Coffee Substitutes

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Coffee Substitutes

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 07:14




Coprosma serrulata -
Hook.f. ex Buch.















AuthorHook.f. ex Buch.Botanical references44, 200
FamilyRubiaceaeGenusCoprosma
Synonyms
Known HazardsNone known
RangeNew Zealand.
HabitatMontane to lower sub-alpine forest, shrubland and grassland, from latitude 41° south and southwards on South Island[44].
Edibility Ratingapple icon 1 (1-5)Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of shrub
An evergreen Shrub growing to 0.6m.
It is hardy to zone 8. It is in leaf all year. The flowers are
dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one
sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must
be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind.
The plant is not self-fertile.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil.
The plant prefers acid and neutral soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires moist soil.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; South Wall By; West Wall By;

Edible Uses



Edible Parts: Fruit.

Edible Uses: Coffee.


Fruit - raw or cooked. Sweet, but little flavour[225]. The orange-red fruits are about 8mm in diameter[225].
The roasted seed is an excellent coffee substitute[153].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.


None known


Other Uses


Dye.


A yellow dye is obtained from the wood, it does not require a mordant[153].

Cultivation details


Requires a moist, very well-drained neutral to slightly acid soil in
full sun or light shade[200]. Succeeds in most soils, so long as they
are well-drained[225].
Somewhat intolerant of frost, this species is only likely to succeed
outdoors in the milder areas of Britain[200]. Plants are proving to be
hardy in an Essex garden[225].
Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200, 225].
Plants are normally dioecious, though in some species the plants
produce a few flowers of the opposite sex before the main flowering and
a few hermaphrodite flowers are sometimes produced[225]. Male and
female plants must usually be grown if seed is required.

Propagation



Seed - probably best sown as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse or cold
frame[K]. Sow stored seed in spring in a cold frame[200]. Germination
can be slow, often taking more than 12 months even when fresh seed is
used[K]. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out
into individual pots. Grow on the plants for at least their first
winter in a greenhouse and plant out in late spring or early summer.
Give the plants some protection from the cold for their first winter
outdoors[K].
Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, autumn in a frame.


Links


References

[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[44] Allan. H. H. Flora of New Zealand. Government Printer, Wellington. 1961
The standard work, in 3 volumes though only the first two are of interest to the plant project. Very good on habitats.

[153] Brooker. S. G., Cambie. R. C. and Cooper. R. C. Economic Native Plants of New Zealand. Oxford University Press 1991 ISBN 0-19-558229-2
An interesting and readable book on the useful plants of New Zealand.


[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

[225] Knees. S. The New Plantsman. Volume 2, 1995. Royal Horticultural Society 1995 ISBN 1352-4186
A quarterly magazine, it has articles on Coprosma species,



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Coprosma virescens - Petrie.

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 07:16




Coprosma virescens -
Petrie.















AuthorPetrie.Botanical references44, 200
FamilyRubiaceaeGenusCoprosma
Synonyms
Known HazardsNone known
RangeNew Zealand.
HabitatLowland to lower montane forest and shrubland, North and South Islands[44].
Edibility Ratingapple icon 1 (1-5)Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of shrub
An evergreen Shrub growing to 2m.
It is hardy to zone 8. It is in leaf all year. The flowers are
dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one
sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must
be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind.
The plant is not self-fertile.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil.
The plant prefers acid and neutral soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires moist soil.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; South Wall By; West Wall By;

Edible Uses



Edible Parts: Fruit.

Edible Uses: Coffee.


Fruit - raw or cooked. Sweet, but with little flavour[225]. The white fruit is about 5mm in diameter[225].
The roasted seed is an excellent coffee substitute[153].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.


None known


Other Uses


Dye.


A yellow dye is obtained from the wood, it does not require a mordant[153].

Cultivation details


Requires a moist, very well-drained neutral to slightly acid soil in
full sun or light shade[200]. Succeeds in most soils[225].
Somewhat intolerant of frost, this species is only likely to succeed
outdoors in the mildest areas of Britain[200]. Another report says that
it is proving to be hardy in an Essex garden[225].
Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200, 225].
Plants are tolerant of heavy clipping or pruning[225].
Plants are normally dioecious, though in some species the plants
produce a few flowers of the opposite sex before the main flowering and
a few hermaphrodite flowers are sometimes produced[225]. Male and
female plants must usually be grown if seed is required.

Propagation



Seed - probably best sown as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse or cold
frame[K]. Sow stored seed in spring in a cold frame[200]. Germination
can be slow, often taking more than 12 months even when fresh seed is
used[K]. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out
into individual pots. Grow on the plants for at least their first
winter in a greenhouse and plant out in late spring or early summer.
Give the plants some protection from the cold for their first winter
outdoors[K].
Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, autumn in a frame.


Links


References

[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[44] Allan. H. H. Flora of New Zealand. Government Printer, Wellington. 1961
The standard work, in 3 volumes though only the first two are of interest to the plant project. Very good on habitats.

[153] Brooker. S. G., Cambie. R. C. and Cooper. R. C. Economic Native Plants of New Zealand. Oxford University Press 1991 ISBN 0-19-558229-2
An interesting and readable book on the useful plants of New Zealand.


[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

[225] Knees. S. The New Plantsman. Volume 2, 1995. Royal Horticultural Society 1995 ISBN 1352-4186
A quarterly magazine, it has articles on Coprosma species,



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Coreopsis tinctoria - Nutt. Coreopsis

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 07:18




Coreopsis tinctoria -
Nutt.


Coreopsis















AuthorNutt.Botanical references60, 200
FamilyCompositaeGenusCoreopsis
SynonymsCoreopsis cardaminifolia - (DC.)Nutt.

Known HazardsNone known
RangeCentral and Eastern N. America - Minnesota to Texas.
HabitatMoist low ground[60]. Roadsides and waste places[244].
Edibility Ratingapple icon 1 (1-5)Medicinal Ratingapple icon 1 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Annual growing to 0.75m by 0.2m.

It is hardy to zone 0. It is in leaf from April to November, in flower
from June to September, and the seeds ripen from June to October. The
flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are
pollinated by Bees.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It cannot grow in the shade.
It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.


Habitats


Cultivated Beds;

Edible Uses


Edible Uses: Coffee.


A tea can be made from the dried plant[257]. It was used as a coffee substitute[257].

Medicinal Uses



Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Astringent; Emetic.


A tea made from the roots is emetic and is also used in the treatment of diarrhoea[222, 257].
An infusion of the whole plant without the root has been used by women desiring a female baby[257].

Other Uses


Dye.

A yellow (red with an acid mordant) dye is obtained from the flowers
and is used to dye cloth[169, 244, 257]. It is not very good when used
on plant fibres[169]. The flowers can be dried for later use[169].

Cultivation details



Succeeds in ordinary garden soil[1]. Prefers a fertile well-drained
moisture retentive medium soil[111, 200]. Does well in sandy
soils[188]. Requires a sunny position[111, 200]. Established plants are
drought resistant[1].
A good bee plant[200].

Propagation



Seed - sow March in a cold frame. When they are large enough to handle,
prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the
summer[111].
If you have sufficient seed then it can also be sown in situ outdoors.

Links


References

[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive
listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been
replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).


[60] Hitchcock. C. L. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press 1955
A
standard flora for Western N. America with lots of information on
habitat etc. Five large volumes, it is not for the casual reader.

[111] Sanders. T. W. Popular Hardy Perennials. Collingridge 1926
A fairly wide range of perennial plants that can be grown in Britain and how to grow them.

[169] Buchanan. R. A Weavers Garden. 0
Covers all aspects of growing your own clothes, from fibre plants to dyes.


[188] Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. 1990 ISBN 0-86318-386-7
Excellent range of photographs, some cultivation details but very little information on plant uses.

[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

[222] Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1990 ISBN 0395467225
A
concise book dealing with almost 500 species. A line drawing of each
plant is included plus colour photographs of about 100 species. Very
good as a field guide, it only gives brief details about the plants
medicinal properties.


[244] Phillips. R. & Foy. N. Herbs Pan Books Ltd. London. 1990 ISBN 0-330-30725-8
Deals
with all types of herbs including medicinal, culinary, scented and dye
plants. Excellent photographs with quite good information on each plant.

[257] Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. 1998 ISBN 0-88192-453-9
Very
comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent
bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to
further information. Not for the casual reader.



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Cornus mas - L. Cornelian Cherry

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 12:33




Cornus mas -
L.


Cornelian Cherry















AuthorL.Botanical references11, 200
FamilyCornaceaeGenusCornus
SynonymsCornus mascula - L.

Known HazardsNone known
RangeEurope. Naturalized in Britain[17].
HabitatWoodlands, especially in calcareous soils[7, 13].
Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 4 (1-5)Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of shrub
A decidious Shrub growing to 5m by 5m at a medium rate.

It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from
February to March, and the seeds ripen in September. The flowers are
hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by
Bees.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires moist soil.
The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Hedge;
Cultivars: (as above except)
'Jolico'
'Macrocarpa'
'Nana'
'Variegata'

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Fruit.


Edible Uses: Coffee; Oil.

Fruit - raw, dried or used in preserves[2, 3, 7, 9, 13, 183]. Juicy,
with a nice acid flavour[11]. The fully ripe fruit has a somewhat
plum-like flavour and texture and is very nice eating, but the unripe
fruit is rather astringent[K]. It is rather low in pectin and so needs
to be used with other fruit when making jam[9]. At one time the fruit
was kept in brine and used like olives[183]. The fruit is a reasonable
size, up to 15mm long, with a single large seed[K].
A small amount of edible oil can be extracted from the seeds[7].
Seeds are roasted, ground into a powder and used as a coffee
substitute[183].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Astringent; Febrifuge; Nutritive.


The bark and the fruit are astringent, febrifuge and nutritive[7]. The
astringent fruit is a good treatment for bowel complaints and fevers,
whilst it is also used in the treatment of cholera[4, 254].
The flowers are used in the treatment of diarrhoea[4].

Other Uses


Dye; Hedge; Oil; Tannin; Wood.


An oil is obtained from the seed[7].
A dye is obtained from the bark[3, 7]. No more details are given.
Another report says that a red dye is obtained from the plant, but does
not say which part of the plant[4].
The leaves are a good source of tannin[7].
Wood - very hard, it is highly valued by turners[7]. The wood is
heavier than water and does not float[7]. It is used for tools, machine
parts, etc[7, 11, 13, 61].

Cultivation details



An easily grown plant, it succeeds in any soil of good or moderate
fertility[1], ranging from acid to shallow chalk[200]. Grows well in
heavy clay soils. Prefers a moist soil[108] and a sunny position[15]
but also succeeds in light shade[188]. Plants are fairly wind
resistant[K]. Plants grow and crop well in pots.
A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to about -25°c[184].
At one time the cornelian cherry was frequently cultivated for its
edible fruit, though it has fallen into virtual disuse as a fruit crop
in most areas[3]. It is still being cultivated in parts of C. Europe
and there are some named varieties[183]. 'Macrocarpa' has larger fruits
than the type[182]. 'Nana' is a dwarf form, derived from a
yellow-fruited clone[182]. 'Variegata' has been seen on a number of
occasions with very large crops of fruit, even in years when the type
species has not fruited well[K]. 'Jolico' has well-flavoured fruits 3
times larger than the species. There are also a number of cultivars
with yellow, white and purplish fruit.
Seedlings can take up to 20 years to come into fruit. Plants produced
from cuttings come into fruit when much younger, though they do not
live as long as the seedlings.
A very ornamental plant[1] it flowers quite early in the year and is a
valuable early food for bees[13, 108].
Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200].

Propagation



Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame or in an
outdoors seedbed if there is sufficient seed[80, 113]. The seed must be
separated from the fruit flesh since this contains germination
inhibitors[80, 164]. Stored seed should be cold stratified for 3 - 4
months and sown as early as possible in the year[164]. Scarification
may also help as may a period of warm stratification before the cold
stratification[80, 164]. Germination, especially of stored seed, can be
very slow, taking 18 months or more[164]. Prick out the seedlings of
cold-frame sown seeds into individual pots as soon as they are large
enough to handle and grow the plants on for their first winter in a
greenhouse, planting out in the spring after the last expected frosts.
Cuttings of half-ripe side shoots, July/August in a frame[188].
Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, taken with a heel
if possible, autumn in a cold frame. High percentage[78].
Layering of new growth in June/July. Takes 9 months[78].

Cultivars


'Jolico'
The fruits are well-flavoured and up to 3 times larger than the species.
A self-sterile clone, it requires pollination by another cultivar if fruit is to be formed.
'Macrocarpa'
This cultivar has larger fruits than the type[182].
'Nana'
A dwarf form, it is derived from a yellow-fruited clone[182].
'Pioneer'
The large, dark red, pear-shaped fruit is up to 35mm long. It is juicy, sweet and aromatic.
'Variegata'
Smaller-growing than the species, probably reaching no more than 2
metres tall and wide. It has considerable leaf variegation, is less
tough than the species and does best in a sunny sheltered position.
This cultivar seems to fruit well each year, producing full-sized
well-flavoured fruits with less astringency than the species[K].

Links


This plant is also mentioned in the following PFAF articles:
Alternative fruits, Edible Shrubs, Woodland Garden Plants, The Woodland Edge Garden.

References

[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive
listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been
replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).


[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.

[3] Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit. David and Charles 1972 ISBN 0-7153-5531-7
A
very readable book with information on about 100 species that can be
grown in Britain (some in greenhouses) and details on how to grow and
use them.

[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.


[7] Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald 1984 ISBN 0-356-10541-5
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.

[9] Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn 1981 ISBN 0-600-37216-2
Covers plants in Europe. a drawing of each plant, quite a bit of interesting information.

[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.


[13] Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants. Hamlyn 1975 ISBN 0-600-33545-3
Very interesting reading, giving some details of plant uses and quite a lot of folk-lore.

[15] Bryan. J. and Castle. C. Edible Ornamental Garden. Pitman Publishing 1976 ISBN 0-273-00098-5
A small book with interesting ideas for edible plants in the ornamental garden.

[17] Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press 1962
A very comprehensive flora, the standard reference book but it has no pictures.


[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget
the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a
very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very
brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.

[78] Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co 1948
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.

[80] McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books 1985 ISBN 0-901361-21-6
Does not deal with many species but it is very comprehensive on those that it does cover. Not for casual reading.


[108] International Bee Research Association. Garden Plants Valuable to Bees. International Bee Research Association. 1981
The title says it all.

[113] Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press 1987 ISBN 0942375009
A very detailed book on propagating trees. Not for the casual reader.

[164] Bird. R. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 4. Thompson and Morgan. 1990
Very
readable magazine with lots of information on propagation. A good
article on Yuccas, one on Sagebrush (Artemesia spp) and another on
Chaerophyllum bulbosum.


[182] Thomas. G. S. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos. Murray 1992 ISBN 0-7195-5043-2
Contains
a wide range of plants with a brief description, mainly of their
ornamental value but also usually of cultivation details and varieties.

[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent.
Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food
plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N.
American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other
nurseries from around the world.

[184] Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Shrubs. Pan Books 1989 ISBN 0-330-30258-2
Excellent photographs and a terse description of 1900 species and cultivars.


[188] Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. 1990 ISBN 0-86318-386-7
Excellent range of photographs, some cultivation details but very little information on plant uses.

[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

[254] Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London 1996 ISBN 9-780751-303148
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.



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Crataegus laevigata - (Poir.)DC. Midland Hawthorn

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 12:44



Crataegus laevigata -
(Poir.)DC.


Midland Hawthorn



Author(Poir.)DC.
Botanical references11, 17, 200

FamilyRosaceae
GenusCrataegus
SynonymsCrataegus oxyacantha - L. emend Jacq.

Crataegus oxyacanthoides - Thuillier.


Known HazardsNone known

RangeEurope, including Britain, from Sweden to Spain, eastwards to Poland.
HabitatWoods,
hedges, thickets etc on clays and heavy loams, especially in E.
Britain[17, 186]. Where found in hedges it is often as a relict of
ancient woodland[186].
Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 5 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man

icon of shrub
A decidious Shrub growing to 6m by 6m at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from
April to May, and the seeds ripen from September to November. The
flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are
pollinated by Midges.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil.
It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires moist or wet soil and can tolerate drought.
The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.
It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Secondary; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Deep Shade; Hedge;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Fruit; Leaves.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Tea.


Fruit - raw or cooked[2, 9, 12, 183]. A dry and mealy texture, they
are not very appetizing[K]. The fruit can be used for jams and
preserves[9]. The fruit pulp can be dried, ground into a meal and mixed
with flour in making bread etc[46, 183]. The fruit is about 1cm in
diameter[200]. There are up to five fairly large seeds in the centre of
the fruit, these often stick together and so the effect is of eating a
cherry-like fruit with a single seed[K].
Young leaves and young shoots - raw[5, 177]. A tasty nibble, they are
nice in a salad[K].
Young leaves are a tea substitute[21, 46, 177, 183].
The roasted seed is a coffee substitute[12, 21, 183].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antispasmodic; Astringent; Cardiotonic; Diuretic; Hypotensive; Sedative; Tonic; Vasodilator.


Hawthorn is an extremely valuable medicinal herb. It is used mainly for
treating disorders of the heart and circulation system, especially
angina[254]. Western herbalists consider it a 'food for the heart', it
increases the blood flow to the heart muscles and restores normal heart
beat[254]. This effect is brought about by the presence of
bioflavonoids in the fruit, these bioflavonoids are also strongly
antioxidant, helping to prevent or reduce degeneration of the blood
vessels[254].
The fruit is antispasmodic, cardiac, diuretic, sedative, tonic and
vasodilator[4, 9, 21, 46, 165]. Both the fruits and flowers of
hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and
modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a
hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart
tonic[222]. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak
heart combined with high blood pressure[222], they are also used to
treat a heart muscle weakened by age, for inflammation of the heart
muscle, arteriosclerosis and for nervous heart problems[21]. Prolonged
use is necessary for the treatment to be efficacious[222]. It is
normally used either as a tea or a tincture[222].
Hawthorn is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) to enhance poor
memory, working by improving the blood supply to the brain[254].
The bark is astringent and has been used in the treatment of malaria
and other fevers[7].
The roots are said to stimulate the arteries of the heart[218].

Other Uses


Charcoal; Fuel; Hedge; Rootstock; Wood.

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Midland Hawthorn cont..d

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 12:44


A good hedge plant, it is very tolerant of neglect and is able to
regenerate if cut back severely, it makes a good thorny stock-proof
barrier[186] and resists very strong winds. It can be used in layered
hedges[11, 29].
The plant is often used as a rootstock for several species of garden
fruit such as the medlar (Mespilus germanica) and the pear (Pyrus
communis sativa)[4].
Wood - very hard and tough but difficult to work[7, 46, 61]. It has a
fine grain and takes a beautiful polish but is seldom large enough to
be of great value[4]. It is used for tool handles and making small
wooden articles etc[4, 7, 46, 61]. The wood is valued in turning and
makes an excellent fuel, giving out a lot of heat, more so even than
oak wood[4]. Charcoal made from the wood is said to be able to melt pig
iron without the aid of a blast[4].

Scented Plants


Flowers: Fresh
The flowers have an unpleasant smell like decaying fish, though when freshly open they also have a pleasant balsamic undertone.

Cultivation details



A very easily grown plant, it prefers a well-drained moisture retentive
loamy soil but is not at all fussy[11, 200]. Once established, it
succeeds in excessively moist soils and also tolerates drought[200]. It
grows well on a chalk soil and also in heavy clay soils[200]. A
position in full sun is best when plants are being grown for their
fruit, they also succeed in semi-shade though fruit yields and quality
will be lower in such a position[11, 200]. Most members of this genus
succeed in exposed positions, they also tolerate atmospheric
pollution[200].. A true woodland species, it grows well in quite dense
shade[17, 186].
A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to at least
-18°c[202].
Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200]. Closely allied
to C. monogyna, it often hybridizes with that species in the wild when
growing in its proximity[186].
There are many named forms selected for their ornamental value[200].
Seedling trees take from 5 - 8 years before they start bearing fruit,
though grafted trees will often flower heavily in their third year[K].
The flowers have a foetid smell somewhat like decaying fish. This
attracts midges which are the main means of fertilization. When freshly
open, the flowers have more pleasant scent with balsamic
undertones[245].
Seedlings should not be left in a seedbed for more than 2 years without
being transplanted[11].
An important food plant for the larvae of many lepidoptera species[30].

Propagation



Seed - this is best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold
frame, some of the seed will germinate in the spring, though most will
probably take another year. Stored seed can be very slow and erratic to
germinate, it should be warm stratified for 3 months at 15°c and then
cold stratified for another 3 months at 4°c[164]. It may still take
another 18 months to germinate[78]. Scarifying the seed before
stratifying it might reduce this time[80]. Fermenting the seed for a
few days in its own pulp may also speed up the germination process[K].
Another possibility is to harvest the seed 'green' (as soon as the
embryo has fully developed but before the seedcoat hardens) and sow it
immediately in a cold frame. If timed well, it can germinate in the
spring[80]. If you are only growing small quantities of plants, it is
best to pot up the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle
and grow them on in individual pots for their first year, planting them
out in late spring into nursery beds or their final positions. When
growing larger quantities, it might be best to sow them directly
outdoors in a seedbed, but with protection from mice and other
seed-eating creatures. Grow them on in the seedbed until large enough
to plant out, but undercut the roots if they are to be left undisturbed
for more than two years.

Cultivars



No entries have been made for this species as yet.

Links


This plant is also mentioned in the following PFAF articles:
Hedges and their uses.

References

[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.


[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.

[5] Mabey. R. Food for Free. Collins 1974 ISBN 0-00-219060-5
Edible
wild plants found in Britain. Fairly comprehensive, very few pictures
and rather optimistic on the desirability of some of the plants.

[7] Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald 1984 ISBN 0-356-10541-5
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.


[9] Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn 1981 ISBN 0-600-37216-2
Covers plants in Europe. a drawing of each plant, quite a bit of interesting information.

[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.

[12] Loewenfeld. C. and Back. P. Britain's Wild Larder. David and Charles 0 ISBN 0-7153-7971-2
A handy pocket guide.


[17] Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press 1962
A very comprehensive flora, the standard reference book but it has no pictures.

[21] Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books 1983 ISBN 0-553-23827-2
Lots of information tightly crammed into a fairly small book.

[29] Shepherd. F.W. Hedges and Screens. Royal Horticultural Society. 1974 ISBN 0900629649
A small but informative booklet giving details of all the hedging plants being grown in the R.H.S. gardens at Wisley in Surrey.


[30] Carter D. Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe. Pan 1982 ISBN 0-330-26642-x
An excellent book on Lepidoptera, it also lists their favourite food plants.

[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An
excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short
descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the
plants. Not for the casual reader.

[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget
the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a
very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very
brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.


[78] Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co 1948
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.

[80] McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books 1985 ISBN 0-901361-21-6
Does not deal with many species but it is very comprehensive on those that it does cover. Not for casual reading.

[164] Bird. R. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 4. Thompson and Morgan. 1990
Very
readable magazine with lots of information on propagation. A good
article on Yuccas, one on Sagebrush (Artemesia spp) and another on
Chaerophyllum bulbosum.


[165] Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. 0
An excellent small herbal.

[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.

[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent.
Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food
plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N.
American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other
nurseries from around the world.


[186] Beckett. G. and K. Planting Native Trees and Shrubs. Jarrold 1979
An excellent guide to native British trees and shrubs with lots of details about the plants.

[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

[202] Davis. B. Climbers and Wall Shrubs. Viking. 1990 ISBN 0-670-82929-3
Contains
information on 2,000 species and cultivars, giving details of
cultivation requirements. The text is terse but informative.


[218] Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. 1985 ISBN 0-917256-20-4
Details
of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their
uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents.
Heavy going if you are not into the subject.

[222] Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1990 ISBN 0395467225
A
concise book dealing with almost 500 species. A line drawing of each
plant is included plus colour photographs of about 100 species. Very
good as a field guide, it only gives brief details about the plants
medicinal properties.


[245] Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. 1994 ISBN 0-7090-5440-8
An
excellent, comprehensive book on scented plants giving a few other
plant uses and brief cultivation details. There are no illustrations.

[254] Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London 1996 ISBN 9-780751-303148
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.



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Crataegus monogyna - Jacq. Hawthorn

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 12:52




Crataegus monogyna -
Jacq.


Hawthorn



AuthorJacq.
Botanical references11, 17, 200

FamilyRosaceae
GenusCrataegus
Synonyms

Known HazardsNone known
RangeEurope, including Britain, absent from Iceland, south and west the the Mediterranean and Afghanistan
HabitatWoods, hedges, thickets etc, on most soils except wet peat and poor acid sands[9, 17].

Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 5 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of shrub
A decidious Shrub growing to 6m by 6m at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May
to June, and the seeds ripen from September to November. The flowers
are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated
by Midges.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid and very alkaline soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires moist or wet soil and can tolerate drought.
The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.
It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.


Habitats



Woodland Garden; Secondary; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Hedge;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Flowers; Fruit; Leaves.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Tea.


Fruit - raw or cooked[2, 12]. Not very appetizing raw[9, K], it is
normally used for making jams and preserves[9, 183]. The fruit can be
dried, ground, mixed with flour and used for making bread etc[46]. The
fruit is about 1cm in diameter[200]. There are up to five fairly large
seeds in the centre of the fruit, these often stick together and so the
effect is of eating a cherry-like fruit with a single seed[K].
Young shoots - raw[5, 177]. A pleasant nutty flavour[144], they are a
good addition to the salad bowl[183]. A tea is made from the dried
leaves[21, 46, 177, 183], it is a china tea substitute. The roasted
seeds are a coffee substitute[12, 21, 46, 177].
The flowers are used in syrups and sweet puddings[183].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antispasmodic; Astringent; Cardiotonic; Diuretic; Hypotensive; Sedative; Tonic; Vasodilator.


Hawthorn is an extremely valuable medicinal herb. It is used mainly for
treating disorders of the heart and circulation system, especially
angina[254]. Western herbalists consider it a 'food for the heart', it
increases the blood flow to the heart muscles and restores normal heart
beat[254]. This effect is brought about by the presence of
bioflavonoids in the fruit, these bioflavonoids are also strongly
antioxidant, helping to prevent or reduce degeneration of the blood
vessels[254].
The fruit is antispasmodic, cardiac, diuretic, sedative, tonic and
vasodilator[4, 9, 21, 46, 165]. Both the fruits and flowers of
hawthorns are well-known in herbal folk medicine as a heart tonic and
modern research has borne out this use. The fruits and flowers have a
hypotensive effect as well as acting as a direct and mild heart
tonic[222]. They are especially indicated in the treatment of weak
heart combined with high blood pressure[222], they are also used to
treat a heart muscle weakened by age, for inflammation of the heart
muscle, arteriosclerosis and for nervous heart problems[21]. Prolonged
use is necessary for the treatment to be efficacious[222]. It is
normally used either as a tea or a tincture[222].
Hawthorn is combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) to enhance poor
memory, working by improving the blood supply to the brain[254].
The bark is astringent and has been used in the treatment of malaria
and other fevers[7].
The roots are said to stimulate the arteries of the heart[218].

Other Uses


Fuel; Hedge; Wood.


A good hedge plant, it is very tolerant of being cut and of neglect and
is able to regenerate if cut back severely, it makes a good thorny
stock-proof barrier[186] and resists very strong winds. It is often
used in layered hedges[11, 29]. The cultivar 'Stricta' has made a very
good hedge 3.5 metres tall in an exposed maritime position at Rosewarne
in N. Cornwall[K].
Wood - very hard and tough, difficult to work. Used for tool handles
etc. Valued in turning[7, 46, 61]. A good fuel, giving out a lot of
heat[4].

Scented Plants



Flowers: Fresh
The flowers have an unpleasant smell like decaying fish, though when freshly open they also have a pleasant balsamic undertone.

Cultivation details



A very easily grown plant, it prefers a well-drained moisture retentive
loamy soil but is not at all fussy[11, 200]. Succeeds in all but the
very poorest acid soils[186]. Once established, it succeeds in
excessively moist soils and also tolerates drought[200]. It grows well
on a chalk soil and also in heavy clay soils[200]. A position in full
sun is best when plants are being grown for their fruit, they also
succeed in semi-shade though fruit yields and quality will be lower in
such a position[11, 200]. Most members of this genus succeed in exposed
positions, they also tolerate atmospheric pollution[200].
A very hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to at least
-18°c[202].
Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus and with C.
laevigata in the wild[186, 200].
There are many named forms selected for their ornamental value[200].
Seedling trees take from 5 - 8 years before they start bearing fruit,
though grafted trees will often flower heavily in their third year[K].
The flowers have a foetid smell somewhat like decaying fish. This
attracts midges which are the main means of fertilization. When freshly
open, the flowers have more pleasant scent with balsamic
undertones[245].
Seedlings should not be left in a seedbed for more than 2 years without
being transplanted[11]. In heavier shade they quickly become drawn and
leggy, eventually dying[186].
An important food plant for the caterpillars of many lepidoptera
species[30], there are 149 insect species associated with this
tree[24]. Plants are susceptible to fireblight[200].


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Crataegus monogyna - Jacq. Hawthorn cont..d

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 12:55


Propagation



Seed - this is best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold
frame, some of the seed will germinate in the spring, though most will
probably take another year. Stored seed can be very slow and erratic to
germinate, it should be warm stratified for 3 months at 15°c and then
cold stratified for another 3 months at 4°c[164]. It may still take
another 18 months to germinate[78]. Scarifying the seed before
stratifying it might reduce this time[80]. Fermenting the seed for a
few days in its own pulp may also speed up the germination process[K].
Another possibility is to harvest the seed 'green' (as soon as the
embryo has fully developed but before the seedcoat hardens) and sow it
immediately in a cold frame. If timed well, it can germinate in the
spring[80]. If you are only growing small quantities of plants, it is
best to pot up the seedlings as soon as they are large enough to handle
and grow them on in individual pots for their first year, planting them
out in late spring into nursery beds or their final positions. When
growing larger quantities, it might be best to sow them directly
outdoors in a seedbed, but with protection from mice and other
seed-eating creatures. Grow them on in the seedbed until large enough
to plant out, but undercut the roots if they are to be left undisturbed
for more than two years.

Cultivars


'Stricta'
This cultivar has a very erect habit of growth[11]. It has made a
very good hedge in an area exposed to strong maritime winds[K].

Links


This plant is also mentioned in the following PFAF articles:
Hedges and their uses.

References

[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.


[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.

[5] Mabey. R. Food for Free. Collins 1974 ISBN 0-00-219060-5
Edible
wild plants found in Britain. Fairly comprehensive, very few pictures
and rather optimistic on the desirability of some of the plants.

[7] Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald 1984 ISBN 0-356-10541-5
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.


[9] Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn 1981 ISBN 0-600-37216-2
Covers plants in Europe. a drawing of each plant, quite a bit of interesting information.

[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.

[12] Loewenfeld. C. and Back. P. Britain's Wild Larder. David and Charles 0 ISBN 0-7153-7971-2
A handy pocket guide.


[17] Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press 1962
A very comprehensive flora, the standard reference book but it has no pictures.

[21] Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books 1983 ISBN 0-553-23827-2
Lots of information tightly crammed into a fairly small book.

[24] Baines. C. Making a Wildlife Garden. 0
Fairly good with lots of ideas about creating wildlife areas in the garden.


[29] Shepherd. F.W. Hedges and Screens. Royal Horticultural Society. 1974 ISBN 0900629649
A small but informative booklet giving details of all the hedging plants being grown in the R.H.S. gardens at Wisley in Surrey.

[30] Carter D. Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe. Pan 1982 ISBN 0-330-26642-x
An excellent book on Lepidoptera, it also lists their favourite food plants.

[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An
excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short
descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the
plants. Not for the casual reader.


[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget
the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a
very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very
brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.

[78] Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co 1948
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.

[80] McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books 1985 ISBN 0-901361-21-6
Does not deal with many species but it is very comprehensive on those that it does cover. Not for casual reading.


[144] Cribb. A. B. and J. W. Wild Food in Australia. Fontana 1976 ISBN 0-00-634436-4
A very good pocket guide.

[164] Bird. R. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 4. Thompson and Morgan. 1990
Very
readable magazine with lots of information on propagation. A good
article on Yuccas, one on Sagebrush (Artemesia spp) and another on
Chaerophyllum bulbosum.

[165] Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. 0
An excellent small herbal.


[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.

[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent.
Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food
plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N.
American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other
nurseries from around the world.

[186] Beckett. G. and K. Planting Native Trees and Shrubs. Jarrold 1979
An excellent guide to native British trees and shrubs with lots of details about the plants.


[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

[202] Davis. B. Climbers and Wall Shrubs. Viking. 1990 ISBN 0-670-82929-3
Contains
information on 2,000 species and cultivars, giving details of
cultivation requirements. The text is terse but informative.

[218] Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. 1985 ISBN 0-917256-20-4
Details
of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their
uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents.
Heavy going if you are not into the subject.


[222] Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1990 ISBN 0395467225
A
concise book dealing with almost 500 species. A line drawing of each
plant is included plus colour photographs of about 100 species. Very
good as a field guide, it only gives brief details about the plants
medicinal properties.

[245] Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. 1994 ISBN 0-7090-5440-8
An
excellent, comprehensive book on scented plants giving a few other
plant uses and brief cultivation details. There are no illustrations.


[254] Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London 1996 ISBN 9-780751-303148
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.



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Cyperus esculentus - L. Tiger Nut

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 12:59




Cyperus esculentus -
L.


Tiger Nut



AuthorL.
Botanical references50, 200

FamilyCyperaceae
GenusCyperus
Synonyms

Known HazardsNone known
RangeOriginal range is obscure, the plant is a widespread weed from the Tropics to the Temperate zone.
HabitatMuddy soil and shallow water, also as a weed of cultivated ground in southern Europe[50].

Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 4 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Perennial growing to 0.9m at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone 8. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It cannot grow in the shade.
It requires moist or wet soil.


Habitats



Bog Garden; Cultivated Beds;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Leaves; Root.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Oil.


Tuber - raw, cooked or dried and ground into a powder[2, 4, 55, 62, 85,
95, 183].They are also used in confectionery[183]. A delicious nut-like
flavour[1, 61, 183] but rather chewy and with a tough skin[K]. They
taste best when dried[27]. They can be cooked in barley water to give
them a sweet flavour and then be used as a dessert nut[183]. A
refreshing beverage is made by mixing the ground tubers with water,
cinnamon, sugar, vanilla and ice[183]. The ground up tuber can also be
made into a plant milk with water, wheat and sugar[183].
An edible oil is obtained from the tuber. It is considered to be a
superior oil that compares favourably with olive oil[183].
The roasted tubers are a coffee substitute[2, 62, 183].
The base of the plant can be used in salads[183]. (This probably means
the base of the leaf stems[K])


Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Aphrodisiac; Carminative; Digestive; Diuretic; Emmenagogue; Stimulant; Tonic.


Tiger nuts are regarded as a digestive tonic, having a heating and
drying effect on the digestive system and alleviating flatulence[254].
They also promote urine production and menstruation[254].
The tubers are said to be aphrodisiac, carminative, diuretic,
emmenagogue, stimulant and tonic[240, 254]. In Ayurvedic medicine they
are used in the treatment of flatulence, indigestion, colic, diarrhoea,
dysentery, debility and excessive thirst[254].

Other Uses


Oil; Weaving.


The tubers contain up to 30% of a non-drying oil, it is used in cooking
and in making soap[57, 74, 117, 141]. It does not solidify at 0°c and
stores well without going rancid[74].
The leaves can be used for weaving hats and matting etc[178].

Cultivation details



Prefers a moist sandy loam[95, 117].
Plants are hardy to about -15°c[200].
The chufa, or tiger nut, is often cultivated for its edible tuber in
warm temperate and tropical zones, there is a cultivated variety, var.
sativus, that produces larger tubers[50]. We have had lots of problems
with growing this cultivated form. Once the tubers come into growth
then they normally grow vigorously, but the difficulty is getting them
to come into growth. We harvest the tubers in the autumn and store them
in moist sand, replanting them in the spring. However, they rarely come
into new growth until mid to late summer which gives them too short a
growing season to produce much of a crop[K]. We need to find a
satisfactory way of storing the tubers and exciting them back into
growth[K].
In warmer climates this plant is a serious weed of cultivation. It is
much hardier than was once imagined and is becoming a weed in N.
America where it is found as far north as Alaska[95].
The tubers are often formed a metre or more away from the plant,
especially if it is growing in a heavy clay soil[159].
The tubers are extremely attractive to mice and require protection from
them in the winter[K].


Propagation



Seed - surface sow in the spring and keep the compost moist[164]. The
seed usually germinates in 2 - 6 weeks at 18°c[164]. Prick out the
seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to
handle. Grow on for their first winter in a greenhouse and plant them
out in late spring after the last expected frosts.
Division in spring or autumn. This is more a matter of harvesting the
tubers and replanting them. If this is done in the autumn, then it is
best to store the tubers in a cool frost-free place overwinter and
plant them out in the spring.

Cultivars


No entries have been made for this species as yet.

Links


This plant is also mentioned in the following PFAF articles:
Alternative Food Crops, Alternative Root Crops.


References

[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive
listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been
replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).

[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.


[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.

[27] Vilmorin. A. The Vegetable Garden. Ten Speed Press 0 ISBN 0-89815-041-8
A reprint of a nineteenth century classic, giving details of vegetable varieties. Not really that informative though.

[50] ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press 1964
An
immense work in 6 volumes (including the index). The standard reference
flora for europe, it is very terse though and with very little extra
information. Not for the casual reader.


[55] Harris. B. C. Eat the Weeds. Pivot Health 1973
Interesting reading.

[57] Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. 0
Fairly readable but not very comprehensive. Deals with plants from around the world.

[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget
the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a
very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very
brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.


[62] Elias. T. and Dykeman. P. A Field Guide to N. American Edible Wild Plants. Van Nostrand Reinhold 1982 ISBN 0442222009
Very readable.

[74] Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation 1968
An
immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of
the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but
heavy going for casual readers.

[85] Harrington. H. D. Edible Native Plants of the Rocky Mountains. University of New Mexico Press 1967 ISBN 0-8623-0343-9
A superb book. Very readable, it gives the results of the authors experiments with native edible plants.


[95] Saunders. C. F. Edible and Useful Wild Plants of the United States and Canada. Dover Publications 1976 ISBN 0-486-23310-3
Useful wild plants of America. A pocket guide.

[117] Rosengarten. jnr. F. The Book of Edible Nuts. Walker & Co. 1984 ISBN 0802707699
A very readable and comprehensive guide. Well illustrated.


[141] Carruthers. S. P. (Editor) Alternative Enterprises for Agriculture in the UK. Centre for Agricultural Strategy, Univ. of Reading 1986 ISBN 0704909820
Some suggested alternative commercial crops for Britain. Readable. Produced by a University study group.

[159] McPherson. A. and S. Wild Food Plants of Indiana. Indiana University Press 1977 ISBN 0-253-28925-4
A nice pocket guide to this region of America.

[164] Bird. R. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 4. Thompson and Morgan. 1990
Very
readable magazine with lots of information on propagation. A good
article on Yuccas, one on Sagebrush (Artemesia spp) and another on
Chaerophyllum bulbosum.


[178] Stuart. Rev. G. A. Chinese Materia Medica. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre 0
A translation of an ancient Chinese herbal. Fascinating.

[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent.
Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food
plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N.
American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other
nurseries from around the world.

[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.


[240] Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. 1986
Very
terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of
references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for
the casual reader.

[254] Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London 1996 ISBN 9-780751-303148
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.



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Cytisus scoparius - (L.)Link. Broom

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 13:05




Cytisus scoparius -
(L.)Link.


Broom



Author(L.)Link.
Botanical references11, 17, 200

FamilyLeguminosae
GenusCytisus
SynonymsSarothamnus scoparius - (L.)K.Koch.

Spartium scoparium - L.


Known Hazardswarning signPoisonous[10, 19, 65]. The plant is of extremely low or zero toxicity[76].

RangeEurope, including Britain, from Scandanavia south to Spain, east to Poland and Hungary.
HabitatSandy pastures and heaths, occasionally in open woodland, and often near the coast[4, 17]. Strongly calcifuge[17].
Edibility Ratingapple icon 1 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man

icon of shrub
A decidious Shrub growing to 2.4m by 1m at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May
to June, and the seeds ripen from August to November. The flowers are
hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by
Bees.
The plant is not self-fertile.
It can fix Nitrogen.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay)
soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor
soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow
in very acid soil.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.
The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.
It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Ground Cover;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Flowers.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Condiment.


The flower buds are pickled and used as a substitute for capers[4,
46, 183, 244]. They can also be added to salads[183]. Some caution is
advised, see the notes above on toxicity.
The tender green tops of the plant have been used like hops to give a
bitter flavour to beer and to render it more intoxicating[4, 183].
The roasted seed is a coffee substitute[2, 4, 115, 183].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Cardiotonic; Cathartic; Diuretic; Emetic; Vasoconstrictor.


Broom is a bitter narcotic herb that depresses the respiration and
regulates heart action[238]. It acts upon the electrical conductivity
of the heart, slowing and regulating the transmission of the
impulses[254].
The young herbaceous tips of flowering shoots are cardiotonic,
cathartic, diuretic, emetic and vasoconstrictor[4, 13, 21, 46, 165].
The seeds can also be used[4]. The plant is used internally in the
treatment of heart complaints, and is especially used in conjunction
with Convallaria majalis[238]. The plant is also strongly diuretic,
stimulating urine production and thus countering fluid retention[254].
Since broom causes the muscles of the uterus to contract, it has been
used to prevent blood loss after childbirth[254]. Use this herb with
caution since large doses are likely to upset the stomach[4, 21]. The
composition of active ingredients in the plant is very changeable, this
makes it rather unreliable medicinally and it is therefore rarely
used[9]. This herb should not be prescribed to pregnant women or
patients with high blood pressure[238]. Any treatment with this plant
should only be carried out under expert supervision[9]. See also the
notes above on toxicity.
The young herbaceous tips of flowering shoots are harvested in spring,
generally in May[4]. They can be used fresh or dried[4, 238]. They
should not be stored for more than 12 months since the medicinally
active ingredients break down[238].

Other Uses


Basketry; Broom; Dye; Essential; Fibre; Ground cover; Paper; Repellent; Soil stabilization; Tannin; Wood.


An excellent fibre is obtained from the bark, it is used in the
manufacture of paper, cloth and nets[4, 100, 115]. It is not as strong
as the fibre from the Spanish broom (Spartium junceum)[4]. The fibre is
obtained from the root according to other reports[13, 46]. The bark
fibre is used to make paper, it is 2 - 9mm long[189]. The branches are
harvested in late summer or autumn, the leaves removed and the stems
steamed until the fibres can be stripped. The fibres are cooked for 3
hours in lye then put in a ball mill for 3 hours. The paper is pale tan
in colour[189].
The bark is a good source of tannin[4].
A yellow and a brown dye are obtained from the bark[46].
A yellow dye is obtained from the flowering stem[169].
A green dye is obtained from the leaves and young tops[4].
The branches are used to make baskets, brushes, brooms and besoms[4, 6,
13, 46, 55, 115]. They are also sometimes used for thatching roofs and
as substitutes for reeds in making fences or screens[4].
An essential oil from the flowers is used in perfumery[57].
Growing well on dry banks and on steep slopes, it is an effective sand
binder and soil stabiliser[4, 11, 46]. Broom is one of the first plant
to colonize sand dunes by the coast[4].
The plant attracts insects away from nearby plants[14].
The var. prostratus (= C. scoparius maritimus?[208]) makes a good fast
growing ground cover plant to 30cm tall, though it needs weeding in its
first year[197]. The cultivar 'Andreanus Prostratus' can also be
used[208].
Wood - very hard, beautifully veined[4]. The plant seldom reaches
sufficient size for its wood to be of much value, but larger specimens
are valued by cabinet makers and for veneer[4].

Scented Plants


:

Cultivation details



Succeeds in most soils, preferring a fairly good but not rich soil[11].
Prefers a poor well-drained soil[14]. Succeeds in slightly acid,
neutral and limy soils but dislikes shallow soils over chalk[200].
Plants are strongly calcifuge according to other reports and intolerant
of a pH much above 6.5[17, 186]. Prefers a sunny position but tolerates
some shade[11, 14, 17]. Plants succeed in exposed conditions, and are
very tolerant of maritime exposure[4, K]. Plants have a deep root
system, they are very drought tolerant once established and grow well
on dry banks[4, 11]. Tolerates a smoky atmosphere, growing well in
polluted areas[186].
Plants are hardy to about -20°c[184].
A number of named forms have been developed for their ornamental
value[182].
New leaves are formed in April but these soon drop off the plant,
photosynthesis being carried out by means of the green stems[186].
Very tolerant of cutting, it regenerates quickly from the base[186].
Plants are usually killed by fire but the seeds quickly germinate after
the fire and rapidly become established[186].
A good bee plant and food plant for many caterpillars[24, 30, 46], it
provides the food for the larvae of the green hairstreak
butterfly[186]. Ants are attracted to the seeds, feeding on the juicy
attachment that holds them to the pods and thus distributing the
seed[186].
Dislikes root disturbance, especially when more than 20cm tall[11]. It
is best to plant out into their permanent positions as early as
possible.
This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria,
these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen.
Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can
also be used by other plants growing nearby[200].


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Cytisus scoparius - (L.)Link. Broom cont..d

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 13:06


Propagation



Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold
frame[80]. Pre-soak stored seed for 24 hours in warm water then cold
stratify for 1 month and sow in a cold frame[80]. The seed usually
germinates in 4 weeks at 20°c[98, 113]. Seedlings should be potted up
as soon as possible since plants quickly become intolerant of root
disturbance[186]. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late
summer if they have made sufficient growth, otherwise in late spring of
the following year[K]. The seed has a long viability[186].
Seed can also be sown in situ as soon as it is ripe in the late summer
and autumn[4].
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 4 - 7 cm with a heel, August in a
frame[11]. Produces roots in the spring[11]. Pot up as soon as
possible[11].
Cuttings of mature wood, October/November in a frame.
Layering.

Cultivars



There are some named forms for this species, but these have
been developed for their ornamental value and not for their other uses.
Unless you particularly require the special characteristics of any of
these cultivars, we would generally recommend that you grow the natural
species for its useful properties. We have, therefore, not listed the
cultivars in this database[K].

Links


References

[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.


[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.

[6] Mabey. R. Plants with a Purpose. Fontana 1979 ISBN 0-00-635555-2
Details on some of the useful wild plants of Britain. Poor on pictures but otherwise very good.

[9] Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn 1981 ISBN 0-600-37216-2
Covers plants in Europe. a drawing of each plant, quite a bit of interesting information.


[10] Altmann. H. Poisonous Plants and Animals. Chatto and Windus 1980 ISBN 0-7011-2526-8
A small book, reasonable but not very detailed.

[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.

[13] Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants. Hamlyn 1975 ISBN 0-600-33545-3
Very interesting reading, giving some details of plant uses and quite a lot of folk-lore.


[14] Holtom. J. and Hylton. W. Complete Guide to Herbs. Rodale Press 1979 ISBN 0-87857-262-7
A good herbal.

[17] Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press 1962
A very comprehensive flora, the standard reference book but it has no pictures.

[19] Stary. F. Poisonous Plants. Hamlyn 1983 ISBN 0-600-35666-3
Not very comprehensive, but easy reading.


[21] Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books 1983 ISBN 0-553-23827-2
Lots of information tightly crammed into a fairly small book.

[24] Baines. C. Making a Wildlife Garden. 0
Fairly good with lots of ideas about creating wildlife areas in the garden.

[30] Carter D. Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe. Pan 1982 ISBN 0-330-26642-x
An excellent book on Lepidoptera, it also lists their favourite food plants.


[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An
excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short
descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the
plants. Not for the casual reader.

[55] Harris. B. C. Eat the Weeds. Pivot Health 1973
Interesting reading.

[57] Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. 0
Fairly readable but not very comprehensive. Deals with plants from around the world.


[65] Frohne. D. and Pfänder. J. A Colour Atlas of Poisonous Plants. Wolfe 1984 ISBN 0723408394
Brilliant. Goes into technical details but in a very readable way. The best work on the subject that I've come across so far.

[76] Cooper. M. and Johnson. A. Poisonous Plants in Britain and their Effects on Animals and Man. HMSO 1984 ISBN 0112425291
Concentrates mainly on the effects of poisonous plants to livestock.

[80] McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books 1985 ISBN 0-901361-21-6
Does not deal with many species but it is very comprehensive on those that it does cover. Not for casual reading.


[98] Gordon. A. G. and Rowe. D. C. f. Seed Manual for Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. 0
Very comprehensive guide to growing trees and shrubs from seed. Not for the casual reader.

[100] Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press 1969 ISBN 0192176218
An excellent and well illustrated pocket guide for those with very large pockets. Also gives some details on plant uses.

[113] Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press 1987 ISBN 0942375009
A very detailed book on propagating trees. Not for the casual reader.


[115] Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. 0
Written about a hundred years ago, but still a very good guide to the useful plants of Britain.

[165] Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. 0
An excellent small herbal.

[169] Buchanan. R. A Weavers Garden. 0
Covers all aspects of growing your own clothes, from fibre plants to dyes.


[182] Thomas. G. S. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos. Murray 1992 ISBN 0-7195-5043-2
Contains
a wide range of plants with a brief description, mainly of their
ornamental value but also usually of cultivation details and varieties.

[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent.
Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food
plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N.
American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other
nurseries from around the world.

[184] Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Shrubs. Pan Books 1989 ISBN 0-330-30258-2
Excellent photographs and a terse description of 1900 species and cultivars.


[186] Beckett. G. and K. Planting Native Trees and Shrubs. Jarrold 1979
An excellent guide to native British trees and shrubs with lots of details about the plants.

[189] Bell. L. A. Plant Fibres for Papermaking. Liliaceae Press 1988
A
good practical section on how to make paper on a small scale plus
details of about 75 species (quite a few of them tropical) that can be
used.

[197] Royal Horticultural Society. Ground Cover Plants. Cassells. 1989 ISBN 0-304-31089-1
A handy little booklet from the R.H.S.


[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

[208] Thomas. G. S. Plants for Ground Cover J. M. Dent & Sons 1990 ISBN 0-460-12609-1
An excellent detailled book on the subject, very comprehensive.


[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A
very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the
globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student.
Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries
for each plant.

[244] Phillips. R. & Foy. N. Herbs Pan Books Ltd. London. 1990 ISBN 0-330-30725-8
Deals
with all types of herbs including medicinal, culinary, scented and dye
plants. Excellent photographs with quite good information on each plant.


[254] Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London 1996 ISBN 9-780751-303148
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.



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Daucus carota - L. Wild Carrot

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 13:54




Daucus carota -
L.


Wild Carrot



AuthorL.
Botanical references17, 200

FamilyUmbelliferae
GenusDaucus
Synonyms

Known Hazardswarning signCarrots
sometimes cause allergic reactions in some people[46]. Skin contact
with the sap is said to cause photo-sensitivity and/or dermatitis in
some people[218].
Daucus has been reported to contain acetone, asarone, choline, ethanol,
formic acid, HCN, isobutyric acid, limonene, malic acid, maltose,
oxalic acid, palmitic acid, pyrrolidine, and quinic acid. Reviewing
research on myristicin, which occurs in nutmeg, mace, black pepper,
carrot seed, celery seed, and parsley, Buchanan (J. Food Safety 1: 275,
1979) noted that the psychoactive and hallucinogenic properties of
mace, nutmeg, and purified myristicin have been studied. It has been
hypothesized that myristicin and elemicin can be readily modified in
the body to amphetamines. Handling carrot foliage, especially wet
foliage, can cause irritation and vesication. Sensitized photosensitive
persons may get an exact reproduction of the leaf on the skin by
placing the leaf on the skin for awhile, followed by exposure to
sunshine[269].
RangeEurope, including Britain, from Scandanavia south and east to N. Africa, China and eastern India.
HabitatCultivated and waste land, amongst grass, especially by the sea and on chalk[4, 17].

Edibility Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Biennial growing to 0.6m by 0.3m.
It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from
June to August, and the seeds ripen from August to September. The
flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are
pollinated by Flies, beetles.
The plant is self-fertile.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It cannot grow in the shade.
It requires moist soil.
The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.


Habitats



Meadow; Cultivated Beds;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Flowers; Root.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Condiment.


Root - cooked[55]. Thin and stringy[K].
The flower clusters can be french-fried to produce a carrot-flavoured gourmet's delight[183].
The aromatic seed is used as a flavouring in stews etc[55, 183].
The dried roasted roots are ground into a powder and are used for making coffee[183].


Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Anthelmintic; Carminative; Contraceptive; Deobstruent; Diuretic; Emmenagogue; Galactogogue; Ophthalmic; Stimulant.


The wild carrot is an aromatic herb that acts as a diuretic, soothes
the digestive tract and stimulates the uterus[238]. A wonderfully
cleansing medicine, it supports the liver, stimulates the flow of urine
and the removal of waste by the kidneys[254].
The whole plant is anthelmintic, carminative, deobstruent, diuretic,
galactogogue, ophthalmic, stimulant[4, 7, 9, 13, 21, 165]. An infusion
is used in the treatment of various complaints including digestive
disorders, kidney and bladder diseases and in the treatment of
dropsy[4, 238]. An infusion of the leaves has been used to counter
cystitis and kidney stone formation, and to diminish stones that have
already formed[254]. Carrot leaves contain significant amounts of
porphyrins, which stimulate the pituitary gland and lead to the release
of increased levels of sex hormones[254]. The plant is harvested in
July and dried for later use.
A warm water infusion of the flowers has been used in the treatment of
diabetes[213].
The grated raw root, especially of the cultivated forms, is used as a
remedy for threadworms[213, 222, 254]. The root is also used to
encourage delayed menstruation[213]. The root of the wild plant can
induce uterine contractions and so should not be used by pregnant
women[213]. A tea made from the roots is diuretic and has been used in
the treatment of urinary stones[222].
The seeds are diuretic[213, 218], carminative, emmenagogue and
anthelmintic[4, 218]. An infusion is used in the treatment of oedema,
flatulent indigestion and menstrual problems[238]. The seed is a
traditional 'morning after' contraceptive and there is some evidence to
uphold this belief. It requires further investigation[222]. Carrot
seeds can be abortifacient and so should not be used by pregnant
women[254].

Other Uses


Cosmetic; Essential.


An essential oil obtained from the seed has an orris-like scent[238].
It is used in perfumery and as a food flavouring[46, 238]. The oil has
also been used cosmetically in anti-wrinkle creams[238].

Scented Plants


Plant: Crushed
The whole plant, when bruised, gives off an aniseed-like scent.

Cultivation details



Prefers a sunny position and a well-drained neutral to alkaline
soil[24, 238].
A good plant for the summer meadow[24], it is a food plant for
caterpillars of the Swallow-tail Butterfly[200].
This species is the parent of the cultivated carrot[200]. It can act as
an alternative host for pests and diseases of the cultivated carrots.
The plant has become a pest weed in N. America, where it is spreading
rapidly and crowding out native vegetation[274].
The whole plant, when bruised, gives off an aniseed-like scent[245].

Propagation



Seed - sow August/September or April in situ. The seed germinates better if it is given a period of cold stratification.

Links


References

[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.


[7] Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald 1984 ISBN 0-356-10541-5
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.

[9] Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn 1981 ISBN 0-600-37216-2
Covers plants in Europe. a drawing of each plant, quite a bit of interesting information.

[13] Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants. Hamlyn 1975 ISBN 0-600-33545-3
Very interesting reading, giving some details of plant uses and quite a lot of folk-lore.


[17] Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press 1962
A very comprehensive flora, the standard reference book but it has no pictures.

[21] Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books 1983 ISBN 0-553-23827-2
Lots of information tightly crammed into a fairly small book.

[24] Baines. C. Making a Wildlife Garden. 0
Fairly good with lots of ideas about creating wildlife areas in the garden.


[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An
excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short
descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the
plants. Not for the casual reader.

[55] Harris. B. C. Eat the Weeds. Pivot Health 1973
Interesting reading.

[165] Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. 0
An excellent small herbal.


[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent.
Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food
plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N.
American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other
nurseries from around the world.

[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

[213] Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books 1980 ISBN 0-449-90589-6
A
nice book to read though it is difficult to look up individual plants
since the book is divided into separate sections dealing with the
different medicinal uses plus a section on edible plants. Common names
are used instead of botanical.


[218] Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. 1985 ISBN 0-917256-20-4
Details
of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their
uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents.
Heavy going if you are not into the subject.

[222] Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1990 ISBN 0395467225
A
concise book dealing with almost 500 species. A line drawing of each
plant is included plus colour photographs of about 100 species. Very
good as a field guide, it only gives brief details about the plants
medicinal properties.


[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A
very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the
globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student.
Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries
for each plant.

[245] Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. 1994 ISBN 0-7090-5440-8
An
excellent, comprehensive book on scented plants giving a few other
plant uses and brief cultivation details. There are no illustrations.

[254] Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London 1996 ISBN 9-780751-303148
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.


[269] Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops - 1983
Published only on the Internet, excellent information on a wide range of plants.

[274] Diggs, Jnr. G.M.; Lipscomb. B. L. & O'Kennon. R. J Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas Botanical Research Institute, Texas. 1999 ISBN 1-889878-01-4
An excellent flora, which is also available on-line.



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Daucus carota sativus - (Hoffm.)Arcang. Carrot

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 13:58




Daucus carota sativus -
(Hoffm.)Arcang.


Carrot



Author(Hoffm.)Arcang.
Botanical references200

FamilyUmbelliferae
GenusDaucus
Synonyms

Known Hazardswarning signCarrots
sometimes cause allergic reactions in some people[46]. Skin contact
with the sap is said to cause photo-sensitivity and/or dermatitis in
some people[218].
RangeA cultivated form of D. carota.
HabitatNot known in the wild.

Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 5 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Biennial growing to 1.2m by 0.3m.
It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from
June to August, and the seeds ripen from August to September. The
flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are
pollinated by Flies, beetles.
The plant is self-fertile.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It cannot grow in the shade.
It requires moist soil.
The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.


Habitats



Cultivated Beds;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Leaves; Root.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Colouring; Condiment.


Root - raw or cooked[2, 7, 27]. The roots of well-grown plants are
crisp, sweet and juicy, they are very nice raw and are also cooked as a
vegetable or added to soups, stews etc[K]. The grated root is a tasty
addition to the salad bowl[K]. The juice can be extracted from the root
and used as a health-promoting drink[46]. The root is very rich in
carotene, which is transformed by the body into vitamin A when it is
eaten[7]. The root is sometimes ground into a powder and used in making
cakes, bread etc[7, K].
The roasted root is a coffee substitute[21, 46].
Carotin, extracted from the roots, is used as an orange-yellow food
dye[171].
Leaves - raw or cooked. A very strong flavour, they can be added in
small quantities to mixed salads[K]. The leaves contain an oil that is
rich in vitamin E, they are sometimes used as a flavouring in soups[7].
An essential oil from the seed is used as a food flavouring.

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Anthelmintic; Carminative; Deobstruent; Diuretic; Galactogogue; Ophthalmic; Stimulant.


Cultivated carrot roots are a rich source of beta-carotene, which is
converted to vitamin A by the liver[254]. When used as a regular item
in the diet the roots improve eyesight and skin health, and also have
anti-cancer effects[238]. A wonderful cleansing medicine, it supports
the liver and stimulates urine flow and the removal of waste by the
kidneys[254].
The root is diuretic and ophthalmic[7]. The juice of organic carrots is
a delicious drink and a valuable detoxifier[254]. The raw root, grated
or mashed, is a safe treatment for threadworms, especially in
children[254].
The seed is carminative, galactogogue, lithontripic and stimulant[7,
240]. They are useful in the treatment of kidney diseases, dropsy and
to settle the digestive system[240, 254]. They stimulate menstruation
and have been used in folk medicine as a treatment for hangovers[254].

Other Uses


Alcohol; Dye; Essential.


The roots are fermented in order to produce alcohol[7].
An orange dye is obtained from the root[171].
An essential oil from the seed has a distinctive fragrance and is used in perfumery[7, 46].

Scented Plants



Seed:

Cultivation details



Prefers a good light warm well-drained soil and plenty of moisture[16,
27, 37, 200]. Prefers a sandy or calcareous loam[132]. Plants are
extremely sensitive to soil conditions, good roots can only be produced
in a soil that permits easy penetration of the root[200]. Carrots are
reported to tolerate an annual precipitation in the range of 31 to
410cm, an annual temperature range of 3.6 to 28.5°C and a pH of 4.2 to
8.7[269]. They prefer a pH in the range 6.5 to 7.5[200].
Carrots are widely cultivated in most areas of the world for their
edible root, which can be available all year round from successional
sowings[46]. There are many named varieties, with roots varying in size
and shape from short and round to long and tapering[183, 200].
World-wide, the yields of roots averages about 24 tonnes per hectare,
the world low production yield was 3,125 kg/ha in Zaire, whilst the
world high production yield was 62,889 kg/ha in
Belgium-Luxembourg[269].
Plants grow best at a mean temperature of 16 - 18°c. At temperatures
above 28°c top growth is reduced and the roots become very strongly
flavoured. At temperatures below 16°c the roots become long and tapered
and are pale in colour[200]. The leaves are moderately susceptible to
frost but the roots are much hardier and can safely be left in the
ground in the winter in most areas[200], so long as pests such as slugs
or root fly are not a problem[K]. If dug up for storage, the roots can
be kept for up to six months at 0 - 1°c and high relative
humidity[200].
Carrots are very susceptible to a number of pests and diseases. The
young seedlings are adored by slugs and so will generally need some
protection. Carrot root fly is also a major problem. This creature lays
its eggs near the young carrots. When they hatch, the larvae burrow
into the soil and then eat their way into the root. In bad seasons
almost all the crop can be heavily damaged. It is possible to reduce
this damage by timing seed sowing to try and avoid the worst times of
infestation, a June sowing of a fast-maturing cultivar will often be
successful. There are also various companion plants that can help to
reduce infestation. In general, these are strong-smelling plants such
as garlic, onions and various aromatic plants such as wormwood. The
idea is that these plants will mask the smell of the carrots and
therefore the fly, which mainly uses scent to find the plants, will not
be able to detect the smell of the carrots This method is most likely
to fail when the fly comes close enough to the plants to see them and
then no longer relies on scent. The most successful organic solution to
date has been to erect barriers of clear polythene about 1 metre tall
all around the bed of carrots. Since the fly generally flies below this
height, it has proved to be quite effective, although any fly that does
get in will then tend to stay inside the barrier and lay all of its
eggs there.
About 95% of carrot flowers are pollinated by insects, with the
remaining 5% self-pollinating[269].
Carrots grow well with lettuce and chives[18] but dislike dill[20].
They also grow badly with potatoes, kohl rabi, fennel and cabbages[201].




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Daucus carota sativus - (Hoffm.)Arcang. Carrot..cont..d

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 14:00



Propagation



Seed - sow in situ in succession from early spring to early summer. Do
not transplant the seedlings, since this will usually cause damage to
the roots and a good crop will not be obtained. Carrot seed needs a
well-made seed bed with a fine tilth if good germination is to be
achieved. The earliest sowings can be made of an early maturing variety
in a cold frame or greenhouse in January or February, this will provide
edible roots in late spring. The first outdoor sowings are made as the
soil warms up in the spring. Successional sowings can be made until
early summer if required. A September sowing in mild areas can provide
an early spring supply of young roots, though the plants will often
require some protection.

Cultivars


There are many named varieties of this annual vegetable, with
new forms being developed each year. At present there is not time to
enter these in the database and it is recommended that you consult the
book 'The Fruit and Vegetable Finder' which is updated regularly and
can be obtained from libraries.

Links


References

[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.


[7] Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald 1984 ISBN 0-356-10541-5
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.

[16] Simons. New Vegetable Growers Handbook. Penguin 1977 ISBN 0-14-046-050-0
A good guide to growing vegetables in temperate areas, not entirely organic.

[18] Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants. Watkins 1979
Details of beneficial and antagonistic relationships between neighbouring plants.


[20] Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening. Garden Way, Vermont, USA. 1978 ISBN 0-88266-064-0
Fairly good.

[21] Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books 1983 ISBN 0-553-23827-2
Lots of information tightly crammed into a fairly small book.

[27] Vilmorin. A. The Vegetable Garden. Ten Speed Press 0 ISBN 0-89815-041-8
A reprint of a nineteenth century classic, giving details of vegetable varieties. Not really that informative though.


[37] Thompson. B. The Gardener's Assistant. Blackie and Son. 1878
Excellent
general but extensive guide to gardening practices in the 19th century.
A very good section on fruits and vegetables with many little known
species.

[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An
excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short
descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the
plants. Not for the casual reader.

[132] Bianchini. F., Corbetta. F. and Pistoia. M. Fruits of the Earth. 0
Lovely pictures, a very readable book.


[171] Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press 1952
Not very comprehensive, but it is quite readable and goes into some a bit of detail about the plants it does cover.

[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent.
Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food
plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N.
American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other
nurseries from around the world.

[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.


[201] Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. 1993 ISBN 0-304-34324-2
A well produced and very readable book.

[218] Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. 1985 ISBN 0-917256-20-4
Details
of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their
uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents.
Heavy going if you are not into the subject.

[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A
very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the
globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student.
Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries
for each plant.


[240] Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. 1986
Very
terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of
references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for
the casual reader.

[254] Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London 1996 ISBN 9-780751-303148
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.

[269] Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops - 1983
Published only on the Internet, excellent information on a wide range of plants.



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Diospyros kaki - Thunb. Persimmon

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 14:05




Diospyros kaki -
Thunb.


Persimmon



AuthorThunb.
Botanical references11, 74, 200

FamilyEbenaceae
GenusDiospyros
SynonymsDiospyros chinensis - Blume.


Known HazardsNone known
RangeE. Asia - China, Japan.

HabitatNot known in a truly wild situation, it is found in broad leafed woodland but probably as an escape from cultivation[74, 200].
Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 4 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of evergreen tree
A decidious Tree growing to 12m by 7m.

It is hardy to zone 8 and is frost tender. It is in flower from July to
August, and the seeds ripen in November. The flowers are dioecious
(individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to
be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown
if seed is required)The plant is not self-fertile.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires moist soil.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Secondary; Sunny Edge;
Cultivars: (as above except)
'Great Wall'
'Saijo'

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Fruit.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Condiment; Sweetener.


Fruit - raw or cooked[1, 2, 3, 7, 46, 61]. The fruit has an
exquisitely rich flavour when it is very soft and fully ripe (almost at
the point of going bad), but the fruit of many cultivars is very harsh
and astringent before then[K]. In Britain, the fruit needs to be
harvested whilst it is still very hard. This is done very late in the
season (in December or even January if possible), it is then stored in
a cool but frost-free place until very soft and fully ripe[K]. The
fruit can also be used in pies, cakes, bread, desserts etc[183]. It
contains 25% sugars[74]. A fuller nutritional analysis is
available[218]. The fruit can also be dried for later use[183]. The
fruit is about 7.5cm in diameter[200].
The peel of the fruit can be powdered and used as a sweetener[183].
The leaves are used to improve the flavour of pickled radishes[183].
The roasted seeds are a coffee substitute[183, 240].

Composition


Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.

Fruit (Dry weight)
  • 350 Calories per 100g
  • Water: 0%
  • Protein: 3.6g; Fat: 1.5g; Carbohydrate: 91g; Fibre: 7.7g; Ash: 4g;
  • Minerals - Calcium: 80mg; Phosphorus: 100mg; Iron: 8mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 20mg; Potassium: 950mg; Zinc: 0mg;
  • Vitamins - A: 5600mg; Thiamine (B1): 0.2mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0.15mg; Niacin: 0.9mg; B6: 0mg; C: 75mg;
  • Reference: [218]
  • Notes: 

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Anthelmintic; Antitussive; Antivinous; Appetizer; Astringent; Demulcent; Expectorant; Febrifuge; Hypotensive; Laxative; Sialagogue; Stomachic; Styptic.


Appetizer, sialagogue[116, 176, 178].
The stem bark is astringent and styptic[218].
The fruit is said to have different properties depending on its stage
of ripeness, though it is generally antitussive, astringent, laxative,
nutritive and stomachic[218, 238].
The fresh fully ripe fruit is used raw in the treatment of constipation
and haemorrhoids[238] and when cooked is used to treat diarrhoea[238]..
The dried ripe fruit is used in the treatment of bronchial
complaints[238], whilst when ground into a powder it is used to treat
dry coughs[238].
Juice from the unripe fruit is used in the treatment of
hypertension[218, 238].
The fruits, picked green and ripened in containers with the leaves,
become very sweet and are considered to be antifebrile, antivinous and
demulcent[218].
The fruits are also peeled and then exposed to sunlight by day and dew
by night. They become encrusted with a white powder and are then
considered to be anthelmintic, antihaemorrhagic, antivinous,
expectorant, febrifuge and restorative[218].
The peduncle is used to treat coughs and hiccups[218].
The calyx is used to treat hiccups[176].

Other Uses


Cosmetic; Wood.


The pulp of unripe fruits is used in cosmetics to make face-packs because of its firming qualities[7].
Wood - hard and durable with a beautiful grain. Used for making fine furniture[266].

Cultivation details



Prefers a good deep loamy soil in sun or light shade but succeeds in
most soils[11, 132, 200]. Dislikes very acid or wet and poorly drained
soils[200]. Requires a sheltered position[200].
Dormant plants are quite hardy in Britain, tolerating temperatures down
to about -14°c[74], but they require warmer summers than are normally
experienced in Britain in order to ripen their fruit and wood[3]. The
young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and so
it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early
morning sun[K]. A warm sunny wall improves the chance of producing ripe
fruit[3] and trees fruit freely when grown under glass[1]. Fruits are
frequently produced outdoors at Kew[11, K]. A tree seen in a open
position with afternoon shade at Kew in November 1993 (after a cool
summer) had about 200 almost ripe fruits around 8cm in diameter[K]. The
same tree, after a fairly warm summer in 1996, had a large quantity of
fruit just about ready for harvesting in the middle of December[K].
Trees produce a long taproot and should be planted out into their
permanent positions as soon as possible[200]. The young trees require
some winter protection for their first winter or two[K].
The persimmon is widely cultivated for its edible fruit in warm
temperate areas of the world, especially in Japan and China, there are
many named varieties[183]. Some cultivars, such as 'Fuyu', lack the
usual astringency and can be eaten whilst still firm, though they
develop a richer flavour if allowed to become soft[183, 200]. These
non-astringent forms require a warmer climate and do not ripen in
cooler areas[183]. The astringent cultivars are somewhat hardier and
ripen well in cooler climates than the non-astringent forms[183]. The
fruit colours better and is sweeter in warmer areas but in hot
conditions has a poor texture and deep black spots develop[183]. If
allowed to become very ripe (almost to the point of going rotten), they
develop a better flavour than non-astringent forms[183].
Dioecious, but the female tree can produce seedless fruits in the
absence of a pollinator. However, unfertilized fruit tends to be
smaller and more astringent[200]. This astringency is due to the high
content of tannin but once the fruit is fully ripe it loses this
astringency and becomes sweet[132]. If fertilized fruit is required,
then growing one male for every 8 - 10 females is usually adequate[238].





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Diospyros kaki - Thunb. Persimmon..Cont..d

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 14:05

Propagation



Seed - best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe[113, 200].
Stored seed requires a period of cold-stratification and should be sown
as early in the year as possible[78]. It usually germinates in 1 - 6
months at 15°c[175]. Pot up the young seedlings as soon as they are
large enough to handle into fairly deep pots and plant them out into
their permanent positions in early summer. Give them some protection
from winter cold for their first year or two outdoors.
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame[200].
Layering in spring[200].

Cultivars


'Great Wall'
The small to medium size fruit is up to 6cm in diameter, the flesh
is dry and very sweet, but astringent if not fully ripe[183]. The fruit
ripens in mid-Autumn[183].
A relatively slow-growing, upright tree, it is very cold hardy and
bears heavy crops every second year[183]. It is recommended for colder
areas, though it also does well in Florida[183].
'Saijo'
A small, elongated fruit, astringent when not fully ripe, but
becomes sweet with an excellent flavour if allowed to ripen fully[183].
The fruits are usually seedless and store well[183]. The dried fruit is
very attractive[183].
A medium-size tree, it bears consistently and tolerates temperatures
down to at least -23°c[183].

Links


This plant is also mentioned in the following PFAF articles:
Alternative fruits, The Woodland Edge Garden.


References

[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive
listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been
replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).

[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.


[3] Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit. David and Charles 1972 ISBN 0-7153-5531-7
A
very readable book with information on about 100 species that can be
grown in Britain (some in greenhouses) and details on how to grow and
use them.

[7] Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald 1984 ISBN 0-356-10541-5
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.

[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.


[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An
excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short
descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the
plants. Not for the casual reader.

[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget
the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a
very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very
brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.

[74] Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation 1968
An
immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of
the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but
heavy going for casual readers.


[78] Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co 1948
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.

[113] Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press 1987 ISBN 0942375009
A very detailed book on propagating trees. Not for the casual reader.

[116] Brooklyn Botanic Garden Oriental Herbs and Vegetables, Vol 39 No. 2. Brooklyn Botanic Garden 1986
A small booklet packed with information.


[132] Bianchini. F., Corbetta. F. and Pistoia. M. Fruits of the Earth. 0
Lovely pictures, a very readable book.

[175] Bird. R. (Editor) Focus on Plants. Volume 5. (formerly 'Growing from seed') Thompson and Morgan. 1991
Very readable magazine with lots of information on propagation. A good article on Corydalis spp.

[176] Yeung. Him-Che. Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas. Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles 1985
An
excellent Chinese herbal giving information on over 500 species. Rather
technical and probably best suited to the more accomplished user of
herbs.


[178] Stuart. Rev. G. A. Chinese Materia Medica. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre 0
A translation of an ancient Chinese herbal. Fascinating.

[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent.
Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food
plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N.
American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other
nurseries from around the world.

[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.


[218] Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. 1985 ISBN 0-917256-20-4
Details
of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their
uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents.
Heavy going if you are not into the subject.

[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A
very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the
globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student.
Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries
for each plant.

[240] Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. 1986
Very
terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of
references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for
the casual reader.


[266] Flora of China 1994
On-line version of the Flora - an excellent resource giving basic info on habitat and some uses.

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Echinochloa crus-galli - (L.)P.Beauv. Barnyard Millet

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 14:26




Echinochloa crus-galli -
(L.)P.Beauv.


Barnyard Millet



Author(L.)P.Beauv.
Botanical references50, 200, 236

FamilyGramineae
GenusEchinochloa
SynonymsPanicum crus-galli - L.


Known Hazardswarning signThis
grass has been reported to accumulate levels of nitrate in its tissues
high enough to be toxic to farm animals[269]. This problem is most
likely to occur when plants are fed with inorganic fertilizers[K].
RangeNative habitat is unknown but it is widespread in warmer regions occasionally introduced in Britain.

HabitatDitches roadsides and waste places in S. Europe[50]. Wet places and rich soils in India[240].
Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Annual growing to 1.2m by 0.15m.

It is hardy to zone 6. It is in flower from July to September, and the
seeds ripen from August to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have
both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil.
It cannot grow in the shade.
It requires moist soil.
The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.


Habitats


Cultivated Beds;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Leaves; Seed.

Edible Uses: Coffee.


Seed - cooked[35, 55, 105, 171]. Used as a millet, it can be cooked
whole or be ground into a flour before use[183, 257]. It has a good
flavour[85] and can be used in porridges, macaroni, dumplings etc[183].
The seed is rather small[159], though fairly easy to harvest. It has a
somewhat bitter flavour[178].
Young shoots, stem tips and the heart of the culm - raw or cooked[144,
177]. A nutritional analysis is available[218].
The roasted seed is a coffee substitute[177].

Composition


Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.

Leaves (Dry weight)
  • 0 Calories per 100g
  • Water: 0%
  • Protein: 7.4g; Fat: 2.9g; Carbohydrate: 81.1g; Fibre: 31.3g; Ash: 8.6g;
  • Minerals - Calcium: 0mg; Phosphorus: 0mg; Iron: 0mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 0mg; Potassium: 0mg; Zinc: 0mg;
  • Vitamins - A: 0mg; Thiamine (B1): 0mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0mg; Niacin: 0mg; B6: 0mg; C: 0mg;
  • Reference: [218]
  • Notes: 

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Styptic; Tonic.


Reported to be preventative and tonic, barnyard grass is a folk remedy
for treating carbuncles, haemorrhages, sores, spleen trouble, cancer
and wounds[269].
The shoots and/or the roots are applied as a styptic to wounds[218,
240].
The plant is a tonic, acting on the spleen[218, 240].

Other Uses


Soil reclamation.


The plant is sometimes used, especially in Egypt, for the reclamation of saline and alkaline areas[269].

Cultivation details



An easily grown plant, it is adapted to nearly all types of wet places,
and is often a common weed in paddy fields, roadsides, cultivated
areas, and fallow fields[269]. It succeeds on a variety of wet sites
such as ditches, low areas in fertile croplands and wet wastes, often
growing in water[269]. It succeeds in cool regions, but is better
adapted to areas where the average annual temperature is 14-16°C[269].
Tolerant of most soil types, including saline conditions, plants are
not restricted by soil pH[269]. Prefers a rich moist soil[85] but
succeeds in ordinary garden soil[1]. The sub-species E. crus-galli
zelayensis (HBK)Hitchc. is often found growing wild in alkaline
soils[236]. The plant is reported to tolerate an annual precipitation
in the range of 31 to 250cm, an annual temperature range of 5.7 to
27.8°C and a pH in the range of 4.8 to 8.2[269].
Barnyard millet is sometimes cultivated for its edible seed in
India[171]. It has a relatively long growing season and does not always
ripen its seed in Britain, though it should do better in the eastern
half of the country[K].
The plant is considered to be a very serious weed of many cultivated
crops[269].

Propagation



Seed - sow early spring in a greenhouse and only just cover the seed.
When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into
individual pots and plant them out into their permanent positions in
early summer.
A sowing in situ in late spring might also succeed but is unlikely to
ripen a crop of seed if the summer is cool and wet.

Cultivars


No entries have been made for this species as yet.

Links



References

[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive
listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been
replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).

[35] The Herb Society Herbal Review. Vol.11. 4. The Herb Society 1986 ISBN 0264-9853



[50] ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press 1964
An
immense work in 6 volumes (including the index). The standard reference
flora for europe, it is very terse though and with very little extra
information. Not for the casual reader.

[55] Harris. B. C. Eat the Weeds. Pivot Health 1973
Interesting reading.

[85] Harrington. H. D. Edible Native Plants of the Rocky Mountains. University of New Mexico Press 1967 ISBN 0-8623-0343-9
A superb book. Very readable, it gives the results of the authors experiments with native edible plants.


[105] Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing 1976
The
most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the
briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are
more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.

[144] Cribb. A. B. and J. W. Wild Food in Australia. Fontana 1976 ISBN 0-00-634436-4
A very good pocket guide.

[159] McPherson. A. and S. Wild Food Plants of Indiana. Indiana University Press 1977 ISBN 0-253-28925-4
A nice pocket guide to this region of America.


[171] Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press 1952
Not very comprehensive, but it is quite readable and goes into some a bit of detail about the plants it does cover.

[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.

[178] Stuart. Rev. G. A. Chinese Materia Medica. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre 0
A translation of an ancient Chinese herbal. Fascinating.


[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent.
Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food
plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N.
American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other
nurseries from around the world.

[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

[218] Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. 1985 ISBN 0-917256-20-4
Details
of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their
uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents.
Heavy going if you are not into the subject.


[236] Hitchcock. A. S. Manual of the Grasses of the United States Dover Publications. New York. 1971 ISBN 0-486-22717-0
A
nice and comprehensive flora, though a bit dated. Good line drawings of
each plant, plus a brief idea of the habitat and a few notes on plant
uses. Not for the casual reader.

[240] Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. 1986
Very
terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of
references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for
the casual reader.

[257] Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. 1998 ISBN 0-88192-453-9
Very
comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent
bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to
further information. Not for the casual reader.


[269] Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops - 1983
Published only on the Internet, excellent information on a wide range of plants.




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Elytrigia repens - (L.)Desv. ex Nevski. Couch Grass

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 14:30




Elytrigia repens -
(L.)Desv. ex Nevski.


Couch Grass



Author(L.)Desv. ex Nevski.
Botanical references17

FamilyGramineae
GenusElytrigia
SynonymsAgropyron repens - (L.)Beauv.

Elymus repens - (L.)Gould.

Triticum repens - L.



Known HazardsNone known
RangeMost of Europe, including Britain, N. Africa, Siberia and N. America.
HabitatA common weed of gardens, fields, hedgerows and meadows[17].
Edibility Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Perennial growing to 0.6m by 1m.
It is hardy to zone 0 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from
June to September, and the seeds ripen from August to September. The
flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are
pollinated by Wind.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid and very alkaline soils.
It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires dry moist or wet soil.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; Lawn; Meadow; Hedgerow; Bog Garden;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Leaves; Root; Seed.


Edible Uses: Coffee.

Roots - cooked. They can be dried and ground into a powder, then
used with wheat when making bread[12, 46, 105, 244]. Although thin and
stringy, the roots contain starch and enzymes and are quite sweet[7].
When boiled for a long time to break down the leathery membrane, a
syrup can be made from the roots and this is sometimes brewed into a
beer[2, 7].
The roasted root is a coffee substitute[46].
Young leaves and shoots - eaten raw in spring salads[7]. A slightly
sweet flavour, though quickly becoming very fibrous, they are rather
less than wonderful[K]. The juice from these shoots is sometimes used
as a spring tonic[244].
Seed[161]. A cereal mash can be made from them[7]. The seed is very
small and there is a large husk surrounding it, so that effectively it
is more like eating fibre than cereal[K].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antiphlogistic; Aperient; Demulcent; Diuretic; Emollient; Lithontripic; Tonic.


Couch grass is of considerable value as a herbal medicine, the roots
being very useful in the treatment of a wide range of kidney, liver and
urinary disorders[4]. They have a gentle remedial effect which is
well-tolerated by the body and has no side-effects[238]. This plant is
also a favourite medicine of domestic cats and dogs, who will often eat
quite large quantities of the leaves[4].
The roots are antiphlogistic, aperient, demulcent, diuretic, emollient,
lithontripic and tonic[4, 7]. They are harvested in the spring and can
be dried for later use[4].
A tea made from the roots is used in cases of urinary incompetence and
as a worm expellent[222]. It is also an effective treatment for urinary
tract infections such as cystitis and urethritis[254]. It both protects
the urinary tubules against infections and irritants, and increases the
volume of urine thereby diluting it[254]. Externally it is applied as a
wash to swollen limbs[222].

Other Uses


Dye; Liquid feed; Soil stabilization.


An infusion of the whole plant is a good liquid plant feed[54].
The plant has a long creeping root system and so it has been planted in sand dunes near the coast to bind the soil together[4].
A grey dye is obtained from the roots[106].

Cultivation details



Couch grass can succeed in any soil, though it grows best in light
sandy soils[238]. It is a rapidly spreading, persistent and pernicious
weed that should only be introduced with great caution. It tolerates a
pH in the range 4.2 to 8.3.
Some modern works have now separated this species off into a new genus
as Elytrigia repens.
A food plant for the caterpillars of many butterfly and moth species.
This species can become a pernicious weed, spreading rapidly by
underground rhizomes[4] and quickly forming a dense mat of roots in the
soil that strangles other plant growth[K]. Even the smallest fragment
of root is capable of regenerating into a new plant, thus making it
exceedingly difficult to get rid of. A good thick mulch through which
nothing can grow, can be applied to the area, though it will need to be
left in place for at least two growing seasons to be fully
effective[K]. Despite its antisocial tendency in the garden, couch is a
very useful herbal medicine and Culpepper is said to have stated that
half an acre of couch was worth five acres of carrots twice over[4].

Propagation



This species is a pernicious weed and will not require assistance in spreading itself.

Links


References

[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.


[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.

[7] Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald 1984 ISBN 0-356-10541-5
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.

[12] Loewenfeld. C. and Back. P. Britain's Wild Larder. David and Charles 0 ISBN 0-7153-7971-2
A handy pocket guide.


[17] Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press 1962
A very comprehensive flora, the standard reference book but it has no pictures.

[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An
excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short
descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the
plants. Not for the casual reader.

[54] Hatfield. A. W. How to Enjoy your Weeds. Frederick Muller Ltd 1977 ISBN 0-584-10141-4
Interesting reading.


[105] Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing 1976
The
most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the
briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are
more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.

[106] Coon. N. The Dictionary of Useful Plants. Rodale Press 1975 ISBN 0-87857-090-x
Interesting reading but short on detail.

[161] Yanovsky. E. Food Plants of the N. American Indians. Publication no. 237. U.S. Depf of Agriculture. 0
A comprehensive but very terse guide. Not for the casual reader.


[222] Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1990 ISBN 0395467225
A
concise book dealing with almost 500 species. A line drawing of each
plant is included plus colour photographs of about 100 species. Very
good as a field guide, it only gives brief details about the plants
medicinal properties.

[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A
very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the
globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student.
Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries
for each plant.


[244] Phillips. R. & Foy. N. Herbs Pan Books Ltd. London. 1990 ISBN 0-330-30725-8
Deals
with all types of herbs including medicinal, culinary, scented and dye
plants. Excellent photographs with quite good information on each plant.

[254] Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London 1996 ISBN 9-780751-303148
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.



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Eriobotrya japonica - (Thunb.)Lindl. Loquat

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 14:33




Eriobotrya japonica -
(Thunb.)Lindl.


Loquat



Author(Thunb.)Lindl.
Botanical references11, 74, 200

FamilyRosaceae
GenusEriobotrya
SynonymsMespilus japonica - Thunb.

Photinia japonica - (Thunb.)Franch.&Sav.



Known HazardsThe
seed is slightly poisonous. This report probably refers to the hydrogen
cyanide that is found in many plants of this family, the seed should
only be used in small amounts if it is bitter[K]. In small quantities,
hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate respiration and improve
digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit in the treatment of
cancer. In excess, however, it can cause respiratory failure and even
death.
RangeE. Asia - China, Japan.
HabitatNot known in the wild[109].
Edibility Rating 4 (1-5)
Medicinal Rating 3 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics






An evergreen Tree growing to 9m by 5m at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone 7. It is in leaf all year, in flower from November
to March, and the seeds ripen from April to June. The flowers are
hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by
Insects.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires dry or moist soil.
The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Secondary; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; South Wall By; West Wall By;
Cultivars: (as above except)
'Advance'

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Fruit; Seed.


Edible Uses: Coffee.

Fruit - raw, cooked or preserved[46]. A slightly acid, sweet
aromatic flavour[200], they can be eaten out of hand or cooked in pies,
sauces, jellies etc[3]. Loquat pie, if made from fruit that is not
fully ripe, is said to taste like cherry pie[183]. The fruit is
produced in winter and early spring[132], it is up to 4cm in
diameter[200]. A nutritional analysis is available[218].
Seed - cooked. A pleasant flavour[142]. Caution is advised if the seed
is bitter, see notes at top of the page. The roasted seed is a coffee
substitute[105, 177, 183].

Composition


Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.

Fruit (Dry weight)
  • 360 Calories per 100g
  • Water: 0%
  • Protein: 3.6g; Fat: 3.2g; Carbohydrate: 90g; Fibre: 5.8g; Ash: 4g;
  • Minerals - Calcium: 290mg; Phosphorus: 190mg; Iron: 4.3mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 35mg; Potassium: 2650mg; Zinc: 0mg;
  • Vitamins - A: 5000mg; Thiamine (B1): 0.18mg; Riboflavin (B2): 4.9mg; Niacin: 2.3mg; B6: 0mg; C: 7.84mg;
  • Reference: [218]
  • Notes: The figures given are the median of a range quoted in the report.

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Analgesic; Antibacterial; Antiemetic; Antitussive; Antiviral; Astringent; Diuretic; Expectorant; Sedative.


The loquat is one of the most popular cough remedies in the Far East,
it is the ingredient of many patent medicines[238].
The leaves are analgesic, antibacterial, antiemetic, antitussive,
antiviral, astringent, diuretic and expectorant[7, 116, 147, 176, 218,
279]. A decoction of the leaves or young shoots is used as an
intestinal astringent and as a mouthwash in cases of thrush and also in
the treatment of bronchitis, coughs, feverish colds etc[7, 238]. The
leaves are harvested as required and can be used fresh or dried[238].
The hairs should be removed from the leaves in order to prevent
irritation of the throat[238].
The flowers are expectorant[218, 240].
The fruit is slightly astringent, expectorant and sedative[7, 240]. It
is used in allaying vomiting and thirst[240].

Other Uses


Wood.


Wood - hard, close grained. Used for rulers etc[146].

Scented Plants


Flowers: Fresh
The flowers emit a most potent oriental perfume.

Cultivation details



Prefers a fertile well-drained soil in full sun or light shade[200].
Succeeds in any well-drained soil but dislikes too much lime[3].
Prefers to be near the coast, tolerating maritime exposure but dislikes
cold winds[200]. Tolerates dry soils[200].
Succeeds in an open position in the milder areas of Britain but usually
requires wall protection in most of this country[11, 59]. Plants are
hardy to at least -5°c, and can survive to between -12 and -17°c but
with some damage[200]. Plants from different provenances differ widely
in their hardiness, it is best to obtain stock as cuttings from plants
that are established in this country[219]. Trees usually only flower
and produce fruit in Britain after a long hot summer[11, 202], but a
tree at Maidwell Hall in Northants fruits regularly[11]. The main
difficulty with producing a crop of fruit from this tree is that the
plant flower in the winter and will not ripen fruit of a satisfactory
standard if the winter is cold. Indeed, the fruit is rendered inedible
by hard frosts in cold areas[200].
Often cultivated for its edible fruit in warm temperate regions, there
are more than 800 cultivars in Japan[200]. 'Advance' is a dwarf tree
with very juicy fruits[200].
The flowers emit a most potent oriental perfume[245].




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Eriobotrya japonica - (Thunb.)Lindl. Loquat..Cont..d

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 14:34

Propagation



Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold fame in the
spring[200]. Pre-soak stored seed for 24 hours and sow late winter in a
warm greenhouse[78, 113]. Germination usually takes place within 1 - 4
months at 20°c. When they are large enough to handle, prick the
seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse
for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent
positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected
frosts.
Cuttings of half-ripe wood with a heel, July/August in a frame[200].
Cuttings of softwood, spring in a frame[78].
Air layering[200].

Cultivars


'Advance'
Medium to large, pear-shaped to elliptic-round fruits, deep yellow
in colour, borne in large compact clusters[183]. The skin is downy,
thick and tough, the flesh whitish, translucent, melting and very
juicy, the flavour sub-acid and very pleasant, the quality good[183].
Ripens mid-season[183]. The seeds are commonly 4 - 5 to a fruit, the
seed cavity is not large[183].
This cultivar is a natural dwarf, growing about 1.5 metres tall[183].
It is highly resistant to pear blight[183]. Self-infertile, it requires
a pollinator for fruit production[183]. 'Gold Nugget' is said to be a
good pollinator[183].
'Gold Nugget'
The fruit has a sweet orange flesh[260].

Links



This plant is also mentioned in the following PFAF articles:
Conservatory Plants.

References

[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[3] Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit. David and Charles 1972 ISBN 0-7153-5531-7
A
very readable book with information on about 100 species that can be
grown in Britain (some in greenhouses) and details on how to grow and
use them.


[7] Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald 1984 ISBN 0-356-10541-5
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.

[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.

[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An
excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short
descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the
plants. Not for the casual reader.


[59] Thurston. Trees and Shrubs in Cornwall. 0
Trees and shrubs that succeed in Cornwall based on the authors own observations. Good but rather dated.

[74] Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation 1968
An
immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of
the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but
heavy going for casual readers.

[78] Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co 1948
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.


[105] Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing 1976
The
most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the
briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are
more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.

[109] Wilson. E. H. Plantae Wilsonae. 0
Details
of the palnts collected by the plant collector E. H. Wilson on his
travels in China. Gives some habitats. Not for the casual reader.

[113] Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press 1987 ISBN 0942375009
A very detailed book on propagating trees. Not for the casual reader.


[116] Brooklyn Botanic Garden Oriental Herbs and Vegetables, Vol 39 No. 2. Brooklyn Botanic Garden 1986
A small booklet packed with information.

[132] Bianchini. F., Corbetta. F. and Pistoia. M. Fruits of the Earth. 0
Lovely pictures, a very readable book.

[142] Brouk. B. Plants Consumed by Man. Academic Press 1975 ISBN 0-12-136450-x
Readable but not very comprehensive.


[146] Gamble. J. S. A Manual of Indian Timbers. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh 1972
Written
last century, but still a classic, giving a lot of information on the
uses and habitats of Indian trees. Not for the casual reader.

[147] ? A Barefoot Doctors Manual. Running Press 0 ISBN 0-914294-92-X
A very readable herbal from China, combining some modern methods with traditional chinese methods.

[176] Yeung. Him-Che. Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas. Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles 1985
An
excellent Chinese herbal giving information on over 500 species. Rather
technical and probably best suited to the more accomplished user of
herbs.


[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.

[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent.
Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food
plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N.
American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other
nurseries from around the world.

[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.


[202] Davis. B. Climbers and Wall Shrubs. Viking. 1990 ISBN 0-670-82929-3
Contains
information on 2,000 species and cultivars, giving details of
cultivation requirements. The text is terse but informative.

[218] Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. 1985 ISBN 0-917256-20-4
Details
of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their
uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents.
Heavy going if you are not into the subject.

[219] Grey-Wilson. C. & Matthews. V. Gardening on Walls Collins 1983 ISBN 0-00-219220-0
A nice little book about plants for growing against walls and a small section on plants that can grow in walls.


[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A
very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the
globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student.
Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries
for each plant.

[240] Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. 1986
Very
terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of
references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for
the casual reader.

[245] Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. 1994 ISBN 0-7090-5440-8
An
excellent, comprehensive book on scented plants giving a few other
plant uses and brief cultivation details. There are no illustrations.


[260] Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Conservatory and Indoor Plants Volumes 1 & 2 Pan Books, London. 1998 ISBN 0-330-37376-5
Excellent
photos of over 1,100 species and cultivars with habits and cultivation
details plus a few plant uses. Many species are too tender for outdoors
in Britain though there are many that can be grown outside.

[279] Medicinal Plants in the Republic of Korea World Health Organisation, Manila 1998 ISBN 92 9061 120 0
An
excellent book with terse details about the medicinal uses of the
plants with references to scientific trials. All plants are described,
illustrated and brief details of habitats given.

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Fagus crenata - Blume. Japanese Beech

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 14:37




Fagus crenata -
Blume.


Japanese Beech



AuthorBlume.
Botanical references11, 58, 200

FamilyFagaceae
GenusFagus
Synonyms

Known Hazardswarning signAlthough
no specific mention has been seen for this species, large quantities of
the seed of many species in this genus are thought to be toxic.
RangeE. Asia - Japan.
HabitatForests all over Japan.

Edibility Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)
Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of evergreen tree
A decidious Tree growing to 35m at a slow rate.
It is hardy to zone 4 and is frost tender. The flowers are monoecious
(individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be
found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires dry or moist soil.


Habitats



Woodland Garden; Canopy;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Leaves; Seed.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Oil.

Young leaves - raw[105]. A very nice mild flavour but the leaves
quickly become tough so only the youngest should be used. New growth is
usually produced for 2 periods of 3 weeks each year, one in spring and
one in mid-summer.
Edible seed - raw or cooked[105, 177]. Rich in oil. The seed should not
be eaten in large quantities, see the notes above on toxicity. It can
be dried and ground into a powder.
An edible semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed[105, 177].
The roasted seed is a coffee substitute.


Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.


None known

Other Uses



None known

Cultivation details



Thrives on a light or medium soil[11], doing well on chalk[1], but it
is ill-adapted for heavy wet soils[1]. Young trees are very shade
tolerant, but are subject to frost damage so are best grown in a
woodland position which will protect them[200].
Although very cold hardy, this species requires hotter summers than are
normally experienced in Britain so is not usually a success here and is
very slow growing[200]. Trees have surface-feeding roots and also cast
a dense shade. This greatly inhibits the growth of other plants and,
especially where a number of the trees are growing together, the ground
beneath them is often almost devoid of vegetation.

Propagation



Seed - the seed has a short viability and is best sown as soon as it is
ripe in the autumn in a cold frame. Protect the seed from mice.
Germination takes place in the spring. When they are large enough to
handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on
in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into
their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the
last expected frosts. The seedlings are slow growing for the first few
years and are very susceptible to damage by late frosts. The seed can
also be sown in an outdoor seedbed in the autumn. The seedlings can be
left in the open ground for three years before transplanting, but do
best if put into their final positions as soon as possible and given
some protection from spring frosts.

Links


References

[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive
listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been
replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).

[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.


[58] Ohwi. G. Flora of Japan. (English translation) Smithsonian Institution 1965
The standard work. Brilliant, but not for the casual reader.

[105] Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing 1976
The
most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the
briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are
more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.

[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.


[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.



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Fagus grandifolia - Ehrh. American Beech

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 14:43




Fagus grandifolia -
Ehrh.


American Beech



AuthorEhrh.
Botanical references11, 43, 200

FamilyFagaceae
GenusFagus
Synonyms

Known Hazardswarning signLarge quantities of the raw seed may be toxic[159].
RangeEastern N. America - New Brunswick to Florida, west to Texas and Ontario.
HabitatRich
uplands and mountain slopes, often forming nearly pure forests[82]. In
the south of its range it is also found on the margins of streams and
swamps[43, 82].

Edibility Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of evergreen tree
A decidious Tree growing to 10m by 10m at a slow rate.
It is hardy to zone 4 and is frost tender. It is in flower from April
to May, and the seeds ripen from October to November. The flowers are
monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both
sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires dry or moist soil.


Habitats



Woodland Garden; Canopy; Secondary;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Inner bark; Leaves; Seed.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Oil.


Young leaves - raw or cooked as a potherb[183]. A very nice mild
flavour but the leaves quickly become tough so only the youngest should
be used. New growth is usually produced for 2 periods of 3 weeks each
year, one in spring and one in mid-summer.
Seed - raw or cooked. Small but very sweet and nutritious[82, 117, 171,
183, 227], it is sold in local markets in Canada and some parts of
America[82]. Rich in oil, the seed also contains up to 22%
protein[213]. The raw seed should not be eaten in large quantities
since it is believed to cause enteritis[159, 226]. It can be dried and
ground into a powder, then used with cereal flours in making bread,
cakes etc[183]. The germinating seeds can be eaten raw, they are
tender, crisp, sweet and nutty[183].
The roasted seed is a coffee substitute[183, 213].
An edible semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed[177, 183].
Inner bark[177]. Dried, ground into a powder and then used as a
thickening in soups etc or mixed with cereals when making bread[213].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Pectoral; Skin; Vermifuge.


A decoction of the boiled leaves has been used as a wash and poultice
to treat frostbite, burns, poison ivy rash etc[213, 222, 257].
The nuts have been eaten as a vermifuge[222, 257].
A tea made from the bark has been used in the treatment of lung
ailments[222, 257]. It has also been used to procure an abortion when
the mother was suffering[257].

Other Uses



Charcoal; Oil; Wood.


The oil obtained from the seed has been used as a fuel in oil
lamps[226].
Wood - strong, hard, heavy, very close grained, not durable, difficult
to cure[61, 82, 227]. It weighs 43lb per cubic foot[227]. Harvested
commercially, it is used for furniture, flooring, tool handles, crates
etc[227]. It makes an excellent charcoal and is used in artwork[61,
227].

Cultivation details



Thrives on a light or medium soil[11], doing well on chalk[1], but
ill-adapted for heavy wet soils[1]. Young trees are very shade
tolerant, but are subject to frost damage so are best grown in a
woodland position which will protect them[200].
Although very cold hardy, this species requires hotter summers than are
normally experienced in Britain so is not usually a success here and is
very slow growing[200].
The seeds are dispersed after the first frosts[227], they are sometimes
gathered and sold in local markets in N. America[82, 227]. Good crops
are produced every 2 - 3 years in the wild[227].
This species produces suckers[11] and often forms thickets in the
wild[227].
Trees have surface-feeding roots and also cast a dense shade, this
greatly inhibits the growth of other plants and, especially where a
number of the trees are growing together, the ground beneath them is
often almost devoid of vegetation[226, 227].

Propagation



Seed - the seed has a short viability and is best sown as soon as it is
ripe in the autumn in a cold frame. Protect the seed from mice.
Germination takes place in the spring. When they are large enough to
handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on
in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into
their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the
last expected frosts. The seedlings are slow growing for the first few
years and are very susceptible to damage by late frosts. The seed can
also be sown in an outdoor seedbed in the autumn. The seedlings can be
left in the open ground for three years before transplanting, but do
best if put into their final positions as soon as possible and given
some protection from spring frosts.

Links


References

[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive
listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been
replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).

[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.


[43] Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. 1950
A bit dated but good and concise flora of the eastern part of N. America.

[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget
the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a
very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very
brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.

[82] Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. 1965 ISBN 0-486-20278-X
Two
volumes, a comprehensive listing of N. American trees though a bit out
of date now. Good details on habitats, some details on plant uses. Not
really for the casual reader.


[117] Rosengarten. jnr. F. The Book of Edible Nuts. Walker & Co. 1984 ISBN 0802707699
A very readable and comprehensive guide. Well illustrated.

[159] McPherson. A. and S. Wild Food Plants of Indiana. Indiana University Press 1977 ISBN 0-253-28925-4
A nice pocket guide to this region of America.


[171] Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press 1952
Not very comprehensive, but it is quite readable and goes into some a bit of detail about the plants it does cover.

[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.

[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent.
Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food
plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N.
American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other
nurseries from around the world.


[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

[213] Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books 1980 ISBN 0-449-90589-6
A
nice book to read though it is difficult to look up individual plants
since the book is divided into separate sections dealing with the
different medicinal uses plus a section on edible plants. Common names
are used instead of botanical.

[222] Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1990 ISBN 0395467225
A
concise book dealing with almost 500 species. A line drawing of each
plant is included plus colour photographs of about 100 species. Very
good as a field guide, it only gives brief details about the plants
medicinal properties.


[226] Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. 1989 ISBN 0889025649
Very good on identification for non-experts, the book also has a lot of information on plant uses.

[227] Vines. R.A. Trees of North Texas University of Texas Press. 1982 ISBN 0292780206
A
readable guide to the area, it contains descriptions of the plants and
their habitats with quite a bit of information on plant uses.

[257] Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. 1998 ISBN 0-88192-453-9
Very
comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent
bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to
further information. Not for the casual reader.



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Fagus japonica - Maxim. Japanese Beech

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 14:45




Fagus japonica -
Maxim.


Japanese Beech



AuthorMaxim.
Botanical references11, 58, 200

FamilyFagaceae
GenusFagus
Synonyms

Known Hazardswarning signAlthough
no specific mention has been seen for this species, large quantities of
the seed of many species in this genus are thought to be toxic.
RangeE. Asia - Japan.
HabitatMountains in C. and S. Japan.

Edibility Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)
Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of evergreen tree
A decidious Tree growing to 22m at a slow rate.
It is hardy to zone 5 and is frost tender. The flowers are monoecious
(individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be
found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires dry or moist soil.


Habitats



Woodland Garden; Canopy;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Leaves; Seed.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Oil.

Young leaves - raw. A very nice mild flavour, but the leaves quickly
become tough so only the youngest should be used. New growth is usually
produced for 2 periods of 3 weeks each year, one in spring and one in
mid-summer.
Edible seed - raw or cooked. Rich in oil. The raw seed should not be
eaten in large quantities, see the notes above on toxicity. It can be
dried and ground into a powder.
An edible semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed[105, 177].
The roasted seed is a coffee substitute.


Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.


None known

Other Uses



None known

Cultivation details



Thrives on a light or medium soil[11], doing well on chalk[1], but
ill-adapted for heavy wet soils[1]. Young trees are very shade
tolerant, but are subject to frost damage so are best grown in a
woodland position which will protect them[200].
Although very cold hardy, this species requires hotter summers than are
normally experienced in Britain so is not usually a success here and is
very slow growing[200].
Trees have surface-feeding roots and also cast a dense shade. This
greatly inhibits the growth of other plants and, especially where a
number of the trees are growing together, the ground beneath them is
often almost devoid of vegetation.

Propagation



Seed - the seed has a short viability and is best sown as soon as it is
ripe in the autumn in a cold frame. Protect the seed from mice.
Germination takes place in the spring. When they are large enough to
handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on
in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into
their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the
last expected frosts. The seedlings are slow growing for the first few
years and are very susceptible to damage by late frosts. The seed can
also be sown in an outdoor seedbed in the autumn. The seedlings can be
left in the open ground for three years before transplanting, but do
best if put into their final positions as soon as possible and given
some protection from spring frosts.

Links


References

[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive
listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been
replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).

[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.


[58] Ohwi. G. Flora of Japan. (English translation) Smithsonian Institution 1965
The standard work. Brilliant, but not for the casual reader.

[105] Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing 1976
The
most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the
briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are
more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.

[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.


[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.



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Fagus longipetiolata - Seem.

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 15:19




Fagus longipetiolata -
Seem.



AuthorSeem.
Botanical references11, 200, 266
FamilyFagaceae

GenusFagus
Synonyms

Known Hazardswarning signAlthough
no specific mention has been seen for this species, large quantities of
the seed of many species in this genus are thought to be toxic.
RangeE. Asia - C. and W. China.
HabitatBroad-leaved
evergreen and mixed mesophytic forests on mountain slopes, occasionally
in pure stands but usually with oak, maple and other deciduous trees,
300 - 2400 metres[109, 266].
Edibility Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)

Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of evergreen tree
A decidious Tree growing to 22m.
It is hardy to zone 0 and is frost tender. It is in flower from April
to June, and the seeds ripen from September to November. The flowers
are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both
sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires dry or moist soil.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Canopy;

Edible Uses



Edible Parts: Leaves; Seed.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Oil.

Young leaves - raw. A very nice mild flavour, but the leaves quickly
become tough so only the youngest should be used. New growth is usually
produced for 2 periods of 3 weeks each year, one in spring and one in
mid-summer.
Edible seed - raw or cooked[105, 177]. Rich in oil. The seed should not
be eaten raw in large quantities. It can be dried and ground into a
powder and then used with cereal flours in making bread, cakes etc.
An edible semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed[105, 177].
The roasted seed is a coffee substitute.

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.



None known

Other Uses



None known

Cultivation details



Thrives on a light or medium soil[11], doing well on chalk[1], but
ill-adapted for heavy wet soils[1]. Young trees are very shade
tolerant, but are subject to frost damage so are best grown in a
woodland position which will protect them[200].
Although very cold hardy, this species requires hotter summers than are
normally experienced in Britain so is not usually a success here and is
very slow growing[200].
Trees have surface-feeding roots and also cast a dense shade. This
greatly inhibits the growth of other plants and, especially where a
number of the trees are growing together, the ground beneath them is
often almost devoid of vegetation.

Propagation



Seed - the seed has a short viability and is best sown as soon as it is
ripe in the autumn in a cold frame. Protect the seed from mice.
Germination takes place in the spring. When they are large enough to
handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on
in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into
their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the
last expected frosts. The seedlings are slow growing for the first few
years and are very susceptible to damage by late frosts. The seed can
also be sown in an outdoor seedbed in the autumn. The seedlings can be
left in the open ground for three years before transplanting, but do
best if put into their final positions as soon as possible and given
some protection from spring frosts.


Links


References

[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive
listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been
replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).

[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.


[105] Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing 1976
The
most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the
briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are
more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.

[109] Wilson. E. H. Plantae Wilsonae. 0
Details
of the palnts collected by the plant collector E. H. Wilson on his
travels in China. Gives some habitats. Not for the casual reader.

[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.


[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

[266] Flora of China 1994
On-line version of the Flora - an excellent resource giving basic info on habitat and some uses.



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Fagus lucida - Rehder.&E.H.Wilson.

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 15:22




Fagus lucida -
Rehder.&E.H.Wilson.



AuthorRehder.&E.H.Wilson.
Botanical references11, 200, 266

FamilyFagaceae
GenusFagus
Synonyms

Known Hazardswarning signAlthough
no specific mention has been seen for this species, large quantities of
the seed of many species in this genus are thought to be toxic.
RangeE. Asia - China.
HabitatMixed
woods, often in pure stands with F. engleriana[147]. Mixed mesophytic
forests on mountain slopes at elevations of 800 - 2000 metres[266].

Edibility Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)
Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of evergreen tree
A decidious Tree growing to 15m.
It is hardy to zone 6 and is frost tender. It is in flower from April
to June, and the seeds ripen from October to November. The flowers are
monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both
sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires dry or moist soil.


Habitats



Woodland Garden; Canopy;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Leaves; Seed.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Oil.

Young leaves - raw. A very nice mild flavour, but the leaves quickly
become tough so only the youngest should be used. New growth is usually
produced for 2 periods of 3 weeks each year, one in spring and one in
mid-summer.
Edible seed - raw or cooked[105, 177]. Rich in oil. The seed should not
be eaten in large quantities. It can be dried and ground into a powder,
then used with cereal flours in making bread, cakes etc.
An edible semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed[105, 177].
The roasted seed is a coffee substitute.


Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.


None known

Other Uses



None known

Cultivation details



Thrives on a light or medium soil[11], doing well on chalk[1], but
ill-adapted for heavy wet soils[1]. Young trees are very shade
tolerant, but are subject to frost damage so are best grown in a
woodland position which will protect them[200].
Although very cold hardy, this species requires hotter summers than are
normally experienced in Britain so is not usually a success here and is
very slow growing[200].
Trees have surface-feeding roots and also cast a dense shade. This
greatly inhibits the growth of other plants and, especially where a
number of the trees are growing together, the ground beneath them is
often almost devoid of vegetation.

Propagation



Seed - the seed has a short viability and is best sown as soon as it is
ripe in the autumn in a cold frame. Protect the seed from mice.
Germination takes place in the spring. When they are large enough to
handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on
in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into
their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the
last expected frosts. The seedlings are slow growing for the first few
years and are very susceptible to damage by late frosts. The seed can
also be sown in an outdoor seedbed in the autumn. The seedlings can be
left in the open ground for three years before transplanting, but do
best if put into their final positions as soon as possible and given
some protection from spring frosts.

Links


References

[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive
listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been
replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).

[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.


[105] Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing 1976
The
most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the
briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are
more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.

[147] ? A Barefoot Doctors Manual. Running Press 0 ISBN 0-914294-92-X
A very readable herbal from China, combining some modern methods with traditional chinese methods.

[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.


[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

[266] Flora of China 1994
On-line version of the Flora - an excellent resource giving basic info on habitat and some uses.



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