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Coffee Substitutes

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 02:38

Ugni molinae - Turcz.
Uñi
Author Turcz. Botanical references 11, 200
Family Myrtaceae Genus Ugni
Synonyms Eugenia ugni - (Molina.)Hook.f.
Myrtus ugni - Molina.
Known Hazards None known
Range S. America - Chile.
Habitat Woodland edges and scrub[11, 184].
Edibility Rating apple iconapple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 5 (1-5) Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of shrub An evergreen Shrub growing to 2m by 1m at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone 8 and is frost tender. It is in leaf all year, in flower from May to July, and the seeds ripen from August to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees. The plant is self-fertile. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Hedge;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses: Coffee; Tea.
Fruit - raw or cooked[2, 3]. An absolutely delicious flavour, it is very aromatic and tastes of wild strawberries[11, 15, K]. The fruit is about 15mm in diameter[196] and is freely borne even on small plants[K]. Leaves are a tea substitute[177, 183]. The roasted seeds are a coffee substitute[183].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
None known
Other Uses
Hedge.
Tolerant of trimming, it can be grown as a small hedge in the milder parts of Britain[11].
Cultivation details
Succeeds in any reasonably good soil including[1] dry ones. Prefers a moderately fertile well-drained loam in a sunny position[11, 200]. Fairly tolerant of maritime exposure[K]. Established plants are drought resistant[196]. A very ornamental plant[1], it is only hardy in the milder parts of Britain[3], tolerating temperatures down to about -10°c when fully dormant[184]. The young growth in spring can be damaged by late frosts. Plants grow and fruit very well in Cornwall, indeed, in the past it has been cultivated commercially for its fruit there[11, 59] (it was one of Queen Victoria's favourite fruits), but is now normally only grown as an ornamental plant. This is a much underused plant that highly merits cultivation on a commercial scale for its fruit[K]. Flowers and fruits well even when the plants are young[11, 166]. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200].
Propagation
Pre-soak the seed for 24 hours in warm water and then sow it in late winter in a greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts[K]. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 - 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Pot up in the autumn and overwinter in a cold frame. Plant out in late spring. High percentage[78]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current seasons growth, 7 - 12cm with a heel, November in a shaded and frost free frame. Plant out in late spring or early autumn. High percentage[78]. Layering.
Links
This plant is also mentioned in the following PFAF articles: The Woodland Edge Garden.
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[3] Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit. David and Charles 1972 ISBN 0-7153-5531-7
A very readable book with information on about 100 species that can be grown in Britain (some in greenhouses) and details on how to grow and use them.
[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[15] Bryan. J. and Castle. C. Edible Ornamental Garden. Pitman Publishing 1976 ISBN 0-273-00098-5
A small book with interesting ideas for edible plants in the ornamental garden.
[59] Thurston. Trees and Shrubs in Cornwall. 0
Trees and shrubs that succeed in Cornwall based on the authors own observations. Good but rather dated.
[78] Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co 1948
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
[166] Taylor. J. The Milder Garden. Dent 1990
A good book on plants that you didn't know could be grown outdoors in Britain.
[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[184] Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Shrubs. Pan Books 1989 ISBN 0-330-30258-2
Excellent photographs and a terse description of 1900 species and cultivars.
[196] Popenoe. H. et al Lost Crops of the Incas National Academy Press 1990 ISBN 0-309-04264-X
An excellent book. Very readable, with lots of information and good pictures of some lesser known food plants of S. America.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed

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Ulmus americana - L. American Elm

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 02:40

Ulmus americana - L.
American Elm
Author L. Botanical references 11, 43, 200
Family Ulmaceae Genus Ulmus
Synonyms Ulmus floridana - Chapm.
Known Hazards None known
Range Eastern N. America - Newfoundland to Manitoba, Florida and Texas.
Habitat Rich soils, especially by streams and in lowlands[43, 82]. Found on a range of soil types, from acidic to mildly alkaline[229].
Edibility Rating apple iconapple icon 2 (1-5) Medicinal Rating apple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of evergreen tree A decidious Tree growing to 25m by 25m at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in June. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Canopy;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves.
Edible Uses: Coffee.
Leaves - raw or cooked. The red inner bark has been used to make a coffee-like drink[257].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Antispasmodic; Astringent; Birthing aid; Haemostatic; Salve.
An infusion made from the bark has been used in the treatment of bleeding from the lungs, ruptures, coughs, colds, influenza, dysentery, eye infections, cramps and diarrhoea[226, 257]. An infusion of the bark has been taken by pregnant women to secure stability of children[257]. A decoction of the bark has been used as a wash on wounds[257]. A decoction of the inner bark has been taken in the treatment of severe coughs, colds, menstrual cramps[257]. An infusion of the inner bark has been drunk, and used as a bath, in the treatment of appendicitis[257]. An infusion of the root bark has been used in the treatment of coughs, colds and excessive menstruation[257]. A decoction has been used as an eye wash in the treatment of sore eyes[257]. The inner bark has been used as an emollient on tumours[257].
Other Uses
Containers; Paper; String; Wood.
A fibre obtained from the stems is used in making paper[189]. The stems are harvested in spring, the leaves are removed and the stems steamed until the fibres can be stripped. The outer bark is removed from the inner bark by scraping or peeling. The fibres are cooked for 2 hours with lye and then beaten with mallets. The paper is beige in colour[189]. The inner bark is very fibrous and is used in making string and strong ropes[149, 226]. The bark has been used to make various containers, including those used for gathering maple syrup[226]. Wood - hard, strong, heavy, durable, coarse grained, shrinks moderately though it tends to warp and twist, it bends well and is difficult to split. The wood is very durable in water. It weighs 40lb per cubic foot and is harvested commercially for flooring, wheel hubs, cooperage, agricultural implements and many other uses[46, 61, 82, 149, 171, 226, 227].
Cultivation details
Prefers a fertile soil in full sun[188], but it can be grown in any soil of at least moderate quality so long as it is well drained[1]. Trees are moderately fast-growing and live for at least 300 years in the wild[227, 229], but they do not thrive in Britain[1]. This species is particularly susceptible to 'Dutch elm disease'[274], a disease that has destroyed the greater part of all the elm trees growing in Britain. The disease is spread by means of beetles. Mature trees killed back by the disease will often regrow from suckers, but these too will succumb when they get larger. There is no effective cure (1992) for the problem, but most E. Asian, though not Himalayan, species are resistant (though not immune) to the disease so the potential exists to use these resistant species to develop new resistant hybrids with the native species[200]. The various species of this genus hybridize freely with each other and pollen is easily saved, so even those species with different flowering times can be hybridized[200].
Propagation
Seed - if sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe, it usually germinates within a few days[200]. Stored seed does not germinate so well and should be sown in early spring[200]. The seed can also be harvested 'green' (when it has fully developed but before it dries on the tree) and sown immediately in a cold frame. It should germinate very quickly and will produce a larger plant by the end of the growing season[80]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Plants should not be allowed to grow for more than two years in a nursery bed since they form a tap root and will then move badly. Layering of suckers or coppiced shoots[200].
Links
References
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[43] Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. 1950
A bit dated but good and concise flora of the eastern part of N. America.
[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[80] McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books 1985 ISBN 0-901361-21-6
Does not deal with many species but it is very comprehensive on those that it does cover. Not for casual reading.
[82] Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. 1965 ISBN 0-486-20278-X
Two volumes, a comprehensive listing of N. American trees though a bit out of date now. Good details on habitats, some details on plant uses. Not really for the casual reader.
[149] Vines. R. A. Trees of Central Texas. University of Texas Press 1987 ISBN 0-292-78958-3
Fairly readable, it gives details of habitats and some of the uses of trees growing in Texas.
[171] Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press 1952
Not very comprehensive, but it is quite readable and goes into some a bit of detail about the plants it does cover.
[188] Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. 1990 ISBN 0-86318-386-7
Excellent range of photographs, some cultivation details but very little information on plant uses.
[189] Bell. L. A. Plant Fibres for Papermaking. Liliaceae Press 1988
A good practical section on how to make paper on a small scale plus details of about 75 species (quite a few of them tropical) that can be used.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[226] Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. 1989 ISBN 0889025649
Very good on identification for non-experts, the book also has a lot of information on plant uses.
[227] Vines. R.A. Trees of North Texas University of Texas Press. 1982 ISBN 0292780206
A readable guide to the area, it contains descriptions of the plants and their habitats with quite a bit of information on plant uses.
[229] Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. 1980 ISBN 0442238622
A very good concise guide. Gives habitats, good descriptions, maps showing distribution and a few of the uses. It also includes the many shrubs that occasionally reach tree proportions.
[257] Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. 1998 ISBN 0-88192-453-9
Very comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to further information. Not for the casual reader.
[274] Diggs, Jnr. G.M.; Lipscomb. B. L. & O'Kennon. R. J Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas Botanical Research Institute, Texas. 1999 ISBN 1-889878-01-4
An excellent flora, which is also available on-line.

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Umbellularia californica - (Hook.&Arn.)Nutt. California Laurel

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 02:41

Umbellularia californica - (Hook.&Arn.)Nutt.
California Laurel
Author (Hook.&Arn.)Nutt. Botanical references 11, 200
Family Lauraceae Genus Umbellularia
Synonyms Laurus regalis - Hort.
Laurus regia - Douglas.
Oreodaphne californica - Nees.
Known Hazards warning signThe foliage can cause skin irritations[1, 11]. A volatile oil in the leaves can cause sneezing and headaches if inhaled[11].
Range South-western N. America - California to Oregon.
Habitat Lower mountain slopes, flatlands, hillsides etc, on various soils and often in shade[62, 94]. The best specimens are found in deep rich soils of valley bottoms[229].
Edibility Rating apple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 4 (1-5) Medicinal Rating apple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of decid tree An evergreen Tree growing to 25m by 10m at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone 7 and is frost tender. It is in leaf all year, in flower in April, and the seeds ripen from October to November. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires moist soil.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Canopy;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit; Seed.
Edible Uses: Coffee; Condiment.
Seed - cooked[257]. It can be roasted and eaten or can be ground into a powder that is used with cereal flours in making bread[62, 105, 177, 183]. A bitter quality in the seed is dispensed by roasting or parching the seed[92, 161]. Fruit - raw or cooked[257]. The leaves are used as a condiment in cooked foods. They are a bayleaf substitute but with a much stronger flavour[2, 94, 238]. Used for flavouring soups, stews etc[183]. A tea is obtained from the leaves[2]. A coffee substitute is obtained from the root bark[161, 183].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Analgesic; Antirheumatic; Nervine; Poultice; Salve; Stimulant; Stomachic.
California laurel was employed medicinally by some native North American Indian tribes who used it particularly as an analgesic to treat a variety of complaints[257]. It is still occasionally used in modern herbalism, being valued for its beneficial effect upon the digestive system. The leaves are analgesic, antirheumatic, nervine and stomachic[92, 94, 95, 238, 257]. Although the aroma of the leaves is known to cause headaches, they have also been used as an infusion and a poultice to treat this affliction[92, 94, 95, 238, 257]. The leaves are also used internally to treat neuralgia, intestinal cramps and gastro-enteritis[238]. An infusion has been used by women to ease the pains of afterbirth[257]. Externally, an infusion has been used as a bath in the treatment of rheumatism[257]. A decoction of the leaves has been used as a wash on sores and to remove vermin from the head[257]. They are harvested as required and can be used fresh or dried[238]. A poultice of the ground seeds has been used to treat sores[257]. The seeds have been eaten as a stimulant[257].
Other Uses
Dye; Essential; Incense; Repellent; Wood.
The leaves are used as an insect repellent, they are especially effective against fleas[62, 92, 94, 95, 169]. They have disinfectant properties and contain small quantities of camphor[95, 169]. The leaves are burnt as a fumigant to get rid of fleas[257]. The leaves have been hung in bunches to freshen the air[257]. The aroma of the leaves gives some people headaches[K]. An essential oil is obtained from the leaves by steam distillation[11, 46, 61, 82]. Beige and green dyes are obtained from the fruits (used without the seeds). Very aromatic, the dye retains its fragrance for many years[168]. Wood - hard, close grained, heavy, strong, takes a high polish. A beautifully textured wood, it is used for high quality cabinet making, panelling etc[61, 82, 94, 229].
Scented Plants

Leaves: Crushed
The leaves emit a powerful camphor-like scent when bruised[245]. So strong is the aroma that it can cause headaches and dizziness[245].

Cultivation details
Requires a well-drained moisture retentive lime-free soil in a sunny position[200]. Prefers an abundant supply of moisture in the growing season[82]. Older plants are hardy to about -15°c when growing in a position that is sheltered from cold drying winds, but young plants require some frost protection[200]. Even mature plants can be damaged in severe winters[1]. The leaves are harvested commercially in California and sold as a bay-leaf substitute[183]. The leaves emit a powerful camphor-like scent when bruised[245]. So strong is the aroma that it can cause headaches and dizziness[245]. A very large and beautiful tree fruited regularly at Kew, producing viable seed, until it was blown down in the severe storms of October 1987[K].
Propagation
Seed - it has a limited viability and is best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a greenhouse[200]. Stored seed should be sown as early in the year as possible in the greenhouse. In the wild the seed germinates as soon as it falls to the ground in the autumn[82]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 - 10cm with a heel, July/August in a shaded frame. Pot up in spring. Good percentage[78, 200]. Layering.
Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[62] Elias. T. and Dykeman. P. A Field Guide to N. American Edible Wild Plants. Van Nostrand Reinhold 1982 ISBN 0442222009
Very readable.
[78] Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co 1948
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
[82] Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. 1965 ISBN 0-486-20278-X
Two volumes, a comprehensive listing of N. American trees though a bit out of date now. Good details on habitats, some details on plant uses. Not really for the casual reader.
[92] Balls. E. K. Early Uses of Californian Plants. University of California Press 1975 ISBN 0-520-00072-2
A nice readable book.
[94] Sweet. M. Common Edible and Useful Plants of the West. Naturegraph Co. 1962 ISBN 0-911010-54-8
Useful wild plants in Western N. America. A pocket guide.
[95] Saunders. C. F. Edible and Useful Wild Plants of the United States and Canada. Dover Publications 1976 ISBN 0-486-23310-3
Useful wild plants of America. A pocket guide.
[105] Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing 1976
The most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.
[161] Yanovsky. E. Food Plants of the N. American Indians. Publication no. 237. U.S. Depf of Agriculture. 0
A comprehensive but very terse guide. Not for the casual reader.
[168] Grae. I. Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants. MacMillan Publishing Co. New York. 1974 ISBN 0-02-544950-8
A very good and readable book on dyeing.
[169] Buchanan. R. A Weavers Garden. 0
Covers all aspects of growing your own clothes, from fibre plants to dyes.
[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[229] Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. 1980 ISBN 0442238622
A very good concise guide. Gives habitats, good descriptions, maps showing distribution and a few of the uses. It also includes the many shrubs that occasionally reach tree proportions.
[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
[245] Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. 1994 ISBN 0-7090-5440-8
An excellent, comprehensive book on scented plants giving a few other plant uses and brief cultivation details. There are no illustrations.
[257] Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. 1998 ISBN 0-88192-453-9
Very comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to further information. Not for the casual reader.

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Vicia tetrasperma - (L.)Schreb. Smooth Tare

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 02:42

Vicia tetrasperma - (L.)Schreb.
Smooth Tare
Author (L.)Schreb. Botanical references 17
Family Leguminosae Genus Vicia
Synonyms Vicia gemella - Crantz.
Known Hazards None known
Range Europe, including Britain, from Scandanavia south and east to N. Africa and W. Asia.
Habitat Grassy places, avoiding acid soils[17].
Edibility Rating apple icon 1 (1-5) Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of perennial/biennial/annual Annual growing to 0.6m.
It is hardy to zone 0. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees. The plant is self-fertile. It can fix Nitrogen. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.
Habitats
Meadow; Cultivated Beds;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves.
Edible Uses: Coffee.
Young leaves and shoots - cooked as a vegetable[2, 105, 183]. A coffee substitute[183]. The part used is not specified, it is almost certainly the roasted seed[K].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
None known
Other Uses
None known
Cultivation details
Succeeds in any well-drained soil in a sunny position if the soil is reliably moist throughout the growing season, otherwise it is best grown in semi-shade[200]. Dislikes shade according to another report. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[200]. When removing plant remains at the end of the growing season, it is best to only remove the aerial parts of the plant, leaving the roots in the ground to decay and release their nitrogen.
Propagation
Pre-soak the seed for 24 hours in warm water and then sow in situ in spring or autumn.
Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[17] Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press 1962
A very comprehensive flora, the standard reference book but it has no pictures.
[105] Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing 1976
The most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.
[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

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Zea mays - L. Sweet Corn

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 02:44

Zea mays - L.
Sweet Corn
Author L. Botanical references 200
Family Gramineae Genus Zea
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Range Original habitat is obscure, probably S. America or Mexico.
Habitat Not known in the wild.
Edibility Rating apple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 4 (1-5) Medicinal Rating apple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of perennial/biennial/annual Annual growing to 2m at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone 9 and is frost tender. It is in flower from July to October, and the seeds ripen from September to October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires moist soil.
Habitats
Cultivated Beds;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Pollen; Seed; Stem.
Edible Uses: Coffee; Oil.
Seed - raw or cooked. Corn is one of the most commonly grown foods in the world. The seed can be eaten raw or cooked before it is fully ripe[1, 2, 33, 34] and there are varieties especially developed for this purpose (the sweet corns) that have very sweet seeds and are delicious[183, K]. The mature seed can be dried and used whole or ground into a flour. It has a very mild flavour and is used especially as a thickening agent in foods such as custards[183]. The starch is often extracted from the grain and used in making confectionery, noodles etc[183]. The dried seed of certain varieties can be heated in an oven when they burst to make 'Popcorn'[183]. The seed can also be sprouted and used in making uncooked breads and cereals[183]. A nutritional analysis is available[218]. The fresh succulent 'silks' (the flowering parts of the cob) can also be eaten[55, 183]. An edible oil is obtained from the seed, it is an all-purpose culinary oil that is frequently used as a food in salads and for cooking purposes[13, 46, 183, 238]. The pollen is used as an ingredient of soups[183]. Rich in protein, it is harvested by tapping the flowering heads over a flat surface such as a bowl. Harvesting the pollen will actually help to improve fertilisation of the seeds[K]. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute[183]. The pith of the stem is chewed like sugar cane and is sometimes made into a syrup[183].
Composition
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.

Seed (Fresh weight)

* 361 Calories per 100g
* Water: 10.6%
* Protein: 9.4g; Fat: 4.3g; Carbohydrate: 74.4g; Fibre: 1.8g; Ash: 1.3g;
* Minerals - Calcium: 9mg; Phosphorus: 290mg; Iron: 2.5mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 0mg; Potassium: 0mg; Zinc: 0mg;
* Vitamins - A: 140mg; Thiamine (B1): 0.43mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0.1mg; Niacin: 1.9mg; B6: 0mg; C: 0mg;
* Reference: [218]
* Notes:

Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Cancer; Cholagogue; Demulcent; Diuretic; Hypoglycaemic; Hypotensive; Lithontripic; Stimulant; Vasodilator; Warts.
A decoction of the leaves and roots is used in the treatment of strangury, dysuria and gravel[218]. The corn silks are cholagogue, demulcent, diuretic, lithontripic, mildly stimulant and vasodilator[4, 9, 165, 176, 218]. They also act to reduce blood sugar levels and so are used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus[9, 218] as well as cystitis, gonorrhoea, gout etc[222]. The silks are harvested before pollination occurs and are best used when fresh because they tend to lose their diuretic effect when stored and also become purgative[9]. A decoction of the cob is used in the treatment of nose bleeds and menorrhagia[218]. The seed is diuretic and a mild stimulant[4]. It is a good emollient poultice for ulcers, swellings and rheumatic pains[4], and is widely used in the treatment of cancer, tumours and warts[218]. It contains the cell-proliferant and wound-healing substance allantoin, which is widely used in herbal medicine (especially from the herb comfrey, Symphytum officinale) to speed the healing process[222]. The plant is said to have anticancer properties and is experimentally hypoglycaemic and hypotensive[218].
Other Uses
Adhesive; Fuel; Oil; Packing; Paper.
A glue is made from the starch in the seed[13]. This starch is also used in cosmetics and the manufacture of glucose[61]. A semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed[57]. It has many industrial uses, in the manufacture of linoleum, paints, varnishes, soaps etc[21, 61]. The corn spathes are used in the production of paper, straw hats and small articles such as little baskets[74, 171]. A fibre obtained from the stems and seed husks is used for making paper[189]. They are harvested in late summer after the seed has been harvested, they are cut into usable pieces and soaked in clear water for 24 hours. They are then cooked for 2 hours in soda ash and then beaten in a ball mill for 1½ hours in a ball mill. The fibres make a light greenish cream paper[189]. Be careful not to overcook the fibre otherwise it will produce a sticky pulp that is very hard to form into paper[189]. The dried cobs are used as a fuel[171]. The pith of the stems is used as a packing material[171].
Cultivation details
Requires a warm position a well drained soil and ample moisture in the growing season[16, 33]. Prefers a pH in the range 5.5 to 6.8[200]. Requires a rich soil if it is to do well[201]. Corn is widely cultivated for its edible seed, especially in tropical and warm temperate zones of the world[200], there are many named varieties[132]. Unfortunately, the plant is not frost tolerant and so needs to be started off under glass in Britain if a reasonable crop is to be grown. There are five main types:- Sweetcorn is of fairly recent development. It has very sweet, soft-skinned grains that can be eaten raw or cooked before they are fully ripe. Cultivars have been developed that can produce a worthwhile crop even in the more northerly latitudes of Britain if a suitable warm sunny sheltered site is chosen[238, K. Popcorn is a primitive form with hard-skinned grains. When roasted, these grains 'explode' to form the popular snack 'popcorn'[238]. Waxy corn is used mainly in the Far East. It has a tapioca-like starch[238]. Flint corn, which shrinks on drying, can have white, yellow, purple, red or blue-black grains[238]. It is not so sweet and also takes longer to mature so is a problematic crop in Britain. There are many other uses for this plant as detailed below. Dent corn has mostly white to yellow grains. This and Flint corn are widely grown for oils, cornflour, cereals and silage crops. Corn grows well with early potatoes, legumes, dill, cucurbits and sunflowers[18, 20, 201], it dislikes growing with tomatoes[20].
Propagation
Seed - sow April in individual pots in a greenhouse. Grow on quickly and plant out after the last expected frosts. A direct outdoor sowing, especially of some of the less sweet varieties, can be tried in May.
Cultivars

There are many named varieties of this annual vegetable and cereal, with new forms being developed each year. At present there is not time to enter these in the database and, for sweet corn varieties, it is recommended that you consult the book 'The Fruit and Vegetable Finder' which is updated regularly and can be obtained from libraries.

Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
[9] Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn 1981 ISBN 0-600-37216-2
Covers plants in Europe. a drawing of each plant, quite a bit of interesting information.
[13] Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants. Hamlyn 1975 ISBN 0-600-33545-3
Very interesting reading, giving some details of plant uses and quite a lot of folk-lore.
[16] Simons. New Vegetable Growers Handbook. Penguin 1977 ISBN 0-14-046-050-0
A good guide to growing vegetables in temperate areas, not entirely organic.
[18] Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants. Watkins 1979
Details of beneficial and antagonistic relationships between neighbouring plants.
[20] Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening. Garden Way, Vermont, USA. 1978 ISBN 0-88266-064-0
Fairly good.
[21] Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books 1983 ISBN 0-553-23827-2
Lots of information tightly crammed into a fairly small book.
[33] Organ. J. Rare Vegetables for Garden and Table. Faber 1960
Unusual vegetables that can be grown outdoors in Britain. A good guide.
[34] Harrison. S. Wallis. M. Masefield. G. The Oxford Book of Food Plants. Oxford University Press 1975
Good drawings of some of the more common food plants from around the world. Not much information though.
[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[55] Harris. B. C. Eat the Weeds. Pivot Health 1973
Interesting reading.
[57] Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. 0
Fairly readable but not very comprehensive. Deals with plants from around the world.
[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[74] Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation 1968
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers.
[132] Bianchini. F., Corbetta. F. and Pistoia. M. Fruits of the Earth. 0
Lovely pictures, a very readable book.
[165] Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. 0
An excellent small herbal.
[171] Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press 1952
Not very comprehensive, but it is quite readable and goes into some a bit of detail about the plants it does cover.
[176] Yeung. Him-Che. Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas. Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles 1985
An excellent Chinese herbal giving information on over 500 species. Rather technical and probably best suited to the more accomplished user of herbs.
[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[189] Bell. L. A. Plant Fibres for Papermaking. Liliaceae Press 1988
A good practical section on how to make paper on a small scale plus details of about 75 species (quite a few of them tropical) that can be used.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[201] Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. 1993 ISBN 0-304-34324-2
A well produced and very readable book.
[218] Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. 1985 ISBN 0-917256-20-4
Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.
[222] Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1990 ISBN 0395467225
A concise book dealing with almost 500 species. A line drawing of each plant is included plus colour photographs of about 100 species. Very good as a field guide, it only gives brief details about the plants medicinal properties.
[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant

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Ziziphus jujuba - Mill. Jujube

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 02:45

Ziziphus jujuba - Mill.
Jujube
Author Mill. Botanical references 11, 50, 200
Family Rhamnaceae Genus Ziziphus
Synonyms Ziziphus sativa - Gaertn.
Ziziphus vulgaris - Lam.
Ziziphus zizyphus - (L.)Karsten.
Known Hazards None known
Range E. Asia - China, Japan.
Habitat Dry gravelly or stony slopes of hills and mountains[74].
Edibility Rating apple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 4 (1-5) Medicinal Rating apple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of evergreen tree A decidious Tree growing to 10m by 7m at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone 6. It is in flower from April to May, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects. The plant is self-fertile. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Secondary; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Hedge;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit; Leaves.
Edible Uses: Coffee.
Fruit - raw or cooked[1, 2, 3, 100, 158]. Mealy and sweet[46]. A sourish-sweet flavour[174]. The fruit can be eaten fresh, dried like dates or cooked in puddings, cakes, breads, jellies, soups etc[183]. The dried fruit has the nicest taste[11, 132]. The fruits are often left to become wrinkled and spongy, which increases their sweetness, and are then eaten fresh or cooked[238]. The dried fruit can also be ground into a powder. This powder is used in the preparation of 'kochujang', a fermented hot pepper-soybean paste that resembles miso[183]. Fruits are about 13mm in diameter[194] and contain one or two seeds[238]. Average yields from wild trees in the Himalayas are 9.5kg per year[194]. The fruit contains about 8.7% sugars, 2.6% protein, 1.4% ash, 1.7% pectin and 1.3% tannin[194]. The fruit is about 25mm long, though it can be larger in cultivated varieties[200]. The fruit can be used as a coffee substitute[183]. Leaves - cooked. A famine food, they are only used when all else fails[179]. A nutritional analysis is available[218].
Composition
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.

Fruit (Dry weight)

* 350 Calories per 100g
* Water: 0%
* Protein: 7.3g; Fat: 1.2g; Carbohydrate: 84g; Fibre: 4g; Ash: 3g;
* Minerals - Calcium: 130mg; Phosphorus: 168mg; Iron: 3.5mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 12mg; Potassium: 1050mg; Zinc: 0mg;
* Vitamins - A: 125mg; Thiamine (B1): 0.1mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0.18mg; Niacin: 2.8mg; B6: 0mg; C: 300mg;
* Reference: [218]
* Notes: The figures given here are the median of a range given in the report.

Leaves (Dry weight)

* 337 Calories per 100g
* Water: 0%
* Protein: 11.8g; Fat: 4.3g; Carbohydrate: 75.3g; Fibre: 14.3g; Ash: 8.6g;
* Minerals - Calcium: 1970mg; Phosphorus: 230mg; Iron: 0mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 0mg; Potassium: 0mg; Zinc: 0mg;
* Vitamins - A: 200mg; Thiamine (B1): 0mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0mg; Niacin: 0mg; B6: 0mg; C: 0mg;
* Reference: [218]
* Notes:

Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Anodyne; Antidote; Astringent; Cancer; Diuretic; Emollient; Expectorant; Hypnotic; Narcotic; Pectoral; Poultice; Refrigerant; Sedative; Skin; Stomachic; Tonic.
Jujube is both a delicious fruit and an effective herbal remedy. It aids weight gain, improves muscular strength and increases stamina[254]. In Chinese medicine it is prescribed as a tonic to strengthen liver function[254]. Japanese research has shown that jujube increases immune-system resistance. In one clinical trial in China 12 patients with liver complaints were given jujube, peanuts and brown sugar nightly. In four weeks their liver function had improved[254]. Antidote, diuretic, emollient, expectorant[11, 61, 174, 178, 194]. The dried fruits contain saponins, triterpenoids and alkaloids[279]. They are anodyne, anticancer, pectoral, refrigerant, sedative, stomachic, styptic and tonic[4, 176, 218]. They are considered to purify the blood and aid digestion[240]. They are used internally in the treatment of a range of conditions including chronic fatigue, loss of appetite, diarrhoea, pharyngitis, bronchitis, anaemia, irritability and hysteria[176, 238, 279]. The seed contains a number of medically active compounds including saponins, triterpenes, flavonoids and alkaloids[279]. It is hypnotic, narcotic, sedative, stomachic and tonic[147, 176, 218]. It is used internally in the treatment of palpitations, insomnia, nervous exhaustion, night sweats and excessive perspiration[176, 238]. The root is used in the treatment of dyspepsia[218]. A decoction of the root has been used in the treatment of fevers[4, 240]. The root is made into a powder and applied to old wounds and ulcers[240]. The leaves are astringent and febrifuge[4, 218]. They are said to promote the growth of hair[218]. They are used to form a plaster in the treatment of strangury[240]. The plant is a folk remedy for anaemia, hypertonia, nephritis and nervous diseases[218]. The plant is widely used in China as a treatment for burns[218].
Other Uses
Charcoal; Fuel; Hedge; Wood.
Plants can be grown as a hedge[178]. Wood - dense, hard, compact, tough. Used for turnery, agricultural implements etc[74, 146, 158]. It makes an excellent fuel[146] and a good charcoal[158].
Cultivation details
Succeeds in most soils so long as they are well-drained[3, 200]. Prefers an open loam and a hot dry position[1, 3]. Succeeds in an alkaline soil[200]. Plants are fast growing, even in poor soils[146]. Plants are hardy to about -20°c[200]. Another report says that they are hardy to about -30°c when fully dormant[160]. The jujube is often cultivated in warm temperate zones for its edible fruit, there are many named varieties[50, 183]. The trees need a hot dry summer if they are to fruit well, which rather restricts their potential in a country like Britain[238, K]. The tree spreads by root suckers and self-sowing, often forming dense thickets. Where the climate suits it, the plant can escape from cultivation and become an invasive and problematic weed[274]. Trees are resistant to most pests and diseases[160]. Responds well to coppicing[146]. Trees form a deep taproot and should be planted into their permanent positions as soon as possible[200]. Fast growing and quick to mature, it can fruit in 3 - 4 years from seed[200].
Propagation
Seed - best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Stored seed requires 3 months warm then 3 months cold stratification[113]. Germination should take place in the first spring, though it might take another 12 months. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for at least their first winter. Plant out in early summer. Root cuttings in a greenhouse in the winter[200]. Best results are achieved if a temperature of 5 - 10°c can be maintained[238]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current season's growth, November to January in a frame[238]. Division of suckers in the dormant season[174]. They can be planted out direct into their permanent positions if required.
Cultivars

No entries have been made for this species as yet.

Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[3] Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit. David and Charles 1972 ISBN 0-7153-5531-7
A very readable book with information on about 100 species that can be grown in Britain (some in greenhouses) and details on how to grow and use them.
[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[50] ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press 1964
An immense work in 6 volumes (including the index). The standard reference flora for europe, it is very terse though and with very little extra information. Not for the casual reader.
[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[74] Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation 1968
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers.
[100] Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press 1969 ISBN 0192176218
An excellent and well illustrated pocket guide for those with very large pockets. Also gives some details on plant uses.
[113] Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press 1987 ISBN 0942375009
A very detailed book on propagating trees. Not for the casual reader.
[132] Bianchini. F., Corbetta. F. and Pistoia. M. Fruits of the Earth. 0
Lovely pictures, a very readable book.
[146] Gamble. J. S. A Manual of Indian Timbers. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh 1972
Written last century, but still a classic, giving a lot of information on the uses and habitats of Indian trees. Not for the casual reader.
[147] ? A Barefoot Doctors Manual. Running Press 0 ISBN 0-914294-92-X
A very readable herbal from China, combining some modern methods with traditional chinese methods.
[158] Gupta. B. L. Forest Flora of Chakrata, Dehra Dun and Saharanpur. Forest Research Institute Press 1945
A good flora for the middle Himalayan forests, sparsly illustrated. Not really for the casual reader.
[160] Natural Food Institute, Wonder Crops. 1987. 0
Fascinating reading, this is an annual publication. Some reports do seem somewhat exaggerated though.
[174] Kariyone. T. Atlas of Medicinal Plants. 0
A good Japanese herbal.
[176] Yeung. Him-Che. Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas. Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles 1985
An excellent Chinese herbal giving information on over 500 species. Rather technical and probably best suited to the more accomplished user of herbs.
[178] Stuart. Rev. G. A. Chinese Materia Medica. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre 0
A translation of an ancient Chinese herbal. Fascinating.
[179] Reid. B. E. Famine Foods of the Chiu-Huang Pen-ts'ao. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre 1977
A translation of an ancient Chinese book on edible wild foods. Fascinating.
[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[194] Parmar. C. and Kaushal. M.K. Wild Fruits of the Sub-Himalayan Region. Kalyani Publishers. New Delhi. 1982
Contains lots of information on about 25 species of fruit-bearing plants of the Himalayas, not all of them suitable for cool temperate zones.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[218] Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. 1985 ISBN 0-917256-20-4
Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.
[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
[240] Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. 1986
Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader.
[254] Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London 1996 ISBN 9-780751-303148
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.
[274] Diggs, Jnr. G.M.; Lipscomb. B. L. & O'Kennon. R. J Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas Botanical Research Institute, Texas. 1999 ISBN 1-889878-01-4
An excellent flora, which is also available on-line.
[279] Medicinal Plants in the Republic of Korea World Health Organisation, Manila 1998 ISBN 92 9061 120 0
An excellent book with terse details about the medicinal uses of the plants with references to scientific trials. All plants are described, illustrated and brief details of habitats given.

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Balsamorhiza deltoidea - Nutt. Deltoid Balsamroot

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 02:48

Balsamorhiza deltoidea - Nutt.
Deltoid Balsamroot
Author Nutt. Botanical references 60, 200
Family Compositae Genus Balsamorhiza
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Range Western N. America - British Columbia to California.
Habitat Open places but not on thin soils[60].
Edibility Rating apple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 4 (1-5) Medicinal Rating apple icon 1 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of perennial/biennial/annual Perennial growing to 0.6m.
It is hardy to zone 5. It is in flower from May to June. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects. The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil.
Habitats
Cultivated Beds;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves; Root; Seed.
Edible Uses: Coffee.
Root - raw or cooked[22, 46, 61, 105, 106]. A sweet taste when cooked[161]. Young shoots - raw[46, 105, 161]. Seed - raw or cooked. It can be ground into a powder and made into a bread[46, 105, 161]. The ground seeds can be formed into cakes and eaten raw[257]. The roasted root is a coffee substitute[177].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Miscellany.
A decoction of the split roots has been used in the treatment of coughs and colds[257].
Other Uses
None known
Cultivation details
Requires a deep fertile well-drained loam in full sun[134, 200]. Plants strongly resent winter wet[134, 200]. Hardy to at least -25°c[200]. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance and should be planted into their permanent positions whilst still small[134].
Propagation
Seed - sow early spring in a greenhouse and only just cover the seed. Germination usually takes place within 2 - 6 days at 18°c. Either sow the seed in individual pots or pot up the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle and plant them out into their permanent positions in the summer[134]. Division in spring. Very difficult since the plant strongly resents root disturbance[134]. It is probably best to take quite small divisions, or basal cuttings, without disturbing the main clump. Pot these up into individual pots and keep them in light shade in the greenhouse until they are growing away well. Plant them out in the summer if they have grown sufficiently, otherwise over-winter them in the greenhouse and plant out in late spring.
Links
References
[22] Sholto-Douglas. J. Alternative Foods. 0
Not very comprehensive, it seems more or less like a copy of earlier writings with little added.
[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[60] Hitchcock. C. L. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press 1955
A standard flora for Western N. America with lots of information on habitat etc. Five large volumes, it is not for the casual reader.
[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[105] Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing 1976
The most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.
[106] Coon. N. The Dictionary of Useful Plants. Rodale Press 1975 ISBN 0-87857-090-x
Interesting reading but short on detail.
[134] Rice. G. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 2. Thompson and Morgan. 1988
Very readable magazine with lots of information on propagation. An interesting article on Ensete ventricosum.
[161] Yanovsky. E. Food Plants of the N. American Indians. Publication no. 237. U.S. Depf of Agriculture. 0
A comprehensive but very terse guide. Not for the casual reader.
[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[257] Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. 1998 ISBN 0-88192-453-9
Very comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to further information. Not for the casual reader.

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Balsamorhiza sagittata - (Pursh.)Nutt. Oregon Sunflower

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 02:49

Balsamorhiza sagittata - (Pursh.)Nutt.
Oregon Sunflower
Author (Pursh.)Nutt. Botanical references 60, 200
Family Compositae Genus Balsamorhiza
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Range Western N. America - South Dakota to British Columbia, south to California and Colorado.
Habitat Open hillsides and flat land up to moderate elevations, especially on deep soils[60].
Edibility Rating 4 (1-5) Medicinal Rating 2 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
Perennial growing to 0.3m.
It is hardy to zone 5. It is in flower in July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects. The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil.
Habitats
Cultivated Beds;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves; Root; Seed; Stem.
Edible Uses: Coffee.
Root - raw or cooked[46, 61, 106, 161, 257]. The root has a thick crown that is edible raw[213]. Roots have a sweet taste when cooked[2, 183]. A long slow baking is best, the Flathead Indians would bake them in a fire pit for at least 3 days[183]. The roots are resinous and woody with a taste like balsam[212]. Young shoots - raw or cooked[161, 257]. Added to salads or used as a potherb[183]. The large leaves and petioles are boiled and eaten[207]. When eaten in large quantities they act like sleeping pills to cause sleepiness[257]. The young flowering stem can be peeled and eaten raw like celery[183, 257]. Seed - raw or cooked[2, 94, 101, 161]. A highly prized source of food[257]. It can be roasted, ground into a powder and used with cereals when making bread[183, 257]. The raw seed can also be ground into a powder then formed into cakes and eaten without cooking[257]. The seed is rich in oil[213]. Oil. The seed was a prized source of oil for many native North Americans[257]. The roasted root is a coffee substitute[177, 183].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Antirheumatic; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Febrifuge; Odontalgic; Poultice; Skin; Stomachic; Vulnerary.
Oregon sunflower was quite widely employed as a medicinal herb by various native North American Indian tribes who used it to treat a variety of complaints, but especially stomach problems[257]. It is little used in modern herbalism. The root is antirheumatic, diuretic, cathartic, diaphoretic, febrifuge and vulnerary[94, 257]. An infusion of the leaves, roots and stems has been used as a treatment for stomach pains, colds, whooping cough, TB, fevers and headaches[257]. A decoction of the root has been taken at the beginning of labour to insure easy delivery[257]. The juice from the chewed root is allowed to trickle down the throat to treat sore mouths and throats whilst the root has also been chewed to treat toothaches[257]. The smoke from the root has been inhaled as a remedy for body aches such as rheumatism[257]. The root is chewed or pounded and used as a paste on wounds, blisters, bites, swellings and sores[207, 257]. A poultice made from the coarse, large leaves has been used to treat severe burns[257]. An infusion of the leaves has been used as a wash for poison ivy rash and running sores[257]. The seeds have been eaten as a treatment for dysentery[257].
Other Uses
Hair; Insulation.
The large hairy leaves are used as an insulation in shoes to keep the feet warm[99]. An infusion of the root has been rubbed into the scalp to promote hair growth[257].
Cultivation details
Requires a deep fertile well-drained loam in full sun[134, 200]. Plants strongly resent winter wet[134, 200]. Hardy to at least -25°c[200]. Plants are intolerant of root disturbance and should be planted into their permanent positions whilst still small[134]. They withstand heavy grazing in the wild[212].
Propagation
Seed - sow early spring in a greenhouse and only just cover the seed. Germination usually takes place within 2 - 6 days at 18°c. Either sow the seed in individual pots or pot up the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle and plant them out into their permanent positions in the summer[134]. Division in spring. Very difficult since the plant strongly resents root disturbance[134]. It is probably best to take quite small divisions, or basal cuttings, without disturbing the main clump. Pot these up into individual pots and keep them in light shade in the greenhouse until they are growing away well. Plant them out in the summer if they have grown sufficiently, otherwise over-winter them in the greenhouse and plant out in late spring.
Links
References
[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[60] Hitchcock. C. L. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press 1955
A standard flora for Western N. America with lots of information on habitat etc. Five large volumes, it is not for the casual reader.
[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[94] Sweet. M. Common Edible and Useful Plants of the West. Naturegraph Co. 1962 ISBN 0-911010-54-8
Useful wild plants in Western N. America. A pocket guide.
[99] Turner. N. J. Plants in British Columbian Indian Technology. British Columbia Provincial Museum 1979 ISBN 0-7718-8117-7
Excellent and readable guide.
[101] Turner. N. J. and Szczawinski. A. Edible Wild Fruits and Nuts of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences 1978
A very readable guide to some wild foods of Canada.
[106] Coon. N. The Dictionary of Useful Plants. Rodale Press 1975 ISBN 0-87857-090-x
Interesting reading but short on detail.
[134] Rice. G. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 2. Thompson and Morgan. 1988
Very readable magazine with lots of information on propagation. An interesting article on Ensete ventricosum.
[161] Yanovsky. E. Food Plants of the N. American Indians. Publication no. 237. U.S. Depf of Agriculture. 0
A comprehensive but very terse guide. Not for the casual reader.
[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[207] Coffey. T. The History and Folklore of North American Wild Flowers. Facts on File. 1993 ISBN 0-8160-2624-6
A nice read, lots of information on plant uses.
[212] Craighead. J., Craighead. F. and Davis. R. A Field Guide to Rocky Mountain Wildflowers The Riverside Press 1963 ISBN 63-7093
Excellent little pocket guide to the area, covering 590 species and often giving details of their uses.
[213] Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books 1980 ISBN 0-449-90589-6
A nice book to read though it is difficult to look up individual plants since the book is divided into separate sections dealing with the different medicinal uses plus a section on edible plants. Common names are used instead of botanical.
[257] Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. 1998 ISBN 0-88192-453-9
Very comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to further information. Not for the casual reader.

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Brachychiton populneus - (Schott.&Endl.)R.Br. Kurrajong

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 02:52

Brachychiton populneus - (Schott.&Endl.)R.Br.
Kurrajong
Author (Schott.&Endl.)R.Br. Botanical references 154, 200
Family Sterculiaceae Genus Brachychiton
Synonyms Brachychiton diversifolium - R.Br.
Known Hazards None known
Range Australia - New South Wales, Northern Territory, Queensland, Victoria
Habitat Coastal and sub-coastal areas on a variety of soils but favouring limestone[144, 167].
Edibility Rating apple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5) Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of decid tree An evergreen Tree growing to 18m by 18m.
It is hardy to zone 10. It is in leaf all year, in flower from May to July. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Secondary; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Root; Seed.
Edible Uses: Coffee.
Seed - raw or roasted[144, 154, 183]. A popular Aboriginal food, they are also acceptable to western palates, especially when roasted[193]. Very nutritious, containing about 18% protein, 25% fat plus high levels of zinc and magnesium[193]. The roasted seed is used as a coffee substitute[144, 183]. Root - yam-like[144, 154]. A popular food item with the Australian Aborigines[183]. The root of very young trees is used[193].
Composition
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.

Seed (Fresh weight)

* 0 Calories per 100g
* Water: 0%
* Protein: 18g; Fat: 25g; Carbohydrate: 0g; Fibre: 0g; Ash: 0g;
* Minerals - Calcium: 0mg; Phosphorus: 0mg; Iron: 0mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 0mg; Potassium: 0mg; Zinc: 0mg;
* Vitamins - A: 0mg; Thiamine (B1): 0mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0mg; Niacin: 0mg; B6: 0mg; C: 0mg;
* Reference: []
* Notes:

Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
None known
Other Uses
Fibre.
A fibre is obtained from the inner bark - it is used for making cordage, nets and dilly bags[156, 167, 193].
Cultivation details
Prefers a well-drained moderately fertile soil in a sunny position[200]. Succeeds in most soils, tolerating dry soils in Australian gardens[157, 167]. Plants dislike wet soils, especially in the winter[K]. Requires a minimum temperature of 7 - 10°c[188, 200]. Plants are hardy to at least -7°c in Australian gardens[157], though this cannot be translated directly to British gardens due to our cooler summers and longer, colder and wetter winters. This plant is very doubtfully hardy outdoors in Britain, though plants in an unheated greenhouse survived a prolonged cold period in 1996 - 97 when temperatures sometimes went down to -8°c[K].
Propagation
Seed - we have no details for this species but suggest sowing the seed in spring in a greenhouse. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Cuttings of mature wood of the current season's growth.
Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[144] Cribb. A. B. and J. W. Wild Food in Australia. Fontana 1976 ISBN 0-00-634436-4
A very good pocket guide.
[154] Ewart. A. J. Flora of Victoria. 0
A flora of eastern Australia, it is rather short on information that is useful to the plant project.
[156] Cribb. A. B. and J. W. Useful Wild Plants in Australia. William Collins Pty Ltd. Sidney 1981 ISBN 0-00-216441-8
A very readable book.
[157] Wrigley. J. W. and Fagg. M. Australian Native Plants. Collins. (Australia) 1988 ISBN 0-7322-0021-0
A lovely book, written in order to encourage Australian gardeners to grow their native plants. A little bit of information for the plant project.
[167] Holliday. I. and Hill. R. A Field Guide to Australian Trees. Frederick Muller Ltd. 1974 ISBN 0-85179-627-3
A well illustrated and very readable book, but it does not contain much information for the plant project.
[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[188] Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. 1990 ISBN 0-86318-386-7
Excellent range of photographs, some cultivation details but very little information on plant uses.
[193] Low. T. Wild Food Plants of Australia. Angus and Robertson. 1989 ISBN 0-207-14383-8
Well presented, clear information and good photographs. An interesting read for the casual reader as well as the enthusiast
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

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Bromus tectorum - L. Cheat Grass

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 02:53

Bromus tectorum - L.
Cheat Grass
Author L. Botanical references 200, 236
Family Gramineae Genus Bromus
Synonyms Anisantha tectorum - (L.)Nevski.
Known Hazards warning signThe awns of the plant can cause mechanical injury to grazing animals[274].
Range S. Europe - Mediterranean. Naturalized in N. America.
Habitat Roadsides and waste places, also in thatched roofs in Eastern N. America[43].
Edibility Rating apple icon 1 (1-5) Medicinal Rating apple icon 1 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of perennial/biennial/annual Annual growing to 1m.
It is hardy to zone 8. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil.
Habitats
Cultivated Beds;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Seed.
Edible Uses: Coffee.
Seed - cooked[257]. A famine food, the small seed can be cooked into a gruel in times of food shortage[257]. A coffee is made from the roasted seed[177].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Miscellany.
A paste made from the seeds is applied as a poultice to the chest to relieve chest pains[272].
Other Uses
Bedding.
The leaves have been used as a bedding[257].
Cultivation details
Succeeds in ordinary well-drained garden soil in a sunny position[138, 200].
Propagation
Seed - sow spring or autumn in situ and only just cover. Germination should take place within 2 weeks.
Links
References
[43] Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. 1950
A bit dated but good and concise flora of the eastern part of N. America.
[138] Bird. R. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 3. Thompson and Morgan. 1989
Very readable magazine with lots of information on propagation.
[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[236] Hitchcock. A. S. Manual of the Grasses of the United States Dover Publications. New York. 1971 ISBN 0-486-22717-0
A nice and comprehensive flora, though a bit dated. Good line drawings of each plant, plus a brief idea of the habitat and a few notes on plant uses. Not for the casual reader.
[257] Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. 1998 ISBN 0-88192-453-9
Very comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to further information. Not for the casual reader.
[272] Manandhar. N. P. Plants and People of Nepal Timber Press. Oregon. 2002 ISBN 0-88192-527-6
Excellent book, covering over 1,500 species of useful plants from Nepal together with information on the geography and peoples of Nepal. Good descriptions of the plants with terse notes on their uses.
[274] Diggs, Jnr. G.M.; Lipscomb. B. L. & O'Kennon. R. J Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas Botanical Research Institute, Texas. 1999 ISBN 1-889878-01-4
An excellent flora, which is also available on-line.

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Castanea dentata - (Marshall.)Borkh. American Sweet Chestnut

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 02:54

Castanea dentata - (Marshall.)Borkh.
American Sweet Chestnut
Author (Marshall.)Borkh. Botanical references 11, 43, 200
Family Fagaceae Genus Castanea
Synonyms Castanea americana - (Michx.)Raf.
Known Hazards None known
Range Eastern N. America - Maine and Ontario to Michigan, Georgia and Arkansas.
Habitat Dry, gravelly or rocky, mostly acid soils[43]. This species is virtually extinct in America due to chestnut blight[11].
Edibility Rating apple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5) Medicinal Rating apple icon 1 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of evergreen tree A decidious Tree growing to 30m by 15m.
It is hardy to zone 4. It is in flower in July, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Insects. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils and can grow in very acid soil. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Canopy;
Cultivars: (as above except)
'Kelly'
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Seed.
Edible Uses: Chocolate; Coffee; Oil.
Seed - raw or cooked[2, 62, 63, 102, 117]. Rather on the small side, but these are the sweetest seeds of any species in this genus[183]. The seed contains about 7% fat, 11% protein[159]. It can be dried, ground into powder and then be added to cereals when making bread, cakes etc[213]. A delicious oil can be extracted from the seed by crushing the nuts, boiling them in water and then skimming off the oil as it comes to the surface[213]. It can be used as a topping for various puddings[213]. The roasted nut can be used as a coffee substitute and a chocolate substitute can also be made from it[183] (no further details).
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Astringent; Expectorant.
A warm water infusion of the leaves has been used to calm the respiratory nerves and promote expectoration[213, 257]. The infusion has also been used in the treatment of whooping cough but modern opinion is that the leaves are no more than a mild astringent[213].
Other Uses
Dye; Tannin; Wood.
The bark is a good source of tannin[46, 61, 171, 223]. The dried leaves contain 9% tannin[213]. The wood and the seed husks also contain tannin[223]. The husks contain 10 - 13% tannin[223]. A brown dye is obtained from the bark[257]. Wood - soft, not strong, light, very durable, liable to warp. It weighs 28lb per cubic foot. Easy to split, it is used for making cheap furniture, fence posts, in construction etc[61, 82, 117, 171, 229, 235].
Cultivation details
Prefers a good well-drained slightly acid loam but succeeds in dry soils and in hot sunny sites[1, 11, 188, 200]. Once established, it is very drought tolerant[11, 200]. Very tolerant of highly acid, infertile dry sands[200]. Averse to calcareous soils but succeeds on harder limestones[11, 200]. Although it is very winter-hardy, this species only really thrives in areas with hot summers[200]. A tree at Kew in 1985 was 15 metres tall and thriving[11]. At one time widely cultivated in N. America for its edible seed, it is now virtually extinct in the wild due to chestnut blight[11]. There are some named varieties[183]. Trees are possibly becoming resistant, some suckering stands in America are producing fruit[11]. Suckers often reach 4 - 6 metres tall before succumbing to blight, but they rarely manage to produce fruit[229]. An excellent soil-enriching understorey in pine forests[200]. Flowers are produced on wood of the current year's growth[229]. Plants are fairly self-sterile[200]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[200]. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200].
Propagation
Seed - where possible sow the seed as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame or in a seed bed outdoors[78]. The seed must be protected from mice and squirrels. The seed has a short viability and must not be allowed to become dry. It can be stored in a cool place, such as the salad compartment of a fridge, for a few months if it is kept moist, but check regularly for signs of germination. The seed should germinate in late winter or early spring. If sown in an outdoor seedbed, the plants can be left in situ for 1 - 2 years before planting them out in their permanent positions. If grown in pots, the plants can be put out into their permanent positions in the summer or autumn, making sure to give them some protection from the cold in their first winter[K].
Cultivars

'Essex'
A small nut with a very good flavour and good kernel filling[183]. A hardy and productive tree, this is a selection from the wild that shows good resistance to blight in America[183].
'Kelly'
The small to medium-size nuts have a very good flavour[183]. A vigorous, upright healthy tree, this cultivar has exhibited the most resistance to blight in America, and is a very consistent bearer in Ontario[183].
'Watertown #3'
A small nut with a very good flavour and good kernel filling[183]. A hardy and productive tree, selected from the wild in New York[183].

Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[43] Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. 1950
A bit dated but good and concise flora of the eastern part of N. America.
[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[62] Elias. T. and Dykeman. P. A Field Guide to N. American Edible Wild Plants. Van Nostrand Reinhold 1982 ISBN 0442222009
Very readable.
[63] Howes. F. N. Nuts. Faber 1948
Rather old but still a masterpiece. Has sections on tropical and temperate plants with edible nuts plus a section on nut plants in Britain. Very readable.
[78] Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co 1948
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
[82] Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. 1965 ISBN 0-486-20278-X
Two volumes, a comprehensive listing of N. American trees though a bit out of date now. Good details on habitats, some details on plant uses. Not really for the casual reader.
[102] Kavasch. B. Native Harvests. Vintage Books 1979 ISBN 0-394-72811-4
Another guide to the wild foods of America.
[117] Rosengarten. jnr. F. The Book of Edible Nuts. Walker & Co. 1984 ISBN 0802707699
A very readable and comprehensive guide. Well illustrated.
[159] McPherson. A. and S. Wild Food Plants of Indiana. Indiana University Press 1977 ISBN 0-253-28925-4
A nice pocket guide to this region of America.
[171] Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press 1952
Not very comprehensive, but it is quite readable and goes into some a bit of detail about the plants it does cover.
[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[188] Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. 1990 ISBN 0-86318-386-7
Excellent range of photographs, some cultivation details but very little information on plant uses.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[213] Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books 1980 ISBN 0-449-90589-6
A nice book to read though it is difficult to look up individual plants since the book is divided into separate sections dealing with the different medicinal uses plus a section on edible plants. Common names are used instead of botanical.
[223] Rottsieper. E.H.W. Vegetable Tannins The Forestal Land, Timber and Railways Co. Ltd. 1946
A fairly detailed treatise on the major sources of vegetable tannins.
[229] Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. 1980 ISBN 0442238622
A very good concise guide. Gives habitats, good descriptions, maps showing distribution and a few of the uses. It also includes the many shrubs that occasionally reach tree proportions.
[235] Britton. N. L. Brown. A. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada Dover Publications. New York. 1970 ISBN 0-486-22642-5
Reprint of a 1913 Flora, but still a very useful book.
[257] Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. 1998 ISBN 0-88192-453-9
Very comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to further information. Not for the casual reader.

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Castanea sativa - Mill. Sweet Chestnut

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 02:55

Castanea sativa - Mill.
Sweet Chestnut
Author Mill. Botanical references 11, 100, 200
Family Fagaceae Genus Castanea
Synonyms Castanea vesca - Gaertn.
Castanea vulgaris - Lam.
Fagus castanea - L.
Known Hazards None known
Range S. Europe. Long naturalized in Britain[17].
Habitat Woods in mountains[100].
Edibility Rating apple iconapple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 5 (1-5) Medicinal Rating apple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of evergreen tree A decidious Tree growing to 30m by 15m at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone 5 and is frost tender. It is in flower in July, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Bees. It is noted for attracting wildlife. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils and can grow in very acid soil. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Canopy;
Cultivars: (as above except)
'Canby Black'
'Marron de Lyon'
'Paragon'
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Seed.
Edible Uses: Coffee; Sweetener.
Seed - raw or cooked[2, 4, 5, 9, 12, 34]. A somewhat astringent taste raw, it improves considerably when cooked and is delicious baked with a floury texture and a flavour rather like sweet potatoes[K]. The seed is rich in carbohydrates, it can be dried, then ground and used as a flour in breads, puddings, as a thickener in soups etc[7, 63, 132, 183]. The roasted seed can be used as a coffee substitute[183]. A sugar can be extracted from the seed[183].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Antiinflammatory; Astringent; Bach; Expectorant.
Although more commonly thought of as a food crop, sweet chestnut leaves and bark are a good source of tannins and these have an astringent action useful in the treatment of bleeding, diarrhoea etc. The leaves and bark are anti-inflammatory, astringent, expectorant and tonic[4, 7, 165]. They are harvested in June or July and can be used fresh or dried[4]. An infusion has been used in the treatment of fevers and ague, but are mainly employed for their efficacy in treating convulsive coughs such as whooping cough and in other irritable conditions of the respiratory system[4, 7]. The leaves can also be used in the treatment of rheumatism, to ease lower back pains and to relieve stiff muscles and joints[254]. A decoction is a useful gargle for treating sore throats[254]. The plant is used in Bach flower remedies - the keywords for prescribing it are 'Extreme mental anguish', Hopelessness' and 'Despair'[209].
Other Uses
Basketry; Fuel; Hair; Starch; Tannin; Wood.
Tannin is obtained from the bark[46, 223]. The wood, leaves and seed husks also contain tannin[223]. The husks contain 10 - 13% tannin[223]. On a 10% moisture basis, the bark contains 6.8% tannin and the wood 13.4%[223]. The meal of the seed has been used as a source of starch and also for whitening linen cloth[4]. A hair shampoo is made from the leaves and the skins of the fruits[7]. It imparts a golden gleam to the hair[7]. Wood - hard, strong, light. The young growing wood is very durable, though older wood becomes brittle and liable to crack[4]. It is used for carpentry, turnery, props, basketry, fence posts etc[4, 6, 7, 23, 46, 100]. A very good fuel[6].
Cultivation details
Prefers a good well-drained slightly acid loam in a sunny position but it also succeeds in dry soils[1, 11, 200, 238]. Once established, it is very drought tolerant[1, 11, 200, 238]. Plants are very tolerant of highly acid, infertile dry sands[200]. Averse to calcareous soils but succeeds on harder limestones[11, 200]. Tolerates maritime exposure though it is slower growing in such a position[75]. The dormant plant is very cold-hardy in Britain, though the young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender[K]. The sweet chestnut is often cultivated for its edible seed in warm temperate zones, there are several named varieties[46, 183]. Both 'Marron de Lyon' and 'Paragon' produce fruits with a single large kernel (rather than 2 - 4 smaller kernels) and so are preferred for commercial production[238]. Sweet chestnuts require a warm dry summer in order to ripen their fruit properly in Britain[63] and even then these seeds are generally inferior in size and quality to seeds grown in continental climates[4]. Most species in this genus are not very well adapted for the cooler maritime climate of Britain, preferring hotter summers, but this species grows well here[11, 200]. An excellent soil-enriching understorey in pine forests[200]. Flowers are produced on wood of the current year's growth[229] and they are very attractive to bees[7].. Plants are fairly self-sterile[200]. They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[200]. At one time this tree was widely grown in coppiced woodlands for its wood, but the practise of coppicing has fallen into virtual disuse[11]. Trees regrow very quickly after being cut down, producing utilizable timber every 10 years. This species is not often seen in Cornwall though it grows very well there[59]. Trees take 30 years from seed to come into bearing[98]. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200].
Propagation
Seed - where possible sow the seed as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame or in a seed bed outdoors[78]. The seed must be protected from mice and squirrels. The seed has a short viability and must not be allowed to become dry. It can be stored in a cool place, such as the salad compartment of a fridge, for a few months if it is kept moist, but check regularly for signs of germination. The seed should germinate in late winter or early spring. If sown in an outdoor seedbed, the plants can be left in situ for 1 - 2 years before planting them out in their permanent positions. If grown in pots, the plants can be put out into their permanent positions in the summer or autumn, making sure to give them some protection from the cold in their first winter[K].
Cultivars

'Canby Black'
The large and very flavourful nuts peel easily[183]. A large spreading tree, in Oregon it regularly produces 180 - 200 kilos of nuts each year[183].
'Glaberrima'
The tree would appear to be somewhat smaller than the species, a 50 year old specimen was about 10 metres tall and 6 metres wide[K]. A tree seen at Kew in October 1998 had produced a very good crop of seed that was much larger than the wild species, comparable in size to the cultivar 'Marron de Lyon'[K].
'Marron de Lyon'
A large round light-coloured nut of excellent flavour[183]. Trees bear at an early age[183]. They produce fruits with a single large kernel (rather than 2 - 4 smaller kernels) and so are preferred for commercial production[238].
'Paragon'
This cultivar produces fruits with a single large kernel (rather than 2 - 4 smaller kernels) and so is preferred for commercial production[238].

Links
This plant is also mentioned in the following PFAF articles: Staple seed crops from perennials., Why Perennials, Woodland Garden Plants.
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
[5] Mabey. R. Food for Free. Collins 1974 ISBN 0-00-219060-5
Edible wild plants found in Britain. Fairly comprehensive, very few pictures and rather optimistic on the desirability of some of the plants.
[6] Mabey. R. Plants with a Purpose. Fontana 1979 ISBN 0-00-635555-2
Details on some of the useful wild plants of Britain. Poor on pictures but otherwise very good.
[7] Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald 1984 ISBN 0-356-10541-5
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.
[9] Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn 1981 ISBN 0-600-37216-2
Covers plants in Europe. a drawing of each plant, quite a bit of interesting information.
[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[12] Loewenfeld. C. and Back. P. Britain's Wild Larder. David and Charles 0 ISBN 0-7153-7971-2
A handy pocket guide.
[17] Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press 1962
A very comprehensive flora, the standard reference book but it has no pictures.
[23] Wright. D. Complete Book of Baskets and Basketry. David and Charles 1977 ISBN 0-7153-7449-4
Not that complete but very readable and well illustrated.
[34] Harrison. S. Wallis. M. Masefield. G. The Oxford Book of Food Plants. Oxford University Press 1975
Good drawings of some of the more common food plants from around the world. Not much information though.
[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[59] Thurston. Trees and Shrubs in Cornwall. 0
Trees and shrubs that succeed in Cornwall based on the authors own observations. Good but rather dated.
[63] Howes. F. N. Nuts. Faber 1948
Rather old but still a masterpiece. Has sections on tropical and temperate plants with edible nuts plus a section on nut plants in Britain. Very readable.
[75] Rosewarne experimental horticultural station. Shelter Trees and Hedges. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Food 1984
A small booklet packed with information on trees and shrubs for hedging and shelterbelts in exposed maritime areas.
[78] Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co 1948
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
[98] Gordon. A. G. and Rowe. D. C. f. Seed Manual for Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. 0
Very comprehensive guide to growing trees and shrubs from seed. Not for the casual reader.
[100] Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press 1969 ISBN 0192176218
An excellent and well illustrated pocket guide for those with very large pockets. Also gives some details on plant uses.
[132] Bianchini. F., Corbetta. F. and Pistoia. M. Fruits of the Earth. 0
Lovely pictures, a very readable book.
[165] Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. 0
An excellent small herbal.
[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[209] Chancellor. P. M. Handbook of the Bach Flower Remedies C. W. Daniel Co. Ltd. 1985 ISBN 85207 002 0
Details the 38 remedies plus how and where to prescribe them.
[223] Rottsieper. E.H.W. Vegetable Tannins The Forestal Land, Timber and Railways Co. Ltd. 1946
A fairly detailed treatise on the major sources of vegetable tannins.
[229] Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. 1980 ISBN 0442238622
A very good concise guide. Gives habitats, good descriptions, maps showing distribution and a few of the uses. It also includes the many shrubs that occasionally reach tree proportions.
[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
[254] Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London 1996 ISBN 9-780751-303148
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.

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Caulophyllum thalictroides - (L.)Michx. Papoose Root

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 02:57

Caulophyllum thalictroides - (L.)Michx.
Papoose Root
Author (L.)Michx. Botanical references 43, 200
Family Berberidaceae Genus Caulophyllum
Synonyms
Known Hazards warning signThis plant should not be used during pregnancy prior to the commencement of labour[165].
Range Eastern N. America - New Brunswick to South Carolina, Arkansas, North Dakota and Manitoba.
Habitat Rich moist soils in swamps, by streams[4, 21] and in woods[43].
Edibility Rating apple icon 1 (1-5) Medicinal Rating apple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of perennial/biennial/annual Perennial growing to 0.5m by 1m.
It is hardy to zone 7. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen in September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) or semi-shade (light woodland). It requires moist soil.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; Deep Shade;
Edible Uses
Edible Uses: Coffee.
The roasted seed is a coffee substitute[4, 102, 105, 177]. The seeds are about the size of large peas, but are not produced in abundance[232].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Anthelmintic; Antispasmodic; Birthing aid; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Emmenagogue; Oxytoxic; Sedative.
Papoose root is a traditional herb of many North American Indian tribes and was used extensively by them to facilitate child birth[207]. Modern herbalists still consider it to be a woman's herb and it is commonly used to treat various gynaecological conditions[254]. An acrid, bitter, warming herb, it stimulates the uterus, reduces inflammation, expels intestinal worms and has diuretic effects[238]. The root is anthelmintic, antispasmodic, diaphoretic, diuretic, emmenagogue, oxytocic and sedative[4, 21, 46, 165, 207]. An infusion of the root in warm water is taken for about 2 weeks before the expected birth date in order to ease the birth[207, 213]. This infusion can also be used as an emmenagogue and a uterine stimulant[213]. Papoose root should therefore be used with some caution by women who are in an earlier stage of pregnancy since it can induce a miscarriage or early delivery[222]. The plant is also taken internally in the treatment of pelvic inflammatory disease, rheumatism and gout[238]. It should not be prescribed for people with hypertension and heart diseases[238]. The powdered root can have an irritant action on the mucous membranes, therefore any use of this plant is best under the supervision of a qualified practitioner[238, 268]. The roots are normally harvested in the autumn, because they are at their richest at this time[213], and are dried for later use. The root is harvested in early spring as new growth is beginning and is used to make a homeopathic remedy[232]. It is used especially in childbirth and in some forms of rheumatism[232].
Other Uses
None known
Cultivation details
Easily grown in a damp light humus-rich woodland soil preferring a position in deep shade[1, 200]. One report says that it is best in a peat garden. Plants are hardy to at least -20°c[187]. The plant only produces one large leaf each year[233]. The seeds rupture the ovary before they are fully ripe and continue to expand naked, they are bright blue when fully ripe[130].
Propagation
Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a shady part of a cold frame[200]. If stored seed is used, it should be sown as soon as it is received. Germination can be erratic. Prick out the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow them on in a shady part of a greenhouse or cold frame for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions during autumn or early winter. Division in spring or just after flowering[200]. Plants are slow to increase[187].
Links
References
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
[21] Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books 1983 ISBN 0-553-23827-2
Lots of information tightly crammed into a fairly small book.
[43] Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. 1950
A bit dated but good and concise flora of the eastern part of N. America.
[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[102] Kavasch. B. Native Harvests. Vintage Books 1979 ISBN 0-394-72811-4
Another guide to the wild foods of America.
[105] Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing 1976
The most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.
[130] ? The Plantsman. Vol. 4. 1982 - 1983. Royal Horticultural Society 1982
Excerpts from the periodical giving cultivation details and other notes on some of the useful plants, including Distylium racemosum and some perennial members of the family Berberidaceae.
[165] Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. 0
An excellent small herbal.
[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
[187] Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Perennials Volumes 1 and 2. Pan Books 1991 ISBN 0-330-30936-9
Photographs of over 3,000 species and cultivars of ornamental plants together with brief cultivation notes, details of habitat etc.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[207] Coffey. T. The History and Folklore of North American Wild Flowers. Facts on File. 1993 ISBN 0-8160-2624-6
A nice read, lots of information on plant uses.
[213] Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books 1980 ISBN 0-449-90589-6
A nice book to read though it is difficult to look up individual plants since the book is divided into separate sections dealing with the different medicinal uses plus a section on edible plants. Common names are used instead of botanical.
[222] Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1990 ISBN 0395467225
A concise book dealing with almost 500 species. A line drawing of each plant is included plus colour photographs of about 100 species. Very good as a field guide, it only gives brief details about the plants medicinal properties.
[232] Castro. M. The Complete Homeopathy Handbook. Macmillan. London. 1990 ISBN 0-333-55581-3
A concise beginner's guide to the subject. Very readable.
[233] Thomas. G. S. Perennial Garden Plants J. M. Dent & Sons, London. 1990 ISBN 0 460 86048 8
A concise guide to a wide range of perennials. Lots of cultivation guides, very little on plant uses.
[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
[254] Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London 1996 ISBN 9-780751-303148
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.
[268] Stuart. M. (Editor) The Encyclopedia of Herbs and Herbalism Orbis Publishing. London. 1979 ISBN 0-85613-067-2
Excellent herbal with good concise information on over 400 herbs.

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Ceratonia siliqua - L. Carob

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 02:58

Ceratonia siliqua - L.
Carob
Author L. Botanical references 89, 200
Family Leguminosae Genus Ceratonia
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Range S. Europe.
Habitat Rocky places near the sea shore[89].
Edibility Rating apple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5) Medicinal Rating apple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of decid tree An evergreen Tree growing to 15m.
It is hardy to zone 8 and is frost tender. It is in leaf all year, in flower from August to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)It can fix Nitrogen. The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Canopy; Secondary; South Wall By; West Wall By;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Seed; Seedpod.
Edible Uses: Chocolate; Coffee; Egg; Gum.
Seedpods - raw or ground into a powder[1, 7, 74, 89, 177]. The seedpods are filled with a saccharine pulp and can be eaten both green or dried[2]. They are very sweet but fibrous[183], the pulp can be used as a chocolate substitute in cakes, drinks etc[183]. It is rich in sugars and protein[183]. The pods contain about 55% sugars, 10% protein[100] and 6% fat[74]. Seed - rich in protein. A flour is made from them which is 60% protein, it is free from sugar and starch and is suitable for baking[64, 171]. It can be used as a chocolate substitute[148]. An edible gum is extracted from the seed, a substitute for Gum Tragacanth (see Astragalus species)[64]. A stabilizer and thickening agent[142, 183], it is also used as an egg substitute[61, 64, 142]. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute[61, 105, 183].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Astringent; Demulcent; Emollient; Purgative.
The pulp in the seedpods of carob is very nutritious and, due to its high sugar content, sweet-tasting and mildly laxative[254]. However, the pulp in the pods is also astringent and, used in a decoction, will treat diarrhoea and gently help to cleanse and also relieve irritation within the gut[240, 254]. Whilst these appear to be contradictory effects, carob is an example of how the body responds to herbal medicines in different ways, according to how the herb is prepared and according to the specific medical problem[254]. The seedpods are also used in the treatment of coughs[240]. A flour made from the ripe seedpods is demulcent and emollient[7]. It is used in the treatment of diarrhoea[7]. The seed husks are astringent and purgative[240]. The bark is strongly astringent[254]. A decoction is used in the treatment of diarrhoea[254].
Other Uses
Cosmetic; Tannin; Wood.
A flour made from the seedpods is used in the cosmetic industry to make face-packs[7]. Tannin is obtained from the bark[7]. Wood - hard, lustrous. Highly valued by turners, it is also used for marquetry and walking sticks[7, 61, 89, 100].
Cultivation details
Requires a very sunny position in any well-drained moderately fertile soil[200]. Does well in calcareous, gravelly or rocky soils[132, 166]. Tolerates salt laden air[132]. Tolerates a pH in the range 6.2 to 8.6. The tree is very drought resistant, thriving even under arid conditions, the roots penetrating deep into the soil to find moisture[4, 64, 132, 200]. This species is not very hardy in Britain but it succeeds outdoors in favoured areas of S. Cornwall[1], tolerating temperatures down to about -5°c when in a suitable position[200]. The young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early morning sun[K]. The carob is frequently cultivated in warm temperate zones for its edible seed and seed pods[1]. Mature trees in a suitable environment can yield up to 400 kilos of seedpods annually[64]. There are named varieties with thicker pods[64, 183]. Seeds are unlikely to be produced in Britain since the tree is so near (if not beyond) the limits of its cultivation[K]. The seed is very uniform in size and weight, it was the original 'carat' weight of jewellers[1, 89]. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[200].
Propagation
Seed - pre-soak for 24 hours in warm water prior to sowing. If the seed has not swollen then give it another soaking in warm water until it does swell up. Sow in a greenhouse in April[200]. Germination should take place within 2 months. As soon as they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual deep pots and grow them on in a greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. Give them some protection from the cold for their first few winters outdoors.
Cultivars

No entries have been made for this species as yet.

Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
[7] Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald 1984 ISBN 0-356-10541-5
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.
[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[64] Howes. F. N. Vegetable Gums and Resins. Faber 0
A very good book dealing with the subject in a readable way.
[74] Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation 1968
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers.
[89] Polunin. O. and Huxley. A. Flowers of the Mediterranean. Hogarth Press 1987 ISBN 0-7012-0784-1
A very readable pocket flora that is well illustrated. Gives some information on plant uses.
[100] Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press 1969 ISBN 0192176218
An excellent and well illustrated pocket guide for those with very large pockets. Also gives some details on plant uses.
[105] Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing 1976
The most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.
[132] Bianchini. F., Corbetta. F. and Pistoia. M. Fruits of the Earth. 0
Lovely pictures, a very readable book.
[142] Brouk. B. Plants Consumed by Man. Academic Press 1975 ISBN 0-12-136450-x
Readable but not very comprehensive.
[148] Niebuhr. A. D. Herbs of Greece. Herb Society of America. 1970
A pleasant little book about Greek herbs.
[166] Taylor. J. The Milder Garden. Dent 1990
A good book on plants that you didn't know could be grown outdoors in Britain.
[171] Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press 1952
Not very comprehensive, but it is quite readable and goes into some a bit of detail about the plants it does cover.
[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[240] Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. 1986
Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader.
[254] Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London 1996 ISBN 9-780751-303148
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.

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Cicer arietinum - L. Chick Pea

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 02:59

Cicer arietinum - L.
Chick Pea
Author L. Botanical references 200
Family Leguminosae Genus Cicer
Synonyms
Known Hazards warning signThe foliage and seedpods contain oxalic acid and can irritate the skin[33, 74, 200]. There is also one report that the foliage is poisonous[171] - this might relate to the oxalic acid. Oxalic acid can lock up certain nutrients in the diet, especially calcium, and therefore heavy use of foods that contain this substance can lead to nutritional deficiencies. Cooking will greatly reduce the oxalic acid content. People with a tendency to rheumatism, arthritis, gout, kidney stones or hyperacidity should take especial caution if including this plant in their diet since the oxalic acid can aggravate their condition[238].
Range Asia? Original habitat is obscure.
Habitat Unknown in the wild.
Edibility Rating apple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 4 (1-5) Medicinal Rating apple icon 1 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of perennial/biennial/annual Annual growing to 0.6m.
It is hardy to zone 0 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from June to July, and the seeds ripen from August to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)It can fix Nitrogen. The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.
Habitats
Cultivated Beds;
Cultivars: (as above except)
'Kabuli Black'
'Whitev'
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Leaves; Seed; Seedpod.
Edible Uses: Coffee; Drink.
Seed - raw or cooked. The fresh or dried seed is cooked in soups, stews etc[2, 37, 100, 142, 171, 183]. It has a somewhat sweet flavour and a floury texture somewhat reminiscent of sweet chestnuts[K]. The mature seed can also be sprouted and eaten raw[K]. Parched seeds can be eaten as a snack[183]. The seed can also be ground into a meal and used with cereal flours for making bread, cakes etc[46, 105, 183]. The seed is a good source of carbohydrates and protein. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute[27, 46, 61, 105, 183]. The roasted root can also be used[183]. Both the young seedpods and the young shoots are said to be edible[57, 61, 142, 171, 177, 183] but some caution is advised. See the notes above on toxicity. A refreshing drink can be made from the acid dew that collects on the hairy seedpods overnight[183].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Astringent.
An acid exudation from the seedpods is astringent[240]. It has been used in the treatment of dyspepsia, constipation and snakebite[240].
Other Uses
None known
Cultivation details
Requires a hot sunny position[33, 37, 200], tolerating drought once established[27, 57]. Prefers a light well-drained fertile soil[33, 200]. Tolerates a pH in the range 5.5 to 8.6. Plants are hardy to about -25°c when covered by snow[74]. This suggests that plants can be autumn sown - some trials are called for, especially of some of the hardier cultivars[K]. The chickpea is widely cultivated in warm temperate and tropical areas for its edible seed[46, 50]. There are many named varieties, some of which should be suitable for cultivation in Britain[141]. Plants only succeed outdoors in Britain in hot summers[33, 37]. Plants are about as hardy as broad beans[141] but they often do not succeed in mild moist maritime climates because the seedpods are hairy and this holds moisture. The moisture then encourages fungal growth and the seed usually rots before it is fully mature[K]. Plants require 4 - 6 months with moderately warm dry conditions if they are to crop well[200]. This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria, these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen. Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can also be used by other plants growing nearby[200]. When removing plant remains at the end of the growing season, it is best to only remove the aerial parts of the plant, leaving the roots in the ground to decay and release their nitrogen.
Propagation
Seed - sow April/May in situ under cloches. Chick peas can germinate at lower temperatures than broad beans[141]. Could an early spring or even autumn sowing outdoors be successful?
Cultivars

'Brown Seeded'
A small-seeded form, better suited to the home gardener than commercial cultivation. Especially useful in short-season dry areas, it does not do well in coastal fog-belt areas[183].
'Green Seeded'
A small-seeded form, better suited to the home gardener than commercial cultivation. This is the best cultivar for sprouting[183]. Especially useful in short-season dry areas, it does not do well in coastal fog-belt areas[183].
'Kabuli Black'
A very hardy and vigorous cultivar, maturing in 95 days from seed[183]. The medium-sized seed is solid black and 2 seeds are produced per pod[183]. Somewhat tolerant of cold soils and drought resistant[183].
'Whitev'
A late cultivar with large white seeds[183]. The skin peels of the seed easily atfer a short period of cooking[183]. Recommended for growing in high rainfall areas[183].

Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[27] Vilmorin. A. The Vegetable Garden. Ten Speed Press 0 ISBN 0-89815-041-8
A reprint of a nineteenth century classic, giving details of vegetable varieties. Not really that informative though.
[33] Organ. J. Rare Vegetables for Garden and Table. Faber 1960
Unusual vegetables that can be grown outdoors in Britain. A good guide.
[37] Thompson. B. The Gardener's Assistant. Blackie and Son. 1878
Excellent general but extensive guide to gardening practices in the 19th century. A very good section on fruits and vegetables with many little known species.
[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[50] ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press 1964
An immense work in 6 volumes (including the index). The standard reference flora for europe, it is very terse though and with very little extra information. Not for the casual reader.
[57] Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. 0
Fairly readable but not very comprehensive. Deals with plants from around the world.
[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[74] Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation 1968
An immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but heavy going for casual readers.
[100] Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press 1969 ISBN 0192176218
An excellent and well illustrated pocket guide for those with very large pockets. Also gives some details on plant uses.
[105] Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing 1976
The most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.
[141] Carruthers. S. P. (Editor) Alternative Enterprises for Agriculture in the UK. Centre for Agricultural Strategy, Univ. of Reading 1986 ISBN 0704909820
Some suggested alternative commercial crops for Britain. Readable. Produced by a University study group.
[142] Brouk. B. Plants Consumed by Man. Academic Press 1975 ISBN 0-12-136450-x
Readable but not very comprehensive.
[171] Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press 1952
Not very comprehensive, but it is quite readable and goes into some a bit of detail about the plants it does cover.
[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
[240] Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. 1986
Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader.

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Cichorium intybus - L. Chicory

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 03:01

Cichorium intybus - L.
Chicory
Author L. Botanical references 17, 200
Family Compositae Genus Cichorium
Synonyms
Known Hazards warning signExcessive and continued use may impair function of the retina[268].
Range Europe, including Britain, from Scandanavia south and east to N. Africa and W. Asia.
Habitat Grassy meadows and arable land, especially on chalk[5, 13].
Edibility Rating apple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 4 (1-5) Medicinal Rating apple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of perennial/biennial/annual Perennial growing to 1.5m by 0.5m.
It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from July to October, and the seeds ripen from August to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees. The plant is self-fertile. It is noted for attracting wildlife. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid and very alkaline soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires moist soil.
Habitats
Lawn; Meadow; Cultivated Beds; South Wall By; West Wall By;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Root.
Edible Uses: Coffee.
Leaves - raw or cooked[2, 4, 5, 9, 27, 33, 171]. The leaves are rather bitter, especially when the plants are flowering[4]. The leaves are often blanched by excluding light, either by removing all the leaves and then earthing up the new growth, or by covering the plant with a bucket or something similar. Whilst this greatly reduces any bitterness, there is also a corresponding loss of vitamins and minerals[K]. The blanched leaves are often used in winter salads (they are known as chicons) and are also cooked[132, 200]. The unblanched leaves are much less bitter in winter and make an excellent addition to salads at this time of year[K]. A nutritional analysis of the leaves is available[218]. Flowers - raw[52]. An attractive addition to the salad bowl[183], but rather bitter[K]. Root - cooked like parsnip[5, 7, 9, 13, 21, 27, 46]. The boiled young roots form a very palatable vegetable[4]. The root is said to be an ideal food for diabetics because of its inulin content[9]. Inulin is a starch that cannot be digested by humans, it tends to pass straight through the digestive system and is therefore unlikely to be of use to a diabetic[K]. However, the inulin can be used to make a sweetener that is suitable for diabetics to use[K]. Chicory-root is free of harmful ingredients, and is essentially a concentrated combination of three sugars (pentose, levulose and dextrose) along with taraxarcine (the bitter principle of dandelion)[269]. It is especially important as source of levulose[269]. Roots are used in seasoning soups, sauces and gravies, and to impart a rich deep colour[269]. The roasted root is used as a caffeine-free coffee adulterant or substitute[2, 4, 5, 7, 13, 21, 27, 46]. Young roots have a slightly bitter caramel flavour when roasted, roots over 2 years old are much more bitter[238].
Composition
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.

Leaves (Dry weight)

* 290 Calories per 100g
* Water: 0%
* Protein: 24.6g; Fat: 2.9g; Carbohydrate: 59.4g; Fibre: 13g; Ash: 13g;
* Minerals - Calcium: 1145mg; Phosphorus: 0mg; Iron: 24.6mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 0mg; Potassium: 0mg; Zinc: 0mg;
* Vitamins - A: 23mg; Thiamine (B1): 1.01mg; Riboflavin (B2): 1.74mg; Niacin: 5.8mg; B6: 0mg; C: 159mg;
* Reference: []
* Notes:

Root (Fresh weight)

* 0 Calories per 100g
* Water: 77%
* Protein: 0g; Fat: 0.6g; Carbohydrate: 0g; Fibre: 0g; Ash: 0.8g;
* Minerals - Calcium: 0mg; Phosphorus: 0mg; Iron: 0mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 0mg; Potassium: 0mg; Zinc: 0mg;
* Vitamins - A: 0mg; Thiamine (B1): 0mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0mg; Niacin: 0mg; B6: 0mg; C: 0mg;
* Reference: []
* Notes:

Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Appetizer; Bach; Cardiac; Cholagogue; Depurative; Digestive; Diuretic; Hypoglycaemic; Laxative; Tonic; Warts.
Chicory has a long history of herbal use and is especially of great value for its tonic affect upon the liver and digestive tract[254]. It is little used in modern herbalism, though it is often used as part of the diet. The root and the leaves are appetizer, cholagogue, depurative, digestive, diuretic, hypoglycaemic, laxative and tonic[4, 7, 9, 13, 21, 46, 222]. The roots are more active medicinally[222]. A decoction of the root has proved to be of benefit in the treatment of jaundice, liver enlargement, gout and rheumatism[4]. A decoction of the freshly harvested plant is used for treating gravel[4]. The root can be used fresh or dried, it is best harvested in the autumn[9]. The leaves are harvested as the plant comes into flower and can also be dried for later use[9]. The root extracts have experimentally produced a slower and weaker heart rate (pulse)[222]. The plant merits research for use in heart irregularities[222]. The plant is used in Bach flower remedies - the keywords for prescribing it are 'Possessiveness', 'Self-love' and 'Self-pity'[209]. The latex in the stems is applied to warts in order to destroy them[218].
Other Uses
Biomass; Compost.
The roots have the potential to be used for the production of biomass for industrial use[132]. They are rich in the starch 'inulin' which can easily be converted to alcohol[269]. A blue dye has been obtained from the leaves[4]. The flowers are an alternative ingredient of 'QR' herbal compost activator[32]. This is a dried and powdered mixture of several herbs that can be added to a compost heap in order to speed up bacterial activity and thus shorten the time needed to make the compost[K].
Cultivation details
Prefers a sunny position in any moderately fertile well-drained moisture retentive soil[1, 14, 52]. Prefers a pH 5.5 to 7[200]. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.5 to 8.3. Chicory grows on any type of soil but, when cultivated, grows best on mellow, deeply tilled, fertile soil or sandy loam[269].. A cool weather crop, it tolerates only moderate summer temperatures and requires well-distributed rainfall, with good drainage, or some irrigation in drier areas[269]. Chicory roots deeply in relatively short time; soil too wet for beans and small grains is not suitable[269]. To insure proper root-growth, apply lime or marl to acid soil to neutralize acidity[269]. Chicory is reported to tolerate a pH in the range of 4.5 to 8.3, an annual rainfall of 30 to 400 cm and an annual mean biotemperature of 6° to 27°C[269]. Chicory is an excellent winter salad. It is often cultivated, especially in Europe, for its edible leaves and for its roots which are used to make a coffee substitute. There are many named varieties[46, 132, 183] and, by careful selection of cultivars and sowing times, fresh leaves can be obtained all year round. There are three main types of chicory grown for their leaves, there are many cultivars of each form:- A bitter-tasting loose-leafed form is grown as a green winter vegetable, especially in southern Italy. A narrow-leafed, witloof or Belgian form has a compact elongate head (chicon) which is blanched for use in salads or cooked dishes. A broad-leaved (usually red) form produces cabbage-like hearts, these are generally less bitter than the other forms and are eaten raw or cooked. These forms are often used as a winter salad crop[K]. Although a perennial, chicory is usually cultivated as an annual crop, especially when being grown as a winter salad. The winter salad cultivars are usually sown in early summer to make sure that they do not flower in their first year of growth. By late autumn they have formed an overwintering rosette of leaves rather like a cabbage. These leaves can be harvested as required during the winter and the plants will then usually make some new growth (as long as the winter is not too cold) that can be harvested in late winter or early spring. The plants run to flower in the following summer and fail to make an overwintering rosette of leaves for that winter[K]. Chicory can be grown successfully in a meadow or even in a lawn so long as the grass is not cut too short nor too often[K]. It often self-sows freely when well-sited, especially if it is growing in a dry alkaline soil[238]. A good bee plant[24, 108]. A very ornamental plant[1]. The flowers open in the early morning (about 6 - 7 o'clock in Britain) and close around midday[4].
Propagation
Seed - sow the wild form or cultivars being grown for their roots in May or June in situ. Cultivars being grown for their edible leaves can be sown in April for a summer crop or in June/July for a winter crop. Sow them in situ or in pots and then plant them out as soon as they are large enough.
Cultivars

No entries have been made for this species as yet.

Links
This plant is also mentioned in the following PFAF articles: The Edible Lawn, Winter Salads, Alternative Edible Leaves.
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.
[5] Mabey. R. Food for Free. Collins 1974 ISBN 0-00-219060-5
Edible wild plants found in Britain. Fairly comprehensive, very few pictures and rather optimistic on the desirability of some of the plants.
[7] Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald 1984 ISBN 0-356-10541-5
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.
[9] Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn 1981 ISBN 0-600-37216-2
Covers plants in Europe. a drawing of each plant, quite a bit of interesting information.
[13] Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants. Hamlyn 1975 ISBN 0-600-33545-3
Very interesting reading, giving some details of plant uses and quite a lot of folk-lore.
[14] Holtom. J. and Hylton. W. Complete Guide to Herbs. Rodale Press 1979 ISBN 0-87857-262-7
A good herbal.
[17] Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press 1962
A very comprehensive flora, the standard reference book but it has no pictures.
[21] Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books 1983 ISBN 0-553-23827-2
Lots of information tightly crammed into a fairly small book.
[24] Baines. C. Making a Wildlife Garden. 0
Fairly good with lots of ideas about creating wildlife areas in the garden.
[27] Vilmorin. A. The Vegetable Garden. Ten Speed Press 0 ISBN 0-89815-041-8
A reprint of a nineteenth century classic, giving details of vegetable varieties. Not really that informative though.
[32] Bruce. M. E. Commonsense Compost Making. Faber 1977 ISBN 0-571-09990-4
Excellent little booklet dealing with how to make compost by using herbs to activate the heap. Gives full details of the herbs that are used.
[33] Organ. J. Rare Vegetables for Garden and Table. Faber 1960
Unusual vegetables that can be grown outdoors in Britain. A good guide.
[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[52] Larkcom. J. Salads all the Year Round. Hamlyn 1980
A good and comprehensive guide to temperate salad plants, with full organic details of cultivation.
[108] International Bee Research Association. Garden Plants Valuable to Bees. International Bee Research Association. 1981
The title says it all.
[132] Bianchini. F., Corbetta. F. and Pistoia. M. Fruits of the Earth. 0
Lovely pictures, a very readable book.
[171] Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press 1952
Not very comprehensive, but it is quite readable and goes into some a bit of detail about the plants it does cover.
[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[209] Chancellor. P. M. Handbook of the Bach Flower Remedies C. W. Daniel Co. Ltd. 1985 ISBN 85207 002 0
Details the 38 remedies plus how and where to prescribe them.
[218] Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. 1985 ISBN 0-917256-20-4
Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.
[222] Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1990 ISBN 0395467225
A concise book dealing with almost 500 species. A line drawing of each plant is included plus colour photographs of about 100 species. Very good as a field guide, it only gives brief details about the plants medicinal properties.
[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
[254] Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London 1996 ISBN 9-780751-303148
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.
[268] Stuart. M. (Editor) The Encyclopedia of Herbs and Herbalism Orbis Publishing. London. 1979 ISBN 0-85613-067-2
Excellent herbal with good concise information on over 400 herbs.
[269] Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops - 1983
Published only on the Internet, excellent information on a wide range of plants.

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Coix lacryma-jobi - L. Job's Tears

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 03:03

Coix lacryma-jobi - L.
Job's Tears
Author L. Botanical references 200
Family Gramineae Genus Coix
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Range E. Asia - E. India.
Habitat Wet places in grassland in the foothills of the Himalayas[146, 158]. Open sunny places to elevations of 2000 metrs in Nepal[272].
Edibility Rating apple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5) Medicinal Rating apple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of perennial/biennial/annual Perennial growing to 1m by 0.15m.
It is hardy to zone 9. It is in leaf from May to October, in flower from July to October, and the seeds ripen from September to November. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid soil. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires moist soil.
Habitats
Cultivated Beds;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Seed.
Edible Uses: Coffee; Tea.
Seed - cooked. A pleasant mild flavour, it can be used in soups and broths[269].. It can be ground into a flour and used to make bread or used in any of the ways that rice is used[1, 2, 57, 100, 183]. The pounded flour is sometimes mixed with water like barley for barley water[269]. The pounded kernel is also made into a sweet dish by frying and coating with sugar[269]. It is also husked and eaten out of hand like a peanut[269]. The seed contains about 52% starch, 18% protein, 7% fat[114, 174]. It is higher in protein and fat than rice but low in minerals[114]. This is a potentially very useful grain, it has a higher protein to carbohydrate ratio than any other cereal[57], though the hard seedcoat makes extraction of the flour rather difficult. A tea can be made from the parched seeds[46, 61, 105, 183], whilst beers and wines are made from the fermented grain[269]. A coffee is made from the roasted seed[183]. (This report refers to the ssp. ma-yuen)
Composition
Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.

Seed (Fresh weight)

* 380 Calories per 100g
* Water: 11.2%
* Protein: 15.4g; Fat: 6.2g; Carbohydrate: 65.3g; Fibre: 0.8g; Ash: 1.9g;
* Minerals - Calcium: 25mg; Phosphorus: 435mg; Iron: 5mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 0mg; Potassium: 0mg; Zinc: 0mg;
* Vitamins - A: 0mg; Thiamine (B1): 0.28mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0.19mg; Niacin: 4.3mg; B6: 0mg; C: 0mg;
* Reference: [218]
* Notes:

Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Anodyne; Anthelmintic; Antiinflammatory; Antipyretic; Antirheumatic; Antispasmodic; Cancer; Diuretic; Hypoglycaemic; Pectoral; Refrigerant; Sedative; Tonic; Warts.
The fruits are anodyne, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, hypoglycaemic, hypotensive, sedative and vermifuge[218, 238]. The fruits are used in folk remedies for abdominal tumours, oesophageal, gastrointestinal, and lung cancers, various tumours, as well as excrescences, warts, and whitlows. This folk reputation is all the more interesting when reading that one of the active constituents of the plant, coixenolide, has antitumor activity[269]. The seed, with the husk removed, is antirheumatic, diuretic, pectoral, refrigerant and tonic[176, 218, 240]. A tea from the boiled seeds is drunk as part of a treatment to cure warts[116, 174]. It is also used in the treatment of lung abscess, lobar pneumonia, appendicitis, rheumatoid arthritis, beriberi, diarrhoea, oedema and difficult urination[147, 176]. The plant has been used in the treatment of cancer[218]. The roots have been used in the treatment of menstrual disorders[240]. A decoction of the root has been used as an anthelmintic[272]. The fruit is harvested when ripe in the autumn and the husks are removed before using fresh, roasted or fermented[238].
Other Uses
Beads; Weaving.
The seeds are used as decorative beads[1, 61, 100, 171, 272]. The stems are used to make matting[158].
Cultivation details
Succeeds in ordinary garden soil[162]. Best grown in an open sunny border[1, 162]. Prefers a little shelter from the wind. Job's Tears is reported to tolerate an annual precipitation in the range of 61 to 429cm, an average annual temperature of 9.6 to 27.8°C and a pH in the range of 4.5 to 8.4[269]. Weed to some, necklace to others, staff-of-life to others, job's tear is a very useful and productive grass increasingly viewed as a potential energy source[269]. Before corn (Zea mays) became popular in Southern Asia, Job's tears was rather widely cultivated as a cereal in India[158, 269]. It is a potentially very useful grain having a higher protein to carbohydrate ratio than any other cereal[57]. The seed has a very tough shell however making it rather difficult to extract the grain. The ssp. ma-yuen. (Roman.)Stapf. is grown for its edible seed and medicinal virtues in China, the seedcoat is said to be soft and easily removed[57, 183]. This form is widely used in macrobiotic diets and cuisine[183]. The ssp. stenocarpa is used for beads[57]. Whilst usually grown as an annual, the plant is perennial in essentially frost-free areas[269]. Plants have survived temperatures down to about -35°c[160]. (This report needs verifying, it seems rather dubious[K].) Plants have often overwintered when growing in a polyhouse with us, they have then gone on to produce another crop of seed in their second year[K]. We have not as yet (1995) tried growing them on for a third year in a polyhouse[K].
Propagation
Seed - pre-soak for 2 hours in warm water and sow February/March in a greenhouse[164]. The seed usually germinates in 3 - 4 weeks at 25°c. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots. Grow them on in cool conditions and plant out in late spring after the last expected frosts[1, 164]. Seed can also be sown in situ in May[1] though it would be unlikely to ripen its seed in an average British summer. In a suitable climate, it takes about 4 - 5 months from seed to produce new seed[269]. Division of root offshoots[272]. This is probably best done in the spring as plants come into fresh growth[272].
Cultivars

No entries have been made for this species as yet.

Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the plants. Not for the casual reader.
[57] Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. 0
Fairly readable but not very comprehensive. Deals with plants from around the world.
[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[100] Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press 1969 ISBN 0192176218
An excellent and well illustrated pocket guide for those with very large pockets. Also gives some details on plant uses.
[105] Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing 1976
The most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.
[114] Chakravarty. H. L. The Plant Wealth of Iraq. 0
It is surprising how many of these plants can be grown in Britain. A very readable book on the useful plants of Iraq.
[116] Brooklyn Botanic Garden Oriental Herbs and Vegetables, Vol 39 No. 2. Brooklyn Botanic Garden 1986
A small booklet packed with information.
[146] Gamble. J. S. A Manual of Indian Timbers. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh 1972
Written last century, but still a classic, giving a lot of information on the uses and habitats of Indian trees. Not for the casual reader.
[147] ? A Barefoot Doctors Manual. Running Press 0 ISBN 0-914294-92-X
A very readable herbal from China, combining some modern methods with traditional chinese methods.
[158] Gupta. B. L. Forest Flora of Chakrata, Dehra Dun and Saharanpur. Forest Research Institute Press 1945
A good flora for the middle Himalayan forests, sparsly illustrated. Not really for the casual reader.
[160] Natural Food Institute, Wonder Crops. 1987. 0
Fascinating reading, this is an annual publication. Some reports do seem somewhat exaggerated though.
[162] Grounds. R. Ornamental Grasses. Christopher Helm 1989 ISBN 0-7470-1219-9
Cultivation details of many of the grasses and bamboos. Well illustrated.
[164] Bird. R. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 4. Thompson and Morgan. 1990
Very readable magazine with lots of information on propagation. A good article on Yuccas, one on Sagebrush (Artemesia spp) and another on Chaerophyllum bulbosum.
[171] Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press 1952
Not very comprehensive, but it is quite readable and goes into some a bit of detail about the plants it does cover.
[174] Kariyone. T. Atlas of Medicinal Plants. 0
A good Japanese herbal.
[176] Yeung. Him-Che. Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas. Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles 1985
An excellent Chinese herbal giving information on over 500 species. Rather technical and probably best suited to the more accomplished user of herbs.
[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[218] Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. 1985 ISBN 0-917256-20-4
Details of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents. Heavy going if you are not into the subject.
[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student. Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries for each plant.
[240] Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. 1986
Very terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for the casual reader.
[269] Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops - 1983
Published only on the Internet, excellent information on a wide range of plants.
[272] Manandhar. N. P. Plants and People of Nepal Timber Press. Oregon. 2002 ISBN 0-88192-527-6
Excellent book, covering over 1,500 species of useful plants from Nepal together with information on the geography and peoples of Nepal. Good descriptions of the plants with terse notes on their uses.

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Coprosma acerosa - A.Cunn. Sand Coprosma

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 03:04

Coprosma acerosa - A.Cunn.
Sand Coprosma
Author A.Cunn. Botanical references 11, 44, 200
Family Rubiaceae Genus Coprosma
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Range New Zealand.
Habitat Coastal sand dunes[44] and elevations up to 1200 metres[11], on North, South and Chatham Islands[225].
Edibility Rating apple iconapple icon 2 (1-5) Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of shrub An evergreen Shrub growing to 0.5m by 0.6m.
It is hardy to zone 8. It is in leaf all year, in flower from September to October. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant is not self-fertile. The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil. The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; Cultivated Beds;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses: Coffee.
Fruit - raw[177]. Sweet and juicy[173], but with little flavour[225]. The fruit is usually pale blue and up to 8mm long x 6mm wide[200, 225]. The roasted seed is an excellent coffee substitute[153].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
None known
Other Uses
Dye.
A yellow dye is obtained from the wood, it does not require a mordant[153].
Cultivation details
Requires a moist, very well-drained neutral to slightly acid soil in full sun or light shade[200]. An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most soils, so long as they are well-drained[225]. Judging by its habitat this plant should be tolerant of maritime exposure[K]. Somewhat intolerant of frost[200], this species is hardy at Kew but it prefers milder winters[11]. It does not succeed in the colder areas of the country[11]. Fruits are freely produced in Ireland[11]. Does well on a sunny ledge in the rock garden[11, 182]. A widely spreading mat-forming prostrate plant, though it will eventually build up to a height of 60cm[225]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200, 225], especially C. petriei[225]. Plants are normally dioecious, though in some species the plants produce a few flowers of the opposite sex before the main flowering and a few hermaphrodite flowers are sometimes produced[225]. Male and female plants must usually be grown if seed is required.
Propagation
Seed - probably best sown as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse or cold frame[K]. Sow stored seed in spring in a cold frame[200]. Germination can be slow, often taking more than 12 months even when fresh seed is used[K]. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots. Grow on the plants for at least their first winter in a greenhouse and plant out in late spring or early summer. Give the plants some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors[K]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, autumn in a frame.
Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[44] Allan. H. H. Flora of New Zealand. Government Printer, Wellington. 1961
The standard work, in 3 volumes though only the first two are of interest to the plant project. Very good on habitats.
[153] Brooker. S. G., Cambie. R. C. and Cooper. R. C. Economic Native Plants of New Zealand. Oxford University Press 1991 ISBN 0-19-558229-2
An interesting and readable book on the useful plants of New Zealand.
[173] Crowe. A. Native Edible Plants of New Zealand. Hodder and Stoughton 1990 ISBN 0-340-508302
A very well written and illustrated book based on the authors own experiments with living on a native diet.
[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
[182] Thomas. G. S. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos. Murray 1992 ISBN 0-7195-5043-2
Contains a wide range of plants with a brief description, mainly of their ornamental value but also usually of cultivation details and varieties.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[225] Knees. S. The New Plantsman. Volume 2, 1995. Royal Horticultural Society 1995 ISBN 1352-4186
A quarterly magazine, it has articles on Coprosma species,

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Coprosma areolata - Cheesem.

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 03:05

Coprosma areolata - Cheesem.
Author Cheesem. Botanical references 44, 200
Family Rubiaceae Genus Coprosma
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Range New Zealand.
Habitat Lowland to lower montane forest, North, South and Stewart Islands[44].
Edibility Rating apple icon 1 (1-5) Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of shrub An evergreen Shrub growing to 5m.
It is hardy to zone 9. It is in leaf all year, in flower from September to October. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant is not self-fertile. The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses: Coffee.
Fruit - raw[173]. Sweet, but with little flavour[225]. The dark purple fruit is up to 5mm wide[200, 225]. The roasted seed is an excellent coffee substitute[153].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
None known
Other Uses
Dye.
A yellow dye is obtained from the wood, it does not require a mordant[153].
Cultivation details
Requires a moist, very well-drained neutral to slightly acid soil in full sun or light shade[200]. Succeeds in most soils[225]. Somewhat intolerant of frost, this species is only likely to succeed outdoors when grown in a woodland garden in the milder areas of Britain[200, 225]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200, 225]. Plants grown in Britain to date (1994) have not flowered[225]. Plants are tolerant of heavy clipping or pruning[225]. Plants are normally dioecious, though in some species the plants produce a few flowers of the opposite sex before the main flowering and a few hermaphrodite flowers are sometimes produced[225]. Male and female plants must usually be grown if seed is required.
Propagation
Seed - probably best sown as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse or cold frame[K]. Sow stored seed in spring in a cold frame[200]. Germination can be slow, often taking more than 12 months even when fresh seed is used[K]. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots. Grow on the plants for at least their first winter in a greenhouse and plant out in late spring or early summer. Give the plants some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors[K]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, autumn in a frame.
Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[44] Allan. H. H. Flora of New Zealand. Government Printer, Wellington. 1961
The standard work, in 3 volumes though only the first two are of interest to the plant project. Very good on habitats.
[153] Brooker. S. G., Cambie. R. C. and Cooper. R. C. Economic Native Plants of New Zealand. Oxford University Press 1991 ISBN 0-19-558229-2
An interesting and readable book on the useful plants of New Zealand.
[173] Crowe. A. Native Edible Plants of New Zealand. Hodder and Stoughton 1990 ISBN 0-340-508302
A very well written and illustrated book based on the authors own experiments with living on a native diet.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[225] Knees. S. The New Plantsman. Volume 2, 1995. Royal Horticultural Society 1995 ISBN 1352-4186
A quarterly magazine, it has articles on Coprosma species,

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Coprosma atropurpurea - (Ckn.&Allan.)L.B.Moore.

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 03:06

Coprosma atropurpurea - (Ckn.&Allan.)L.B.Moore.
Author (Ckn.&Allan.)L.B.Moore. Botanical references 11, 44, 200
Family Rubiaceae Genus Coprosma
Synonyms Coprosma petriei atropurpurea - Cockayne. & Allan.
Known Hazards None known
Range New Zealand.
Habitat Lowland to higher montane regions in tussock grass, stream margins, rocky places and dry river beds on North and South Islands[44].
Edibility Rating apple icon 1 (1-5) Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of shrub An evergreen Shrub growing to 0.1m by 0.4m.
It is hardy to zone 7. It is in leaf all year, in flower from July to August. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant is not self-fertile. The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Cultivated Beds; South Wall By; West Wall By;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses: Coffee.
Fruit - raw[173]. Sweet, but with little flavour[225, K]. The wine-red fruit is about 8 - 12mm in diameter[200, 225]. The roasted seed is an excellent coffee substitute[153].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
None known
Other Uses
Dye.
A yellow dye is obtained from the wood, it does not require a mordant[153].
Cultivation details
Requires a moist, very well-drained neutral to slightly acid soil in full sun or light shade[200]. Succeeds in most soils, so long as they are well-drained[225]. Somewhat intolerant of frost, this species is only likely to succeed outdoors in the milder areas of Britain[200]. Another report says that it is quite hardy in Britain[225]. Closely related to C. pumila, and often confused with that species[225]. It hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200, 225]. This species is often confused with C. petriei[11, 44], though it is quite distinct and does not hybridise with that species[225]. Plants are normally dioecious, though in some species the plants produce a few flowers of the opposite sex before the main flowering and a few hermaphrodite flowers are sometimes produced[225]. Male and female plants must usually be grown if seed is required.
Propagation
Seed - probably best sown as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse or cold frame[K]. Sow stored seed in spring in a cold frame[200]. Germination can be slow, often taking more than 12 months even when fresh seed is used[K]. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots. Grow on the plants for at least their first winter in a greenhouse and plant out in late spring or early summer. Give the plants some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors[K]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, autumn in a frame. Division of suckers[225].
Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[44] Allan. H. H. Flora of New Zealand. Government Printer, Wellington. 1961
The standard work, in 3 volumes though only the first two are of interest to the plant project. Very good on habitats.
[153] Brooker. S. G., Cambie. R. C. and Cooper. R. C. Economic Native Plants of New Zealand. Oxford University Press 1991 ISBN 0-19-558229-2
An interesting and readable book on the useful plants of New Zealand.
[173] Crowe. A. Native Edible Plants of New Zealand. Hodder and Stoughton 1990 ISBN 0-340-508302
A very well written and illustrated book based on the authors own experiments with living on a native diet.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[225] Knees. S. The New Plantsman. Volume 2, 1995. Royal Horticultural Society 1995 ISBN 1352-4186
A quarterly magazine, it has articles on Coprosma species,

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Coprosma billardieri - Hook.f. Native Currant

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 03:07

Coprosma billardieri - Hook.f.
Native Currant
Author Hook.f. Botanical references 200
Family Rubiaceae Genus Coprosma
Synonyms Coprosma quadrifida - (Labill.)Robinson.
Known Hazards None known
Range Australia - New South Wales, Tasmania, Victoria.
Habitat Shady mountain gullies in moister forests to the montane zone[157].
Edibility Rating apple icon 1 (1-5) Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of shrub An evergreen Shrub growing to 3m.
It is hardy to zone 9. It is in leaf all year. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant is not self-fertile. The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Cultivated Beds; South Wall By; West Wall By;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses: Coffee.
Fruit - raw or cooked. Sweet and juicy[144, 157, 173], but with little flavour[225]. The red fruit is about 7mm in diameter[200, 225]. The roasted seed is an excellent coffee substitute[153].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
None known
Other Uses
Dye.
A yellow dye is obtained from the wood, it does not require a mordant[153].
Cultivation details
Requires a moist, very well-drained neutral to slightly acid soil in full sun or light shade[200]. Succeeds in most soils[225]. Somewhat intolerant of frost, this species is only likely to succeed outdoors in the mildest areas of Britain[200]. Plants are hardy to at least -7°c in Australian gardens[157] though this does not translate directly to British gardens due to our cooler summers and longer, colder and wetter winters. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200, 225]. Plants are tolerant of heavy clipping or pruning[225]. Plants are normally dioecious, though in some species the plants produce a few flowers of the opposite sex before the main flowering and a few hermaphrodite flowers are sometimes produced[225]. Male and female plants must usually be grown if seed is required.
Propagation
Seed - probably best sown as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse or cold frame[K]. Sow stored seed in spring in a cold frame[200]. Germination can be slow, often taking more than 12 months even when fresh seed is used[K]. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots. Grow on the plants for at least their first winter in a greenhouse and plant out in late spring or early summer. Give the plants some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors[K]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, autumn in a frame.
Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[144] Cribb. A. B. and J. W. Wild Food in Australia. Fontana 1976 ISBN 0-00-634436-4
A very good pocket guide.
[153] Brooker. S. G., Cambie. R. C. and Cooper. R. C. Economic Native Plants of New Zealand. Oxford University Press 1991 ISBN 0-19-558229-2
An interesting and readable book on the useful plants of New Zealand.
[157] Wrigley. J. W. and Fagg. M. Australian Native Plants. Collins. (Australia) 1988 ISBN 0-7322-0021-0
A lovely book, written in order to encourage Australian gardeners to grow their native plants. A little bit of information for the plant project.
[173] Crowe. A. Native Edible Plants of New Zealand. Hodder and Stoughton 1990 ISBN 0-340-508302
A very well written and illustrated book based on the authors own experiments with living on a native diet.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[225] Knees. S. The New Plantsman. Volume 2, 1995. Royal Horticultural Society 1995 ISBN 1352-4186
A quarterly magazine, it has articles on Coprosma species,

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Coprosma brunnea - (Kirk.)Cheesem.

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 03:08

Coprosma brunnea - (Kirk.)Cheesem.
Author (Kirk.)Cheesem. Botanical references 11, 44, 200
Family Rubiaceae Genus Coprosma
Synonyms Coprosma acerosa brunnea - Kirk.
Known Hazards None known
Range New Zealand.
Habitat Lowland to higher montane river beds, open grassland and rubbley places on North, South and Stewart Islands[44].
Edibility Rating apple iconapple icon 2 (1-5) Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of shrub An evergreen Shrub growing to 0.1m.
It is hardy to zone 8. It is in leaf all year, in flower from September to October. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant is not self-fertile. The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Ground Cover;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses: Coffee.
Fruit - raw[128]. Sweet, but with little flavour[225]. The fruit is white or blue and up to 8mm long x 6mm wide[200, 225]. The roasted seed is an excellent coffee substitute[153].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
None known
Other Uses
Dye; Ground cover.
A yellow dye is obtained from the wood, it does not require a mordant[153]. An excellent medium-height ground cover[200].
Cultivation details
Requires a moist, very well-drained neutral to slightly acid soil in full sun or light shade[200]. Succeeds in most soils, so long as they are well-drained[225]. Very tolerant of maritime exposure[200]. Somewhat intolerant of frost[200], this species is hardy at Kew but it prefers milder winters[11]. It does not succeed in the colder areas of the country[11]. Fruits are freely produced in Ireland[11]. Does well on a sunny ledge in the rock garden[11, 182]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200, 225], especially C. petriei[225]. There are several named forms, selected for their ornamental value[225]. Plants are normally dioecious, though in some species the plants produce a few flowers of the opposite sex before the main flowering and a few hermaphrodite flowers are sometimes produced[225]. Male and female plants must usually be grown if seed is required.
Propagation
Seed - probably best sown as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse or cold frame[K]. Sow stored seed in spring in a cold frame[200]. Germination can be slow, often taking more than 12 months even when fresh seed is used[K]. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots. Grow on the plants for at least their first winter in a greenhouse and plant out in late spring or early summer. Give the plants some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors[K]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, autumn in a frame.
Cultivars

No entries have been made for this species as yet.

Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[44] Allan. H. H. Flora of New Zealand. Government Printer, Wellington. 1961
The standard work, in 3 volumes though only the first two are of interest to the plant project. Very good on habitats.
[128] Laing. and Blackwell. Plants of New Zealand. Whitcombe and Tombs Ltd 1907
An old flora of New Zealand in a readable style. Some details of plant uses.
[153] Brooker. S. G., Cambie. R. C. and Cooper. R. C. Economic Native Plants of New Zealand. Oxford University Press 1991 ISBN 0-19-558229-2
An interesting and readable book on the useful plants of New Zealand.
[182] Thomas. G. S. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos. Murray 1992 ISBN 0-7195-5043-2
Contains a wide range of plants with a brief description, mainly of their ornamental value but also usually of cultivation details and varieties.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[225] Knees. S. The New Plantsman. Volume 2, 1995. Royal Horticultural Society 1995 ISBN 1352-4186
A quarterly magazine, it has articles on Coprosma species,

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Coprosma foetidissima - J.R.Forst.&G.Forst.

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 03:09

Coprosma foetidissima - J.R.Forst.&G.Forst.
Author J.R.Forst.&G.Forst. Botanical references 44, 200
Family Rubiaceae Genus Coprosma
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Range New Zealand.
Habitat From the coast to sub-alpine forests, shrubland and occasionally in grassland, North, South, Stewart and Aukland Islands[44].
Edibility Rating apple icon 1 (1-5) Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of shrub An evergreen Shrub growing to 5m.
It is hardy to zone 9. It is in leaf all year. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant is not self-fertile. The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; South Wall By; West Wall By;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses: Coffee.
Fruit - raw. Sweet, but with little flavour[225]. The orange fruit is about 8mm long[225]. The roasted seed is an excellent coffee substitute[153].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
None known
Other Uses
Dye.
A yellow dye is obtained from the wood, it does not require a mordant[153].
Scented Plants

Leaves: Crushed
The crushed leaves have a repellent smell that is said to have the odour of dung.

Cultivation details
Requires a moist, very well-drained neutral to slightly acid soil in full sun or light shade[200]. Succeeds in most soils[225]. Somewhat intolerant of frost, this species is only likely to succeed outdoors in the milder areas of Britain[200]. The plants are reasonably hardy in Essex[225]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200, 225]. Plants are tolerant of heavy clipping or pruning[225]. The crushed leaves have a repellent smell that is said to have the odour of dung[225]. Plants are normally dioecious, though in some species the plants produce a few flowers of the opposite sex before the main flowering and a few hermaphrodite flowers are sometimes produced[225]. Male and female plants must usually be grown if seed is required.
Propagation
Seed - probably best sown as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse or cold frame[K]. Sow stored seed in spring in a cold frame[200]. Germination can be slow, often taking more than 12 months even when fresh seed is used[K]. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots. Grow on the plants for at least their first winter in a greenhouse and plant out in late spring or early summer. Give the plants some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors[K]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, autumn in a frame.
Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[44] Allan. H. H. Flora of New Zealand. Government Printer, Wellington. 1961
The standard work, in 3 volumes though only the first two are of interest to the plant project. Very good on habitats.
[153] Brooker. S. G., Cambie. R. C. and Cooper. R. C. Economic Native Plants of New Zealand. Oxford University Press 1991 ISBN 0-19-558229-2
An interesting and readable book on the useful plants of New Zealand.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[225] Knees. S. The New Plantsman. Volume 2, 1995. Royal Horticultural Society 1995 ISBN 1352-4186
A quarterly magazine, it has articles on Coprosma species,

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Coprosma grandifolia - Hook.f.

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 03:10

Coprosma grandifolia - Hook.f.
Author Hook.f. Botanical references 44
Family Rubiaceae Genus Coprosma
Synonyms Coprosma australis - (A.Rich.)Robinson.
Known Hazards None known
Range New Zealand.
Habitat Lowland to lower montane marginal forests, Three Kings, North and South Islands south to latitude 42° 30'[44, 173].
Edibility Rating apple icon 1 (1-5) Medicinal Rating apple icon 1 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of shrub An evergreen Shrub growing to 5m.
It is hardy to zone 9. It is in leaf all year. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant is not self-fertile. The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; South Wall By; West Wall By;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses: Coffee.
Fruit - raw. Sweet and juicy[173], but with little flavour[225]. The reddish-orange fruit is about 8mm long[200, 225]. The roasted seed is an excellent coffee substitute[153].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Poultice; Skin; Stomachic.
Poultice, skin, stomachic. Treats cuts, sores, fevers, bruises and urinary complaints[61]. Sap from the inner bark has been used as a treatment for scabies[225].
Other Uses
Dye.
A yellow dye is obtained from the wood, it does not require a mordant[153].
Cultivation details
Requires a moist, very well-drained neutral to slightly acid soil in full sun or light shade[200]. Succeeds in most soils[225]. Somewhat intolerant of frost, this species is only likely to succeed outdoors in the milder areas of Britain[200]. A very ornamental plant[1], it hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200, 225]. Plants are tolerant of heavy trimming or pruning[225]. Plants are normally dioecious, though in some species the plants produce a few flowers of the opposite sex before the main flowering and a few hermaphrodite flowers are sometimes produced[225]. Male and female plants must usually be grown if seed is required.
Propagation
Seed - probably best sown as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse or cold frame[K]. Sow stored seed in spring in a cold frame[200]. Germination can be slow, often taking more than 12 months even when fresh seed is used[K]. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots. Grow on the plants for at least their first winter in a greenhouse and plant out in late spring or early summer. Give the plants some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors[K]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, autumn in a frame.
Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[44] Allan. H. H. Flora of New Zealand. Government Printer, Wellington. 1961
The standard work, in 3 volumes though only the first two are of interest to the plant project. Very good on habitats.
[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.
[153] Brooker. S. G., Cambie. R. C. and Cooper. R. C. Economic Native Plants of New Zealand. Oxford University Press 1991 ISBN 0-19-558229-2
An interesting and readable book on the useful plants of New Zealand.
[173] Crowe. A. Native Edible Plants of New Zealand. Hodder and Stoughton 1990 ISBN 0-340-508302
A very well written and illustrated book based on the authors own experiments with living on a native diet.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[225] Knees. S. The New Plantsman. Volume 2, 1995. Royal Horticultural Society 1995 ISBN 1352-4186
A quarterly magazine, it has articles on Coprosma species,

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Coprosma hirtella - Labill.

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 03:11

Coprosma hirtella - Labill.
Author Labill. Botanical references 154, 200
Family Rubiaceae Genus Coprosma
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Range Australia - New South Wales, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria.
Habitat Banks of streams, higher gullies and mountain sides to the sub-alpine zone[154].
Edibility Rating apple icon 1 (1-5) Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of shrub An evergreen Shrub growing to 2m.
It is hardy to zone 9. It is in leaf all year. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant is not self-fertile. The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; South Wall By; West Wall By;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses: Coffee.
Fruit - raw or cooked[154, 157]. Sweetish but not pleasant[144]. The dark red fruit is about 6mm in diameter[200, 225]. The roasted seed is an excellent coffee substitute[153].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
None known
Other Uses
Dye.
A yellow dye is obtained from the wood, it does not require a mordant[153].
Cultivation details
Requires a moist, very well-drained neutral to slightly acid soil in full sun or light shade[200]. Succeeds in most soils[225]. Somewhat intolerant of frost, this species is only likely to succeed outdoors in the milder areas of Britain[200]. Plants are hardy to at least -7°c in Australian gardens[157] though this cannot be translated directly to British gardens because of our cooler summers and longer, colder and wetter winters[K]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200, 225]. Plants are tolerant of heavy clipping or pruning[225]. Plants are normally dioecious, though in some species the plants produce a few flowers of the opposite sex before the main flowering and a few hermaphrodite flowers are sometimes produced[225]. Male and female plants must usually be grown if seed is required.
Propagation
Seed - probably best sown as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse or cold frame[K]. Sow stored seed in spring in a cold frame[200]. Germination can be slow, often taking more than 12 months even when fresh seed is used[K]. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots. Grow on the plants for at least their first winter in a greenhouse and plant out in late spring or early summer. Give the plants some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors[K]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, autumn in a frame.
Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[144] Cribb. A. B. and J. W. Wild Food in Australia. Fontana 1976 ISBN 0-00-634436-4
A very good pocket guide.
[153] Brooker. S. G., Cambie. R. C. and Cooper. R. C. Economic Native Plants of New Zealand. Oxford University Press 1991 ISBN 0-19-558229-2
An interesting and readable book on the useful plants of New Zealand.
[154] Ewart. A. J. Flora of Victoria. 0
A flora of eastern Australia, it is rather short on information that is useful to the plant project.
[157] Wrigley. J. W. and Fagg. M. Australian Native Plants. Collins. (Australia) 1988 ISBN 0-7322-0021-0
A lovely book, written in order to encourage Australian gardeners to grow their native plants. A little bit of information for the plant project.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[225] Knees. S. The New Plantsman. Volume 2, 1995. Royal Horticultural Society 1995 ISBN 1352-4186
A quarterly magazine, it has articles on Coprosma species,

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Re: Coffee Substitutes

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