Rating apple iconapple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 5 (1-5) Medicinal Rating apple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of evergreen tree A decidious Tree growing to 30m by 20m at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from June to July, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees. It is noted for attracting wildlife. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Canopy;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves; Sap.
Edible Uses: Chocolate; Tea.
Young leaves - raw. A delicious addition to salads and sandwiches, the young leaves are mild and tender with a somewhat mucilaginous texture[K]. A very acceptable chocolate substitute can be made from a paste of the ground-up flowers and immature fruit. Trials on marketing the product failed because the paste is very apt to decompose[2, 115]. A popular herb tea is made from the flowers, it has a sweet, fragrant pleasant flavour. Some caution is advised, see notes above on toxicity. Sap - harvested in the spring, it is sweet and can be used as a drink or concentrated into a syrup[4].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Antispasmodic; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Expectorant; Hypotensive; Laxative; Sedative.
Lime flowers are a popular domestic remedy for a number of ailments, especially in the treatment of colds and other ailments where sweating is desirable[9]. A tea made from the fresh or dried flowers is antispasmodic, diaphoretic, expectorant, hypotensive, laxative and sedative[4, 9, 13, 226, 238]. Lime flower tea is also used internally in the treatment of indigestion, hypertension, hardening of the arteries, hysteria, nervous vomiting or palpitation[4, 238]. The flowers are harvested commercially and often sold in health shops etc[226]. Lime flowers are said to develop narcotic properties as they age and so they should only be harvested when freshly opened[238]. A charcoal made from the wood is used in the treatment of gastric or dyspeptic disturbances and is also made into a powder then applied to burns or sore places[4]. It is also quite an effective vasodilator[7].
Other Uses
Charcoal; Fibre; Paper; Wood.
A fibre from the inner bark is used to make mats, shoes, baskets, ropes etc[1, 13, 14, 46, 61, 100]. It is also suitable for cloth[115]. It is harvested from trunks that are 15 - 30cm in diameter[115]. The fibre can also be used for making paper[189]. The stems are harvested in spring or summer, the leaves are removed and the stems steamed until the fibres can be stripped. The outer bark is removed from the inner bark by peeling or scraping. The fibres are cooked for 2 hours with lye and then beaten in a ball mill. The paper is beige in colour[189]. Wood - soft, white, easily carved. It is very suitable for carving domestic items and small non-durable items[4, 13, 46, 61, 115]. A charcoal made from the wood is used for drawing and has medicinal properties[7, 46, 61, 115].
Cultivation details
Prefers a good moist loamy alkaline to neutral soil but succeeds on slightly acid soils[11, 200]. Grows poorly on any very dry or very wet soils[200]. Succeeds in sun or semi-shade[188]. Plants can be transplanted quite easily, even when quite large, trees up to 60 years old have been moved successfully[1, 74]. Lime trees are very long-lived[7] and are amenable to coppicing or pollarding. This species does not produce many suckers[98, 200]. Grows well in Britain, it is the only species that reliably produces viable seed in areas with cool summers[200]. Lime trees tend to hybridise freely if other members of the genus are growing nearby[238]. If growing plants from seed it is important to ensure the seed came from a wild source or from an isolated clump of the single species[K]. Grows best in a woodland situation, young plants tolerate a reasonable level of side shade[200]. Mature trees cast a dense shade[186]. A very valuable bee plant, producing an abundance of nectar[7, 11, 125]. A valuable tree for wildlife, there are 31 species of insects associated with this tree[24]. A food plant for the caterpillars of many butterfly and moth species[30]. Trees are usually attacked by aphids which cover the ground and the leaves with a sticky honeydew[188]. There are some named varieties selected for their ornamental value[188]. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200].
Propagation
Seed - much of the seed produced in Britain is not viable, cut a few seedcases open to see if there is a seed inside[80]. If possible, obtain fresh seed that is ripe but has not as yet developed a hard seed coat and sow it immediately in a cold frame. It may germinate in the following spring though it could take 18 months[80]. Stored seed can be very slow to germinate. It has a hard seed coat, embryo dormancy and a hard coat on the pericarp. All these factors mean that the seed may take up to 8 years to germinate[80]. One way of shortening this time is to stratify the seed for 5 months at high temperatures (10°c at night, up to 30°c by day) and then 5 months cold stratification[80]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Layering in spring just before the leaves unfurl. Takes 1 - 3 years[78]. Suckers, when formed, can be removed with as much root as possible during the dormant season and replanted immediately[200].
Cultivars

No entries have been made for this species as yet.

Links
This plant is also mentioned in the following PFAF articles: Woodland Garden Plants.
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
[7] Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald 1984 ISBN 0-356-10541-5
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.
[9] Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn 1981 ISBN 0-600-37216-2
Covers plants in Europe. a drawing of each plant, quite a bit of interesting information.
[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[13] Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants. Hamlyn 1975 ISBN 0-600-33545-3
Very interesting reading, giving some details of plant uses and quite a lot of folk-lore.
[14] Holtom. J. and Hylton. W. Complete Guide to Herbs. Rodale Press 1979 ISBN 0-87857-262-7
A good herbal.
[17] Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press 1962
A very comprehensive flora, the standard reference book but it has no pictures.
[24] Baines. C. Making a Wildlife Garden. 0
Fairly good with lots of ideas about creating wildlife areas in the garden.
[30] Carter D. Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe. Pan 1982 ISBN 0-330-26642-x
An excellent book on Lepidoptera, it also lists their favourite food plants.
[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[74] Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation 1968
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers.
[78] Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co 1948
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
[80] McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books 1985 ISBN 0-901361-21-6
Does not deal with many species but it is very comprehensive on those that it does cover. Not for casual reading.
[98] Gordon. A. G. and Rowe. D. C. f. Seed Manual for Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. 0
Very comprehensive guide to growing trees and shrubs from seed. Not for the casual reader.
[100] Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press 1969 ISBN 0192176218
An excellent and well illustrated pocket guide for those with very large pockets. Also gives some details on plant uses.
[115] Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. 0
Written about a hundred years ago, but still a very good guide to the useful plants of Britain.
[125] ? The Plantsman. Vol. 5. 1983 - 1984. Royal Horticultural Society 1983
Excerpts from the periodical giving cultivation details and other notes on some of the useful plants..
[186] Beckett. G. and K. Planting Native Trees and Shrubs. Jarrold 1979
An excellent guide to native British trees and shrubs with lots of details about the plants.
[188] Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. 1990 ISBN 0-86318-386-7
Excellent range of photographs, some cultivation details but very little information on plant uses.
[189] Bell. L. A. Plant Fibres for Papermaking. Liliaceae Press 1988
A good practical section on how to make paper on a small scale plus details of about 75 species (quite a few of them tropical) that can be used.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[226] Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. 1989 ISBN 0889025649
Very good on identification for non-experts, the book also has a lot of information on plant uses.
[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.

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Tilia x europaea - L. Common Lime

Post by ThreeperMan on Sun 12 Jul 2009, 18:34

ilia x europaea - L.
Common Lime
Author L. Botanical references 11, 17, 200
Family Tiliaceae Genus Tilia
Synonyms Tilia intermedia - DC.
Tilia officinarum - Crantz. pro parte.
Tilia x vulgaris - Hayne.
Known Hazards warning signIf the flowers used for making tea are too old, they may produce symptoms of narcotic intoxication[4].
Range A hybrid, probably T. cordata. x T. platyphyllos.
Habitat Not known in a truly wild situation.
Edibility Rating apple iconapple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 5 (1-5) Medicinal Rating apple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of evergreen tree A decidious Tree growing to 35m by 15m at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects. It is noted for attracting wildlife. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Canopy;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Manna; Sap.
Edible Uses: Chocolate; Sweetener; Tea.
Young leaves - raw[6, 177, 183]. Excellent in salads, they are mild and mucilaginous. A refreshing tea is made from the dried flowers[183]. A honey-like fragrance[183]. Some caution is advised, see notes above on toxicity. Flowers - used as a vegetable[183]. A very acceptable chocolate substitute can be made from a paste of the ground-up flowers and immature fruit. Trials on marketing the product failed because the paste is very apt to decompose[2, 115]. Sap - used as a drink or concentrated to make a syrup and used as a sweetener[4, 115, 183]. An edible manna is obtained from the tree[183]. No further details, does this report refer to the sap?
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Antispasmodic; Cholagogue; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Emollient; Expectorant; Hypotensive; Sedative; Skin; Vasodilator.
Lime flowers are a popular domestic remedy for a number of ailments, especially in the treatment of colds and other ailments where sweating is desirable[9]. A tea made from the fresh or dried flowers is antispasmodic, diaphoretic, expectorant, hypotensive, laxative and sedative[4, 9, 13, 226, 238]. Lime flower tea is also used internally in the treatment of indigestion, hypertension, hardening of the arteries, hysteria, nervous vomiting or palpitation[4, 238]. The flowers are harvested commercially and often sold in health shops etc[226]. Lime flowers are said to develop narcotic properties as they age and so they should only be harvested when freshly opened[238]. A charcoal made from the wood is used in the treatment of gastric or dyspeptic disturbances and is also made into a powder then applied to burns or sore places[4].
Other Uses
Charcoal; Fibre; Paper; Wood.
A fibre from the inner bark is used to make mats, shoes, baskets, ropes etc[1, 13, 14, 46, 61, 100]. It is also suitable for cloth[115]. It is harvested from trunks that are 15 - 30cm in diameter[115]. The fibre can also be used for making paper[189]. The stems are harvested in spring or summer, the leaves are removed and the stems steamed until the fibres can be stripped. The outer bark is removed from the inner bark by peeling or scraping. The fibres are cooked for 2 hours with lye and then beaten in a ball mill. The paper is beige in colour[189]. Wood - soft, white, easily carved. It is very suitable for carving domestic items and small non-durable items[4, 13, 46, 61, 115]. A charcoal made from the wood is used for drawing[46, 61, 115].
Cultivation details
Prefers a good moist loamy alkaline to neutral soil but succeeds on slightly acid soils[11, 200]. Grows poorly on any very dry or very wet soil[200]. Succeeds on poorer soils than T. platyphyllos[11, 14]. Tolerates considerable exposure[125]. A very valuable bee plant[11]. The flowers are toxic to bees[188]. A food plant for the caterpillars of many butterfly and moth species[30]. This tree is frequently infested by aphis[17, 200], which cover the ground and the leaves with a sticky honeydew[188]. Although a hybrid species, it does produce fertile seed in Britain[17]. Lime trees tend to hybridise freely if other members of the genus are growing nearby[238]. If growing plants from seed it is important to ensure the seed came from a wild source or from an isolated clump of the single species[K]. Easily transplanted, even when quite large, trees up to 60 years old have been moved successfully[1, 74]. Can be coppiced, the tree produces suckers very freely[98, 200]. Grows best in a woodland situation, young plants tolerate a reasonable level of side shade[200]. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200].
Propagation
Seed - much of the seed produced in Britain is not viable, cut a few seedcases open to see if there is a seed inside[80]. If possible, obtain fresh seed that is ripe but has not as yet developed a hard seed coat and sow it immediately in a cold frame. It may germinate in the following spring though it could take 18 months[80]. Stored seed can be very slow to germinate. It has a hard seed coat, embryo dormancy and a hard coat on the pericarp. All these factors mean that the seed may take up to 8 years to germinate[80]. One way of shortening this time is to stratify the seed for 5 months at high temperatures (10°c at night, up to 30°c by day) and then 5 months cold stratification[80]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Layering in spring just before the leaves unfurl. Takes 1 - 3 years[78]. Suckers, when formed, can be removed with as much root as possible during the dormant season and replanted immediately[200].
Links
This plant is also mentioned in the following PFAF articles: Woodland Garden Plants, The Woodland Edge Garden.
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
[6] Mabey. R. Plants with a Purpose. Fontana 1979 ISBN 0-00-635555-2
Details on some of the useful wild plants of Britain. Poor on pictures but otherwise very good.
[9] Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn 1981 ISBN 0-600-37216-2
Covers plants in Europe. a drawing of each plant, quite a bit of interesting information.
[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[13] Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants. Hamlyn 1975 ISBN 0-600-33545-3
Very interesting reading, giving some details of plant uses and quite a lot of folk-lore.
[14] Holtom. J. and Hylton. W. Complete Guide to Herbs. Rodale Press 1979 ISBN 0-87857-262-7
A good herbal.
[17] Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press 1962
A very comprehensive flora, the standard reference book but it has no pictures.
[30] Carter D. Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe. Pan 1982 ISBN 0-330-26642-x
An excellent book on Lepidoptera, it also lists their favourite food plants.
[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[74] Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation 1968
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers.
[78] Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co 1948
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
[80] McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books 1985 ISBN 0-901361-21-6
Does not deal with many species but it is very comprehensive on those that it does cover. Not for casual reading.
[98] Gordon. A. G. and Rowe. D. C. f. Seed Manual for Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. 0
Very comprehensive guide to growing trees and shrubs from seed. Not for the casual reader.
[100] Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press 1969 ISBN 0192176218
An excellent and well illustrated pocket guide for those with very large pockets. Also gives some details on plant uses.
[115] Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. 0
Written about a hundred years ago, but still a very good guide to the useful plants of Britain.
[125] ? The Plantsman. Vol. 5. 1983 - 1984. Royal Horticultural Society 1983
Excerpts from the periodical giving cultivation details and other notes on some of the useful plants..
[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[188] Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. 1990 ISBN 0-86318-386-7
Excellent range of photographs, some cultivation details but very little information on plant uses.
[189] Bell. L. A. Plant Fibres for Papermaking. Liliaceae Press 1988
A good practical section on how to make paper on a small scale plus details of about 75 species (quite a few of them tropical) that can be used.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[226] Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. 1989 ISBN 0889025649
Very good on identification for non-experts, the book also has a lot of information on plant uses.
[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
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