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Coffee Substitutes

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 07:14

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Coprosma serrulata -
Hook.f. ex Buch.















AuthorHook.f. ex Buch.Botanical references44, 200
FamilyRubiaceaeGenusCoprosma
Synonyms
Known HazardsNone known
RangeNew Zealand.
HabitatMontane to lower sub-alpine forest, shrubland and grassland, from latitude 41° south and southwards on South Island[44].
Edibility Ratingapple icon 1 (1-5)Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of shrub
An evergreen Shrub growing to 0.6m.
It is hardy to zone 8. It is in leaf all year. The flowers are
dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one
sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must
be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind.
The plant is not self-fertile.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil.
The plant prefers acid and neutral soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires moist soil.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; South Wall By; West Wall By;

Edible Uses



Edible Parts: Fruit.

Edible Uses: Coffee.


Fruit - raw or cooked. Sweet, but little flavour[225]. The orange-red fruits are about 8mm in diameter[225].
The roasted seed is an excellent coffee substitute[153].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.


None known


Other Uses


Dye.


A yellow dye is obtained from the wood, it does not require a mordant[153].

Cultivation details


Requires a moist, very well-drained neutral to slightly acid soil in
full sun or light shade[200]. Succeeds in most soils, so long as they
are well-drained[225].
Somewhat intolerant of frost, this species is only likely to succeed
outdoors in the milder areas of Britain[200]. Plants are proving to be
hardy in an Essex garden[225].
Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200, 225].
Plants are normally dioecious, though in some species the plants
produce a few flowers of the opposite sex before the main flowering and
a few hermaphrodite flowers are sometimes produced[225]. Male and
female plants must usually be grown if seed is required.

Propagation



Seed - probably best sown as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse or cold
frame[K]. Sow stored seed in spring in a cold frame[200]. Germination
can be slow, often taking more than 12 months even when fresh seed is
used[K]. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out
into individual pots. Grow on the plants for at least their first
winter in a greenhouse and plant out in late spring or early summer.
Give the plants some protection from the cold for their first winter
outdoors[K].
Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, autumn in a frame.


Links


References

[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[44] Allan. H. H. Flora of New Zealand. Government Printer, Wellington. 1961
The standard work, in 3 volumes though only the first two are of interest to the plant project. Very good on habitats.

[153] Brooker. S. G., Cambie. R. C. and Cooper. R. C. Economic Native Plants of New Zealand. Oxford University Press 1991 ISBN 0-19-558229-2
An interesting and readable book on the useful plants of New Zealand.


[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

[225] Knees. S. The New Plantsman. Volume 2, 1995. Royal Horticultural Society 1995 ISBN 1352-4186
A quarterly magazine, it has articles on Coprosma species,



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Fagus orientalis - Lipsky. Oriental Beech

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 15:23




Fagus orientalis -
Lipsky.


Oriental Beech



AuthorLipsky.
Botanical references11, 50, 200

FamilyFagaceae
GenusFagus
SynonymsFagus sylvatica orientalis - (Lipsky.)Greuter.&Burdet.


Known Hazardswarning signAlthough
no specific mention has been seen for this species, large quantities of
the seed of many species in this genus are thought to be toxic.
RangeE. Europe to W. Asia.

HabitatForests.
Edibility Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)
Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of evergreen tree
A decidious Tree growing to 20m by 15m at a medium rate.

It is hardy to zone 5 and is frost tender. The flowers are monoecious
(individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be
found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires dry or moist soil.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Canopy;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Leaves; Seed.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Oil.


Young leaves - raw. A very nice mild flavour, but the leaves quickly
become tough so only the youngest should be used. New growth is usually
produced for 2 periods of 3 weeks each year, one in spring and one in
mid-summer.
Seed - raw or cooked. Rich in oil. The seed should not be eaten raw in
large quantities. It can be dried and ground into a powder and then
used with cereal flours when making bread, cakes etc.
An edible semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed[105, 177, 183].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.


None known

Other Uses



None known

Cultivation details



Thrives on a light or medium soil, doing well on chalk, but ill-adapted
for heavy wet soil[1, 11]. Fairly tolerant of most conditions, this is
the most successful non-native species of Fagus in Britain[200].
Young trees are very shade tolerant, but are subject to frost damage so
are best grown in a woodland position which will protect them[200].
Hybridizes in nature with F. sylvatica[11].
Large mature trees at Kew produced a very good crop of seed in 1999[K].
Trees have surface-feeding roots and also cast a dense shade. This
greatly inhibits the growth of other plants and, especially where a
number of the trees are growing together, the ground beneath them is
often almost devoid of vegetation.


Propagation



Seed - the seed has a short viability and is best sown as soon as it is
ripe in the autumn in a cold frame. Protect the seed from mice.
Germination takes place in the spring. When they are large enough to
handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on
in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into
their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the
last expected frosts. The seedlings are slow growing for the first few
years and are very susceptible to damage by late frosts. The seed can
also be sown in an outdoor seedbed in the autumn. The seedlings can be
left in the open ground for three years before transplanting, but do
best if put into their final positions as soon as possible and given
some protection from spring frosts.

Links


References

[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive
listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been
replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).


[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.

[50] ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press 1964
An
immense work in 6 volumes (including the index). The standard reference
flora for europe, it is very terse though and with very little extra
information. Not for the casual reader.

[105] Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing 1976
The
most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the
briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are
more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.


[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.

[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent.
Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food
plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N.
American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other
nurseries from around the world.

[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.



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Fagus sylvatica - L. Beech

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 15:26




Fagus sylvatica -
L.


Beech



AuthorL.
Botanical references11, 17, 200

FamilyFagaceae
GenusFagus
Synonyms

Known Hazardswarning signLarge quantities of the seed may be toxic[65, 76].
RangeEurope, including Britain, from Norway south and east to Spain, Greece, W. Russia and the Crimea.
HabitatGrows
in woodlands where it is often the dominant species, especially on
chalky and soft limestone soils, though sometimes also on well-drained
loams and sands[13, 17].

Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 4 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of evergreen tree
A decidious Tree growing to 30m by 15m at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone 5 and is frost tender. It is in flower from April
to May, and the seeds ripen from September to October. The flowers are
monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both
sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid and very alkaline soils.
It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires dry or moist soil.
The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.
It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.


Habitats



Woodland Garden; Canopy; Hedge;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Leaves; Seed.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Oil.

Young leaves - raw[183]. A very nice mild flavour, they go well in a
mixed salad. However, the leaves quickly become tough so only the
youngest should be used[2, 5, 12, K]. New growth is usually produced
for 2 periods of 3 weeks each year, one in spring and one in
mid-summer.
Seed - raw or cooked[2, 5, 7, 63, 183]. A pleasant sweet flavour,
though rather small and fiddly[K]. The seed can also be dried and
ground into a powder and then used with cereal flours when making
bread, cakes etc[12]. The seed is rich in oil. The seed should not be
eaten in large quantities because it contains a deleterious
principle[65, 238].
The seed contains 17 - 20% of an edible semi-drying oil[4, 7, 8, 57].
This stores well without going rancid and is said to be equal in
delicacy to olive oil[183]. It is used as a dressing for salads and
also for cooking[238]. The seed residue is poisonous[9, 57].
The roasted seed is used as a coffee substitute[2, 63].


Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antacid; Antipyretic; Antiseptic; Antitussive; Bach; Expectorant; Odontalgic; Skin.


The bark is antacid, antipyretic, antiseptic, antitussive, expectorant,
odontalgic[7, 9].
A tar (or creosote), obtained by dry distillation of the branches, is
stimulating and antiseptic[4]. It is used internally as a stimulating
expectorant and externally as an application to various skin
diseases[4, 238]. The pure creosote has been used to give relief from
toothache, but it should not be used without expert guidance[7].
The plant is used in Bach flower remedies - the keywords for
prescribing it are 'Intolerance', 'Criticism' and 'Passing
judgements'[209].

Other Uses


Charcoal; Fuel; Hedge; Stuffing; Teeth; Wood.


A semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed, it is used as a fuel for
lighting, as a lubricant, for polishing wood etc[12, 13, 46, 57, 63].
The seed residue is poisonous[9, 57].
The leaf buds harvested in the winter and dried on the twigs are used
as toothpicks[66].
The leaves are gathered in autumn and used as a stuffing material for
mattresses etc[115].
Wood - hard, heavy, strong, very durable[13, 46]. It is not suitable
for outdoor use[1] and is often attacked by a small beetle[4]. It has a
wide range of applications, including furniture, flooring, turnery
etc[100]. It makes a very good fuel[6, 66], burning with a lot of
heat[4], and yields a charcoal known as 'Carbo Ligni Pulveratus'[46].
The wood has often been used as a source of creosote, tar, methyl
alcohol. acetic acid[123].

Cultivation details



Thrives on a light or medium soil, doing well on chalk, but ill-adapted
for a heavy wet soil[1, 11]. Prefers a calcareous soil but succeeds in
acid soils though it does not make such a fine tree in such a
situation[186]. Succeeds in almost any soil and any pH, it is also very
tolerant of a wide range of climatic conditions so long as there is
sufficient rainfall[200]. Established trees are drought tolerant[186].
Very wind tolerant but dislikes salt[200]. Trees are shallow rooted and
this might make them less wind resistant[186].
Trees have two growth periods a year, each of about 3 weeks in
duration. The first is in spring around the end of April, the second is
in summer, around the end of July.
Trees are often slow growing and also can be very slow to establish
after transplanting. However, in good conditions they are capable of
growing up to a metre in a year.
Young trees are very shade tolerant, but are subject to frost damage to
their flowers and young leaves and so are best grown in a woodland
position which will protect them[200].
An important food plant for many caterpillars, it has 64 species of
associated insects[24]. Trees have a heavy canopy and cast a dense
shade, very few other species can grow in a dense beech wood and on
suitable soils it becomes the dominant species[186].
Very intolerant of coppicing, trees producing none or only very weak
growth afterwards and this is soon smothered by other plants[186].
Plants are very tolerant of light pruning however and if this is
carried out in late summer the plants will retain their dead leaves
over winter[29].
There are many named forms selected for their ornamental value. Those
forms with purple leaves prefer a position in full sun whilst forms
with yellow leaves prefer some shade[188].
This species is notably resistant to honey fungus[200].




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Fagus sylvatica - L. Beech..Contd

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 15:26

Propagation



Seed - the seed has a short viability and is best sown as soon as it is
ripe in the autumn in a cold frame. Protect the seed from mice.
Germination takes place in the spring. When they are large enough to
handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on
in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into
their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the
last expected frosts. The seedlings are slow growing for the first few
years and are very susceptible to damage by late frosts. The seed can
also be sown in an outdoor seedbed in the autumn[186]. The seedlings
can be left in the open ground for three years before transplanting,
but do best if put into their final positions as soon as possible and
given some protection from spring frosts.

Cultivars


There are some named forms for this species, but these have
been developed for their ornamental value and not for their other uses.
Unless you particularly require the special characteristics of any of
these cultivars, we would generally recommend that you grow the natural
species for its useful properties. We have, therefore, not listed the
cultivars in this database[K].

Links


This plant is also mentioned in the following PFAF articles:
Alternative Lighting: Plant Oils and Waxes, Vegtable Oils.

References

[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive
listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been
replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).


[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.

[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.

[5] Mabey. R. Food for Free. Collins 1974 ISBN 0-00-219060-5
Edible
wild plants found in Britain. Fairly comprehensive, very few pictures
and rather optimistic on the desirability of some of the plants.


[6] Mabey. R. Plants with a Purpose. Fontana 1979 ISBN 0-00-635555-2
Details on some of the useful wild plants of Britain. Poor on pictures but otherwise very good.

[7] Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald 1984 ISBN 0-356-10541-5
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.

[8] Ceres. Free for All. Thorsons Publishers 1977 ISBN 0-7225-0445-4
Edible wild plants in Britain. Small booklet, nothing special.


[9] Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn 1981 ISBN 0-600-37216-2
Covers plants in Europe. a drawing of each plant, quite a bit of interesting information.

[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.

[12] Loewenfeld. C. and Back. P. Britain's Wild Larder. David and Charles 0 ISBN 0-7153-7971-2
A handy pocket guide.


[13] Triska. Dr. Hamlyn Encyclopaedia of Plants. Hamlyn 1975 ISBN 0-600-33545-3
Very interesting reading, giving some details of plant uses and quite a lot of folk-lore.

[17] Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press 1962
A very comprehensive flora, the standard reference book but it has no pictures.

[24] Baines. C. Making a Wildlife Garden. 0
Fairly good with lots of ideas about creating wildlife areas in the garden.


[29] Shepherd. F.W. Hedges and Screens. Royal Horticultural Society. 1974 ISBN 0900629649
A small but informative booklet giving details of all the hedging plants being grown in the R.H.S. gardens at Wisley in Surrey.

[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An
excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short
descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the
plants. Not for the casual reader.

[57] Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. 0
Fairly readable but not very comprehensive. Deals with plants from around the world.


[63] Howes. F. N. Nuts. Faber 1948
Rather old but
still a masterpiece. Has sections on tropical and temperate plants with
edible nuts plus a section on nut plants in Britain. Very readable.

[65] Frohne. D. and Pfänder. J. A Colour Atlas of Poisonous Plants. Wolfe 1984 ISBN 0723408394
Brilliant. Goes into technical details but in a very readable way. The best work on the subject that I've come across so far.

[66] Freethy. R. From Agar to Zenery. The Crowood Press 1985 ISBN 0-946284-51-2
Very readable, giving details on plant uses based on the authors own experiences.


[76] Cooper. M. and Johnson. A. Poisonous Plants in Britain and their Effects on Animals and Man. HMSO 1984 ISBN 0112425291
Concentrates mainly on the effects of poisonous plants to livestock.

[100] Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press 1969 ISBN 0192176218
An excellent and well illustrated pocket guide for those with very large pockets. Also gives some details on plant uses.

[115] Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. 0
Written about a hundred years ago, but still a very good guide to the useful plants of Britain.


[123] ? Encyclopaedia Britannica. 15th edition. 0
It contains a few things of interest to the plant project.

[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent.
Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food
plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N.
American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other
nurseries from around the world.

[186] Beckett. G. and K. Planting Native Trees and Shrubs. Jarrold 1979
An excellent guide to native British trees and shrubs with lots of details about the plants.


[188] Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. 1990 ISBN 0-86318-386-7
Excellent range of photographs, some cultivation details but very little information on plant uses.

[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

[209] Chancellor. P. M. Handbook of the Bach Flower Remedies C. W. Daniel Co. Ltd. 1985 ISBN 85207 002 0
Details the 38 remedies plus how and where to prescribe them.


[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A
very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the
globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student.
Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries
for each plant.

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Fragaria vesca - L. Wild Strawberry

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 15:28




Fragaria vesca -
L.


Wild Strawberry



AuthorL.
Botanical references17, 200

FamilyRosaceae
GenusFragaria
Synonyms

Known HazardsNone known
RangeMost of Europe, including Britain, to temperate Asia.
HabitatWoods, grassland and scrub, on basic soils, sometimes becoming locally dominant in wods on calcareous soils[9, 17].

Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Perennial growing to 0.25m by 1m.
It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from
April to July, and the seeds ripen from May to September. The flowers
are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated
by Bees, flies, Lepidoptera (Moths & Butterflies).

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires moist soil.



Habitats


Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Fruit; Leaves.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Tea.


Fruit - raw, cooked or made into preserves[2, 12, 101, 183]. Sweet
and succulent. An exquisite flavour but the fruits are usually very
small and fiddly[53, 132], though they can be up to 10mm in
diameter[200]. Rich in iron and potassium, the fruit is an excellent
addition to the diet of people suffering from anaemia[244].
Young leaves - raw or cooked[52, 105]. Added to salads or used as a
potherb[183].
The fresh or dried leaves are used as a tea substitute[7, 177, 183,
257]. A delicious drink, it is ideal for children[244].
The root has been used as a coffee substitute in India[240].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Astringent; Diuretic; Laxative; Tonic.


The leaves and the fruit are mildly astringent, diuretic, laxative and
tonic[4, 9, 222, 254]. The leaves are mainly used, though the fruits
are an excellent food to take when feverish and are also effective in
treating rheumatic gout[4]. A slice of strawberry is also excellent
when applied externally to sunburnt skin[4]. A tea made from the leaves
is a blood tonic and has been used as a treatment for diarrhoea in
adults and children[222, 257]. It is used in the treatment of
chilblains[53] and also as an external wash on sunburn[222]. A poultice
can be made from the powdered leaves mixed in oil, it is used to treat
open sores[257]. The leaves are harvested in the summer and dried for
later use[238].
The fruits contain salicylic acid and are beneficial in the treatment
of liver and kidney complaints, as well as in the treatment of
rheumatism and gout[244].
The roots are astringent and diuretic[4, 222]. A decoction is used
internally in the treatment of diarrhoea and chronic dysentery[4, 244,
257]. Externally it is used to treat chilblains and as a throat
gargle[244]. The roots are harvested in the autumn and dried for later
use[238].


Other Uses


Cosmetic; Teeth.


The fruit is used as a tooth cleaner[4]. The fresh fruit removes stains
from teeth if it is allowed to remain for about 5 minutes[4].
The fruit is also used cosmetically in skin-care creams[7]. It tones
and whitens the skin, combats wrinkles, lightens freckles, soothes
sunburn and whitens the teeth[244].

Cultivation details



Prefers a fertile, well-drained, moisture retentive soil in a sunny
position. Tolerates semi-shade though fruit production will be reduced.
Succeeds on acid and alkaline soils. Likes a mulch of pine or spruce
leaves.
Does well on woodland edges.
Plants spread rapidly by means of runners[K].

Propagation



Seed - sow early spring in a greenhouse. The seed can take 4 weeks or
more to germinate. The seedlings are very small and slow-growing at
first, but then grow rapidly. Prick them out into individual pots when
they are large enough to handle and plant them out during the summer.
Division of runners, preferably done in July/August in order to allow
the plants to become established for the following years crop[200].
They can also be moved in the following spring if required, though
should not then be allowed to fruit in their first year. The runners
can be planted out direct into their permanent positions.

Links


This plant is also mentioned in the following PFAF articles:
The Potted Garden, The Woodland Edge Garden.

References

[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.


[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.

[7] Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald 1984 ISBN 0-356-10541-5
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.

[9] Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn 1981 ISBN 0-600-37216-2
Covers plants in Europe. a drawing of each plant, quite a bit of interesting information.


[12] Loewenfeld. C. and Back. P. Britain's Wild Larder. David and Charles 0 ISBN 0-7153-7971-2
A handy pocket guide.

[17] Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press 1962
A very comprehensive flora, the standard reference book but it has no pictures.

[52] Larkcom. J. Salads all the Year Round. Hamlyn 1980
A good and comprehensive guide to temperate salad plants, with full organic details of cultivation.


[53] De. Bray. L. The Wild Garden. 0
Interesting reading.

[101] Turner. N. J. and Szczawinski. A. Edible Wild Fruits and Nuts of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences 1978
A very readable guide to some wild foods of Canada.

[105] Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing 1976
The
most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the
briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are
more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.


[132] Bianchini. F., Corbetta. F. and Pistoia. M. Fruits of the Earth. 0
Lovely pictures, a very readable book.

[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.

[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent.
Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food
plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N.
American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other
nurseries from around the world.


[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

[222] Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1990 ISBN 0395467225
A
concise book dealing with almost 500 species. A line drawing of each
plant is included plus colour photographs of about 100 species. Very
good as a field guide, it only gives brief details about the plants
medicinal properties.


[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A
very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the
globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student.
Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries
for each plant.

[240] Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. 1986
Very
terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of
references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for
the casual reader.

[244] Phillips. R. & Foy. N. Herbs Pan Books Ltd. London. 1990 ISBN 0-330-30725-8
Deals
with all types of herbs including medicinal, culinary, scented and dye
plants. Excellent photographs with quite good information on each plant.


[254] Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London 1996 ISBN 9-780751-303148
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.

[257] Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. 1998 ISBN 0-88192-453-9
Very
comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent
bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to
further information. Not for the casual reader.



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Galium aparine - L. Goosegrass

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 15:30




Galium aparine -
L.


Goosegrass



AuthorL.
Botanical references17

FamilyRubiaceae
GenusGalium
Synonyms

Known Hazardswarning signThe sap of the plant can cause contact dermatitis in sensitive people[222].
RangeEurope, including Britain, from Scandanavia south and east to Spain, N. and W. Asia.
HabitatHedgerows and as a weed of cultivated land[7]. Moist and grassy places on most types of soil[17].

Edibility Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Annual growing to 1.2m by 3m.
It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from
June to August, and the seeds ripen from August to September. The
flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are
pollinated by Flies, beetles.
The plant is self-fertile.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires dry or moist soil.


Habitats



Woodland Garden; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; Deep Shade; Hedgerow;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Leaves.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Tea.

The tender young shoot tips - raw or cooked as a pot-herb[5, 7, 53,
55, 62, 172, 183]. A rather bitter flavour that some people find
unpalatable[244], they are best used in the spring[178]. They make a
useful addition to vegetable soups[7, 244]. It is said that using this
plant as a vegetable has a slimming effect on the body[238].
The roasted seed is a coffee substitute[2, 53, 62]. One of the best
substitutes, it merely needs to be dried and lightly roasted and has
much the flavour of coffee[4, 115, 183].
A decoction of the whole dried plant gives a drink equal to tea[2, 4].

Medicinal Uses



Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Alterative; Antiphlogistic; Aperient; Astringent; Cancer; Depurative; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Febrifuge; Homeopathy; Skin; Tonic; Vulnerary.


Goosegrass has a long history of domestic medicinal use and is also
used widely by modern herbalists. A valuable diuretic, it is often
taken to treat skin problems such as seborrhoea, eczema and psoriasis,
and as a general detoxifying agent in serious illnesses such as
cancer[254].
The whole plant, excluding the root, is alterative, antiphlogistic,
aperient, astringent, depurative, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifuge,
tonic and vulnerary[4, 7, 9, 21, 165, 218, 222]. It is harvested in May
and June as it comes into flower and can be used fresh or dried for
later use[4, 238]. It is used both internally and externally in the
treatment of a wide range of ailments, including as a poultice for
wounds, ulcers and many other skin problems[4, 7, 244], and as a
decoction for insomnia and cases where a strong diuretic is
beneficial[4]. It has been shown of benefit in the treatment of
glandular fever, ME, tonsillitis, hepatitis, cystitis etc[238]. The
plant is often used as part of a spring tonic drink with other
herbs[4].
A tea made from the plant has traditionally been used internally and
externally in the treatment of cancer[4, 218, 222]. One report says
that it is better to use a juice of the plant rather than a tea[254].
The effectiveness of this treatment has never been proved or
disproved[7].
A number of species in this genus contain asperuloside, a substance
that produces coumarin and gives the scent of new-mown hay as the plant
dries[238]. Asperuloside can be converted into prostaglandins
(hormone-like compounds that stimulate the uterus and affect blood
vessels), making the genus of great interest to the pharmaceutical
industry[238].
A homeopathic remedy has been made from the plant[7].

Other Uses


Cleanser; Dye; Filter; Tinder.


A red dye is obtained from a decoction of the root[4, 7, 168]. When ingested it can dye the bones red[4].
The dried plant is used as a tinder[99].
The plant can be rubbed on the hands to remove pitch (tar)[99].
The stems are placed in a layer 8cm or more thick and then used as a sieve for filtering liquids[4, 115, 172].


Cultivation details



Prefers a loose moist leafy soil in some shade[200]. Plants tolerate
dry soils, but they quickly become scorched when growing in full
sun[200]. They do not thrive in a hot climate[200]. Another report says
that plants succeed in most soils in full sun or heavy shade.
A scrambling plant, the stems and leaves are covered with little hooked
bristles by which it can adhere to other plants and climb into them[4].
A good species to grow in the wild garden, it provides food for the
larvae of many butterfly species[30].

Propagation



Seed - best sown in situ as soon as the seed is ripe in late
summer[200]. The seed can also be sown in spring though it may be very
slow to germinate[200]. Once established, this plant does not really
need any help to reproduce itself.

Links


References

[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.


[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.

[5] Mabey. R. Food for Free. Collins 1974 ISBN 0-00-219060-5
Edible
wild plants found in Britain. Fairly comprehensive, very few pictures
and rather optimistic on the desirability of some of the plants.

[7] Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald 1984 ISBN 0-356-10541-5
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.


[9] Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn 1981 ISBN 0-600-37216-2
Covers plants in Europe. a drawing of each plant, quite a bit of interesting information.

[17] Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press 1962
A very comprehensive flora, the standard reference book but it has no pictures.

[21] Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books 1983 ISBN 0-553-23827-2
Lots of information tightly crammed into a fairly small book.


[30] Carter D. Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe. Pan 1982 ISBN 0-330-26642-x
An excellent book on Lepidoptera, it also lists their favourite food plants.

[53] De. Bray. L. The Wild Garden. 0
Interesting reading.

[55] Harris. B. C. Eat the Weeds. Pivot Health 1973
Interesting reading.


[62] Elias. T. and Dykeman. P. A Field Guide to N. American Edible Wild Plants. Van Nostrand Reinhold 1982 ISBN 0442222009
Very readable.

[99] Turner. N. J. Plants in British Columbian Indian Technology. British Columbia Provincial Museum 1979 ISBN 0-7718-8117-7
Excellent and readable guide.

[115] Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. 0
Written about a hundred years ago, but still a very good guide to the useful plants of Britain.


[165] Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. 0
An excellent small herbal.

[168] Grae. I. Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants. MacMillan Publishing Co. New York. 1974 ISBN 0-02-544950-8
A very good and readable book on dyeing.

[172] Schofield. J. J. Discovering Wild Plants - Alaska, W. Canada and the Northwest. 0
A nice guide to some useful plants in that area.


[178] Stuart. Rev. G. A. Chinese Materia Medica. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre 0
A translation of an ancient Chinese herbal. Fascinating.

[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent.
Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food
plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N.
American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other
nurseries from around the world.

[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.


[218] Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. 1985 ISBN 0-917256-20-4
Details
of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their
uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents.
Heavy going if you are not into the subject.

[222] Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1990 ISBN 0395467225
A
concise book dealing with almost 500 species. A line drawing of each
plant is included plus colour photographs of about 100 species. Very
good as a field guide, it only gives brief details about the plants
medicinal properties.


[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A
very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the
globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student.
Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries
for each plant.

[244] Phillips. R. & Foy. N. Herbs Pan Books Ltd. London. 1990 ISBN 0-330-30725-8
Deals
with all types of herbs including medicinal, culinary, scented and dye
plants. Excellent photographs with quite good information on each plant.


[254] Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London 1996 ISBN 9-780751-303148
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.



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Galium verum - L. Lady's Bedstraw

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 15:32




Galium verum -
L.


Lady's Bedstraw



AuthorL.
Botanical references17, 200

FamilyRubiaceae
GenusGalium
Synonyms

Known HazardsNone known
RangeMost of Europe, including Britain, to W. Asia.
HabitatWaste ground, roadsides etc[7], mainly near the sea[4], on all but the most acid soils[17].

Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Perennial growing to 0.6m by 1m.
It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from
July to August, and the seeds ripen from August to September. The
flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are
pollinated by Flies, beetles.
The plant is self-fertile.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires dry or moist soil.
The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.


Habitats



Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Meadow;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Leaves; Seed.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Colouring; Curdling agent; Drink.


Leaves - raw or cooked[62, 179].
A yellow dye from the flowering stems is used as a food colouring[105, 183].
The roasted seed is a coffee substitute[7]. The seed is also said to be edible[179].
The chopped up plant can be used as a rennet to coagulate plant milks[7, 67, 115, 183, 244].
The flowering tops are distilled in water to make a refreshing acid beverage[2, 183].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antispasmodic; Astringent; Diuretic; Foot care; Lithontripic; Vulnerary.


Lady's bedstraw has a long history of use as a herbal medicine,
though it is little used in modern medicine. Its main application is as
a diuretic and as a treatment for skin complaints[254].
The leaves, stems and flowering shoots are antispasmodic, astringent,
diuretic, foot care, lithontripic and vulnerary[4, 7, 9]. The plant is
used as a remedy in gravel, stone or urinary disorders[4, 9, 53, 238]
and is believed to be a remedy for epilepsy[4, 21]. A powder made from
the fresh plant is used to soothe reddened skin and reduce
inflammation[7] whilst the plant is also used as a poultice on cuts,
skin infections, slow-healing wounds etc[9]. The plant is harvested as
it comes into flower and is dried for later use[9].
A number of species in this genus contain asperuloside, a substance
that produces coumarin and gives the scent of new-mown hay as the plant
dries[238]. Asperuloside can be converted into prostaglandins
(hormone-like compounds that stimulate the uterus and affect blood
vessels), making the genus of great interest to the pharmaceutical
industry[238].

Other Uses


Dye; Repellent; Strewing; Stuffing.


A red dye is obtained from the root[4, 6, 7, 67, 115]. It is rather
fiddly to utilize[169].
A yellow dye is obtained from the flowering tops[4, 7, 115]. The dye is
obtained from the foliage when it is boiled with alum[207].
The dried plant has the scent of newly mown hay, it was formerly used
as a strewing herb[24] and for stuffing mattresses etc[61, 67, 115]. It
is said to keep fleas away[207].
A sprig in a shoe is said to prevent blisters[67].

Cultivation details



Prefers a loose moist leafy soil in some shade, but it tolerates a
position in full sun[14]. Plants are tolerant of dry soils[1], but do
not thrive in a hot climate. They dislike very acid soils[17, 53].
A very invasive plant[1], though it is low-growing and mixes without
harm with any plants at least 60cm tall[K]. It grows well in the summer
meadow[24] and is a food plant for the larvae of several species of
butterflies[30].

Propagation



Seed - best sown in situ as soon as it is ripe in late summer[200]. The
seed can also be sown in situ in the spring though it may be very slow
to germinate[200].
Division in spring. The plant can be successfully divided throughout
the growing season if the divisions are kept moist until they are
established[200]. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct into
their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller clumps
and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well. Plant
them out in the spring.

Links


References

[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive
listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been
replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).


[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.

[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.

[6] Mabey. R. Plants with a Purpose. Fontana 1979 ISBN 0-00-635555-2
Details on some of the useful wild plants of Britain. Poor on pictures but otherwise very good.


[7] Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald 1984 ISBN 0-356-10541-5
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.

[9] Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn 1981 ISBN 0-600-37216-2
Covers plants in Europe. a drawing of each plant, quite a bit of interesting information.

[14] Holtom. J. and Hylton. W. Complete Guide to Herbs. Rodale Press 1979 ISBN 0-87857-262-7
A good herbal.


[17] Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press 1962
A very comprehensive flora, the standard reference book but it has no pictures.

[21] Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books 1983 ISBN 0-553-23827-2
Lots of information tightly crammed into a fairly small book.

[24] Baines. C. Making a Wildlife Garden. 0
Fairly good with lots of ideas about creating wildlife areas in the garden.


[30] Carter D. Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe. Pan 1982 ISBN 0-330-26642-x
An excellent book on Lepidoptera, it also lists their favourite food plants.

[53] De. Bray. L. The Wild Garden. 0
Interesting reading.

[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget
the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a
very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very
brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.


[62] Elias. T. and Dykeman. P. A Field Guide to N. American Edible Wild Plants. Van Nostrand Reinhold 1982 ISBN 0442222009
Very readable.

[67] Ahrendt. Berberis and Mahonia. Journal of the Linnean Society, 57 1961
Not
for the casual reader, it lists all the known species in these two
genera together with botanic descriptions and other relevant details
for the botanist.

[105] Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing 1976
The
most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the
briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are
more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.


[115] Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. 0
Written about a hundred years ago, but still a very good guide to the useful plants of Britain.

[169] Buchanan. R. A Weavers Garden. 0
Covers all aspects of growing your own clothes, from fibre plants to dyes.

[179] Reid. B. E. Famine Foods of the Chiu-Huang Pen-ts'ao. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre 1977
A translation of an ancient Chinese book on edible wild foods. Fascinating.


[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent.
Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food
plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N.
American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other
nurseries from around the world.

[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

[207] Coffey. T. The History and Folklore of North American Wild Flowers. Facts on File. 1993 ISBN 0-8160-2624-6
A nice read, lots of information on plant uses.


[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A
very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the
globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student.
Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries
for each plant.

[244] Phillips. R. & Foy. N. Herbs Pan Books Ltd. London. 1990 ISBN 0-330-30725-8
Deals
with all types of herbs including medicinal, culinary, scented and dye
plants. Excellent photographs with quite good information on each plant.


[254] Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London 1996 ISBN 9-780751-303148
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.



_________________
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Don't leave home without 'em!!!
avatar
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Posts : 537
Join date : 2009-07-12
Age : 68
Location : Galveston, TX

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Galium aparine - L. Goosegrass

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 15:34




Galium aparine -
L.


Goosegrass



AuthorL.
Botanical references17

FamilyRubiaceae
GenusGalium
Synonyms

Known Hazardswarning signThe sap of the plant can cause contact dermatitis in sensitive people[222].
RangeEurope, including Britain, from Scandanavia south and east to Spain, N. and W. Asia.
HabitatHedgerows and as a weed of cultivated land[7]. Moist and grassy places on most types of soil[17].

Edibility Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Annual growing to 1.2m by 3m.
It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from
June to August, and the seeds ripen from August to September. The
flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are
pollinated by Flies, beetles.
The plant is self-fertile.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires dry or moist soil.


Habitats



Woodland Garden; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; Deep Shade; Hedgerow;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Leaves.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Tea.

The tender young shoot tips - raw or cooked as a pot-herb[5, 7, 53,
55, 62, 172, 183]. A rather bitter flavour that some people find
unpalatable[244], they are best used in the spring[178]. They make a
useful addition to vegetable soups[7, 244]. It is said that using this
plant as a vegetable has a slimming effect on the body[238].
The roasted seed is a coffee substitute[2, 53, 62]. One of the best
substitutes, it merely needs to be dried and lightly roasted and has
much the flavour of coffee[4, 115, 183].
A decoction of the whole dried plant gives a drink equal to tea[2, 4].

Medicinal Uses



Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Alterative; Antiphlogistic; Aperient; Astringent; Cancer; Depurative; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Febrifuge; Homeopathy; Skin; Tonic; Vulnerary.


Goosegrass has a long history of domestic medicinal use and is also
used widely by modern herbalists. A valuable diuretic, it is often
taken to treat skin problems such as seborrhoea, eczema and psoriasis,
and as a general detoxifying agent in serious illnesses such as
cancer[254].
The whole plant, excluding the root, is alterative, antiphlogistic,
aperient, astringent, depurative, diaphoretic, diuretic, febrifuge,
tonic and vulnerary[4, 7, 9, 21, 165, 218, 222]. It is harvested in May
and June as it comes into flower and can be used fresh or dried for
later use[4, 238]. It is used both internally and externally in the
treatment of a wide range of ailments, including as a poultice for
wounds, ulcers and many other skin problems[4, 7, 244], and as a
decoction for insomnia and cases where a strong diuretic is
beneficial[4]. It has been shown of benefit in the treatment of
glandular fever, ME, tonsillitis, hepatitis, cystitis etc[238]. The
plant is often used as part of a spring tonic drink with other
herbs[4].
A tea made from the plant has traditionally been used internally and
externally in the treatment of cancer[4, 218, 222]. One report says
that it is better to use a juice of the plant rather than a tea[254].
The effectiveness of this treatment has never been proved or
disproved[7].
A number of species in this genus contain asperuloside, a substance
that produces coumarin and gives the scent of new-mown hay as the plant
dries[238]. Asperuloside can be converted into prostaglandins
(hormone-like compounds that stimulate the uterus and affect blood
vessels), making the genus of great interest to the pharmaceutical
industry[238].
A homeopathic remedy has been made from the plant[7].

Other Uses


Cleanser; Dye; Filter; Tinder.


A red dye is obtained from a decoction of the root[4, 7, 168]. When ingested it can dye the bones red[4].
The dried plant is used as a tinder[99].
The plant can be rubbed on the hands to remove pitch (tar)[99].
The stems are placed in a layer 8cm or more thick and then used as a sieve for filtering liquids[4, 115, 172].


Cultivation details



Prefers a loose moist leafy soil in some shade[200]. Plants tolerate
dry soils, but they quickly become scorched when growing in full
sun[200]. They do not thrive in a hot climate[200]. Another report says
that plants succeed in most soils in full sun or heavy shade.
A scrambling plant, the stems and leaves are covered with little hooked
bristles by which it can adhere to other plants and climb into them[4].
A good species to grow in the wild garden, it provides food for the
larvae of many butterfly species[30].

Propagation



Seed - best sown in situ as soon as the seed is ripe in late
summer[200]. The seed can also be sown in spring though it may be very
slow to germinate[200]. Once established, this plant does not really
need any help to reproduce itself.

Links


References

[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.


[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.

[5] Mabey. R. Food for Free. Collins 1974 ISBN 0-00-219060-5
Edible
wild plants found in Britain. Fairly comprehensive, very few pictures
and rather optimistic on the desirability of some of the plants.

[7] Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald 1984 ISBN 0-356-10541-5
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.


[9] Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn 1981 ISBN 0-600-37216-2
Covers plants in Europe. a drawing of each plant, quite a bit of interesting information.

[17] Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press 1962
A very comprehensive flora, the standard reference book but it has no pictures.

[21] Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books 1983 ISBN 0-553-23827-2
Lots of information tightly crammed into a fairly small book.


[30] Carter D. Butterflies and Moths in Britain and Europe. Pan 1982 ISBN 0-330-26642-x
An excellent book on Lepidoptera, it also lists their favourite food plants.

[53] De. Bray. L. The Wild Garden. 0
Interesting reading.

[55] Harris. B. C. Eat the Weeds. Pivot Health 1973
Interesting reading.


[62] Elias. T. and Dykeman. P. A Field Guide to N. American Edible Wild Plants. Van Nostrand Reinhold 1982 ISBN 0442222009
Very readable.

[99] Turner. N. J. Plants in British Columbian Indian Technology. British Columbia Provincial Museum 1979 ISBN 0-7718-8117-7
Excellent and readable guide.

[115] Johnson. C. P. The Useful Plants of Great Britain. 0
Written about a hundred years ago, but still a very good guide to the useful plants of Britain.


[165] Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. 0
An excellent small herbal.

[168] Grae. I. Nature's Colors - Dyes from Plants. MacMillan Publishing Co. New York. 1974 ISBN 0-02-544950-8
A very good and readable book on dyeing.

[172] Schofield. J. J. Discovering Wild Plants - Alaska, W. Canada and the Northwest. 0
A nice guide to some useful plants in that area.


[178] Stuart. Rev. G. A. Chinese Materia Medica. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre 0
A translation of an ancient Chinese herbal. Fascinating.

[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent.
Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food
plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N.
American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other
nurseries from around the world.

[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.


[218] Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. 1985 ISBN 0-917256-20-4
Details
of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their
uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents.
Heavy going if you are not into the subject.

[222] Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1990 ISBN 0395467225
A
concise book dealing with almost 500 species. A line drawing of each
plant is included plus colour photographs of about 100 species. Very
good as a field guide, it only gives brief details about the plants
medicinal properties.


[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A
very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the
globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student.
Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries
for each plant.

[244] Phillips. R. & Foy. N. Herbs Pan Books Ltd. London. 1990 ISBN 0-330-30725-8
Deals
with all types of herbs including medicinal, culinary, scented and dye
plants. Excellent photographs with quite good information on each plant.


[254] Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London 1996 ISBN 9-780751-303148
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.



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Genista tinctoria - L. Dyer's Greenweed

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 15:35




Genista tinctoria -
L.


Dyer's Greenweed



AuthorL.
Botanical references11, 17, 200

FamilyLeguminosae
GenusGenista
Synonyms

Known HazardsNone known
RangeEurope, including Britain, from Norway to the Mediterranean, east to the Urals, Caucasus and W. Asia
HabitatMeadows, pastures, heaths and the edges of fields[4], especially on poor soils[11].

Edibility Ratingapple icon 1 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of shrub
A decidious Shrub growing to 0.6m by 1m at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone 2 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from
June to September, and the seeds ripen from August to October. The
flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are
pollinated by Bees.
The plant is self-fertile.
It can fix Nitrogen.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It cannot grow in the shade.
It requires dry or moist soil.
The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.


Habitats



Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Ground Cover; Meadow;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Leaves.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Condiment.


The seed has been suggested as a possible coffee substitute[177, 183].
The flower buds are pickled and used as a substitute for capers[2, 183]. Used as a vegetable[105].

Medicinal Uses



Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Cathartic; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Emetic; Homeopathy; Stimulant; Vasoconstrictor.

The twigs, leaves and flowering stems are cathartic, diaphoretic,
diuretic, emetic, stimulant and vasoconstrictor[4, 9, 21, 46]. The
seeds are also sometimes used[4]. The plant is harvested in early
summer as it comes into flower and can be dried for later use[9]. It
should not be stored for more than 12 months since its active
ingredients break down[238].
The powdered seeds act as a mild purgative and were at one time used to
make a plaster for broken limbs[244].
A decoction of the whole plant has been used as a remedy for dropsy,
rheumatism and gout[4, 9, 244].
A homeopathic remedy is made from the fresh shoots[9]. It is used in
the treatment of rheumatism[9].


Other Uses


Dye; Fibre; Ground cover.


A very good quality yellow dye is obtained from the whole plant, but
especially from the flowers and young shoots[4, 9, 11, 57, 66, 141,
169, 244]. It produces a very good quality green when mixed with woad
(Isatis tinctoria)[11, 238]. Alum, cream of tartar and sulphate of lime
are used to fix the colour[4]. The stems can be dried and stored until
the dye is required[169].
A fibre obtained from the stems is used for coarse cloth and cordage[4,
169].
Plants can be used as a ground cover when spaced about 45cm apart each
way[208]. The cultivar 'Flore Pleno' is always dwarf and is more
reliable than the species[208].

Cultivation details



Easily grown in a light well-drained soil in a sunny position[1, 11].
Prefers a rather dry soil, tolerating poor and sandy soils[238].
Prefers a lime-free soil[244]. Succeeds in acid or basic soils.
A very cold-tolerant plant, tolerating temperatures down to about
-35°c[200].
Resents root disturbance and should only be transplanted whilst
young[11, 169]. Sometimes cultivated as a dye plant, it is usually
treated as a biennial for this purpose, the whole plant being harvested
in the second year[141].
Plants do not require pruning, but they can be cut back as required
once they have finished flowering in order to maintain shape[238].
Polymorphic, a number of named forms have been developed for their
ornamental value[182]. A good bee plant[20]. Rabbits love eating this
plant[169, K]. Cows also eat the plant, but it taints their milk[4].
This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria,
these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen.
Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can
also be used by other plants growing nearby[200].


Propagation



The seed requires a period of cold stratification and is best sown
autumn in a cold frame. Pre-soak stored seed for 24 hours in warm water
and sow February in a cold frame. Good germination[78]. When they are
large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots
and plant them out in the summer.
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 5 - 10 cm with a heel, July/August in a
frame. Roots are formed in the spring[11].
Cuttings of ripe wood, 5 - 10 cm with a heel, September/October in a
frame. Good percentage. Plant out the following autumn[78].

Cultivars


'Flore Pleno'
A dwarf form, it is more reliable for ground cover than the species[208].

Links


References

[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive
listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been
replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).


[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.

[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.

[9] Launert. E. Edible and Medicinal Plants. Hamlyn 1981 ISBN 0-600-37216-2
Covers plants in Europe. a drawing of each plant, quite a bit of interesting information.


[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.

[17] Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press 1962
A very comprehensive flora, the standard reference book but it has no pictures.

[20] Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening. Garden Way, Vermont, USA. 1978 ISBN 0-88266-064-0
Fairly good.


[21] Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books 1983 ISBN 0-553-23827-2
Lots of information tightly crammed into a fairly small book.

[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An
excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short
descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the
plants. Not for the casual reader.

[57] Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. 0
Fairly readable but not very comprehensive. Deals with plants from around the world.


[66] Freethy. R. From Agar to Zenery. The Crowood Press 1985 ISBN 0-946284-51-2
Very readable, giving details on plant uses based on the authors own experiences.

[78] Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co 1948
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.

[105] Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing 1976
The
most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the
briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are
more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.


[141] Carruthers. S. P. (Editor) Alternative Enterprises for Agriculture in the UK. Centre for Agricultural Strategy, Univ. of Reading 1986 ISBN 0704909820
Some suggested alternative commercial crops for Britain. Readable. Produced by a University study group.

[169] Buchanan. R. A Weavers Garden. 0
Covers all aspects of growing your own clothes, from fibre plants to dyes.

[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.


[182] Thomas. G. S. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos. Murray 1992 ISBN 0-7195-5043-2
Contains
a wide range of plants with a brief description, mainly of their
ornamental value but also usually of cultivation details and varieties.

[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent.
Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food
plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N.
American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other
nurseries from around the world.

[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.


[208] Thomas. G. S. Plants for Ground Cover J. M. Dent & Sons 1990 ISBN 0-460-12609-1
An excellent detailled book on the subject, very comprehensive.

[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A
very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the
globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student.
Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries
for each plant.


[244] Phillips. R. & Foy. N. Herbs Pan Books Ltd. London. 1990 ISBN 0-330-30725-8
Deals
with all types of herbs including medicinal, culinary, scented and dye
plants. Excellent photographs with quite good information on each plant.



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Gevuina avellana - Molina. Chilean Hazel

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 15:39




Gevuina avellana -
Molina.


Chilean Hazel



AuthorMolina.
Botanical references11, 139, 200

FamilyProteaceae
GenusGevuina
Synonyms

Known HazardsNone known
RangeS. America - Chile.
HabitatWet
mountain forests, where it rapidly colonizes cleared areas[200]. Grows
from the snow-line down to the coast along the Pacific coast of the
Andes[139]. It is seldom found in groups[139].

Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)
Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of shrub
An evergreen Shrub growing to 10m by 10m at a slow rate.
It is hardy to zone 9 and is frost tender. It is in leaf all year, in
flower from June to August, and the seeds ripen in October. The flowers
are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated
by Insects.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.
The plant prefers acid and neutral soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland).
It requires moist soil.


Habitats



Woodland Garden; Secondary; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; South Wall By; West Wall By;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Seed.

Edible Uses: Coffee.

Seed - raw or cooked. A pleasant taste, similar to cob nuts[11, 63,
139, 183]. A popular food in Chile where it is often sold in local
markets and is a much sought after item of diet[177]. The seed contains
about 12.5% protein, 49.5% oil, 24.1% carbohydrate[183].
The roasted seed is used as a coffee substitute[139].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.



None known

Other Uses


Tannin; Wood.


The seedcase is a source of tannin[139].
Wood - light, strong, easily worked, elastic, not very durable. It is used for furniture, oars, roof-shingles etc[46, 117, 139].

Cultivation details



Requires a lime-free soil and a sheltered position[182]. Requires a
well-drained moist fertile soil[188]. Best grown in semi-shade[200],
the plant prefers woodland conditions[166].
A very ornamental plant[1, 117], when dormant it is hardy to -10°c[184]
in a sheltered woodland environment, but succeeds outdoors only in the
milder areas of Britain, growing well in Devon and Cornwall[11, 59].
The young growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender and
so it is best to grow the plants in a position sheltered from the early
morning sun[K]. Plants flower and set viable seed every year at Coleton
Fishacre in S. Devon[104]. In general, however, flowering is unreliable
in cool temperate zones[200].
The leaves are very variable in shape, ranging from pinnate to
bipinnate, the leaflets varying in number from 3 to 30.
There is probably some form of symbiotic relationship with a fungus in
the soil that the plants are dependant upon.
Plants are very intolerant of root disturbance[117].


Propagation



Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse. Sow stored seed
as soon as possible in the year. The seed often germinates well but
then sickens and dies, it has been suggested that this is due to the
plants need of a symbiotic relationship with a soil-borne fungus.
Adding some soil from around a growing plant to the seed compost might
improve success rates. When they are large enough to handle, prick the
seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse
for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent
positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected
frosts, and consider giving them some protection from the cold for
their first winter or two outdoors.
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame.
Layering - hard pruning provides lots of material.

Links


References

[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive
listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been
replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).


[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.

[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An
excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short
descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the
plants. Not for the casual reader.

[59] Thurston. Trees and Shrubs in Cornwall. 0
Trees and shrubs that succeed in Cornwall based on the authors own observations. Good but rather dated.


[63] Howes. F. N. Nuts. Faber 1948
Rather old but
still a masterpiece. Has sections on tropical and temperate plants with
edible nuts plus a section on nut plants in Britain. Very readable.

[104] RHS. The Garden. Volume 111. Royal Horticultural Society 1986
Snippets
of information from the magazine of the RHS, including an article in
Crambe maritima and another on several species thought to be tender
that are succeeding in a S. Devon garden.

[117] Rosengarten. jnr. F. The Book of Edible Nuts. Walker & Co. 1984 ISBN 0802707699
A very readable and comprehensive guide. Well illustrated.


[139] ? Flora of Chile. (in Spanish) 0
Some information about the useful plants of Chile.

[166] Taylor. J. The Milder Garden. Dent 1990
A good book on plants that you didn't know could be grown outdoors in Britain.

[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.


[182] Thomas. G. S. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos. Murray 1992 ISBN 0-7195-5043-2
Contains
a wide range of plants with a brief description, mainly of their
ornamental value but also usually of cultivation details and varieties.

[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent.
Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food
plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N.
American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other
nurseries from around the world.

[184] Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Shrubs. Pan Books 1989 ISBN 0-330-30258-2
Excellent photographs and a terse description of 1900 species and cultivars.


[188] Brickell. C. The RHS Gardener's Encyclopedia of Plants and Flowers Dorling Kindersley Publishers Ltd. 1990 ISBN 0-86318-386-7
Excellent range of photographs, some cultivation details but very little information on plant uses.

[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.



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Gleditsia triacanthos - L. Honey Locust

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 15:45




Gleditsia triacanthos -
L.


Honey Locust



AuthorL.
Botanical references11, 43, 200

FamilyLeguminosae
GenusGleditsia
Synonyms

Known Hazardswarning signThe plant contains potentially toxic compounds[222].
RangeEastern N. America. Occasionally naturalized in C. and S. Europe.
HabitatUsually
growing singly, though occasionally forming almost pure woods, on the
borders of streams and in rich woods, usually in moist fertile soils
but sometimes on dry sterile gravelly hills[43, 82].

Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of evergreen tree
A decidious Tree growing to 20m by 15m at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone 3. It is in flower in July, and the seeds ripen
from October to November. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male
and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay)
soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor
soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow
in saline soil.
It cannot grow in the shade.
It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.
It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.


Habitats



Woodland Garden; Canopy;
Cultivars: (as above except)
'Ashworth'

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Seed; Seedpod.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Drink; Sweetener.


Seed - raw or cooked. It can contain up to 30% sugar[160]. Young
seeds taste like raw peas[183]. Seeds are not always borne in maritime
regions because the tree prefers long hot summers[11]. The oval seeds
are about 8mm long[227]. They contain 10.6 - 24.1% protein, 0.8 - 4.3%
fat, 84.7% carbohydrate, 21.1% fibre, 4% ash, 280mg calcium and 320mg
phosphorus per 100g[218].
The seeds have been roasted and used as a coffee substitute[269].
Seedpods - the pulp is sweet and can be eaten raw or made into
sugar[149, 159, 183]. The render young seedpods can be cooked and
eaten[183]. The pulp in older pods turns bitter[227]. The seedpods are
up to 40cm long and 4cm wide[227].
A sweet, pleasant tasting drink can be made from the seed pods[257].
The seed pulp has been used to make a drink[257].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Anaesthetic; Antiseptic; Cancer; Stomachic.


The pods have been made into a tea for the treatment of indigestion,
measles, catarrh etc[222, 257]. The juice of the pods is
antiseptic[222]. The pods have been seen as a good antidote for
children's complaints[257].
The alcoholic extract of the fruits of the honey locust, after
elimination of tannin, considerably retarded the growth, up to 63% of
Ehrlich mouse carcinoma[269]. However, the cytotoxicity of the extract
was quite high and the animals, besides losing weight, showed
dystrophic changes in their liver and spleen[260]. The alcoholic
extract of the fruit exerted moderate oncostatic activity against
sarcoma 180 and Ehrlich carcinoma at the total dose 350 mg/kg/body
weight/mouse. Weight loss was considerable[269].
An infusion of the bark has been drunk and used as a wash in the
treatment of dyspepsia[257]. It has also been used in the treatment of
whooping cough, measles, smallpox etc[257].
The twigs and the leaves contain the alkaloids gleditschine and
stenocarpine[4]. Stenocarpine has been used as a local anaesthetic
whilst gleditschine causes stupor and loss of reflex activity[4].
Current research is examining the leaves as a potential source of
anticancer compounds[222].


Other Uses


Gum; Soil reclamation; Tannin; Wood.


Planted for land reclamation on mining waste[200].
The gum from the seeds has been suggested as an emulsifying substitute
for acacia and tragacanth[269].
The heartwood contains 4 - 4.8% tannin[240].
Wood - strong, coarse-grained, elastic, very hard, very durable in
contact with the soil, highly shock resistant[46, 61, 82, 149]. It does
not shrink much but splits rather easily and does not glue well[227].
It weighs 42lb per cubic foot[227]. Largely used for making fence posts
and rails, wheel hubs, farm implements etc and in construction[46, 61,
82, 149].

Scented Plants


Flowers: Fresh
The flowers have a pleasing scent.

Cultivation details



Succeeds in most soils, acid or alkaline[160, 200], so long as they are
well-drained[202]. Requires a sunny position[11]. Tolerates drought
once established[1] and atmospheric pollution[200]. Salt tolerant[200].
The honey locust is speculated to tolerate an annual precipitation of
60 to 150cm, an annual temperature range of 10 to 21°C, and a pH in the
range of 6 to 8[269].
Trees are rather tender when young, but they are hardy to about -30°c
once they are established[200]. They grow best in southern Britain[11].
The honey locust is often cultivated in warm temperate zones for its
edible seeds and seedpods[202], trees start to bear when about 10 years
old and produce commercial crops for about 100 years[227]. Wild trees
seldom live longer than 120 years[229]. Trees are shy to flower and
therefore do not often produce a worthwhile crop in Britain due to our
cooler summers[202]. There are some named varieties[183]. The
sub-species nana produced lots of viable seed in the hot summer of 1989
at Kew[K], it also had a very good crop in 1994, 1996 and in 1999[K].
The sub-species inermis had a very good crop of pods in the autumn of
1996[K]. 'Ashworth' has pods with a very sweet pulp that has a
melon-like flavour[183].
The flowers have a pleasing scent[245].
A very ornamental tree[1], the flowers are very attractive to bees[149,
269].
Trees have a light canopy, they come into leaf late and lose their
leaves early[11] making them an excellent canopy tree for a woodland
garden.
Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200].
Unlike most plants in this family, honey locusts do not fix atmospheric
nitrogen[160, 226].




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Re: Coffee Substitutes

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 15:45

Propagation



Seed - pre-soak for 24 hours in warm water and then sow in spring in a
greenhouse[78]. The seed should have swollen up, in which case it can
be sown, if it has not swollen then soak it for another 24 hours in
warm water. If this does not work then file away some of the seed coat
but be careful not to damage the embryo[78]. Further soaking should
then cause the seed to swell. One it has swollen, the seed should
germinate within 2 - 4 weeks at 20°c. As soon as they are large enough
to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual deep pots and plant
them out into their permanent positions in the summer. Give the plants
some protection from the cold for their first few winters outdoors.

Cultivars


'Ashworth'
The seed pods contain a very sweet pulp with a melon-like flavour[183].
An extremely hardy, spineless tree[183].

Links


References

[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive
listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been
replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).


[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.

[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.

[43] Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. 1950
A bit dated but good and concise flora of the eastern part of N. America.


[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An
excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short
descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the
plants. Not for the casual reader.

[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget
the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a
very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very
brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.

[78] Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co 1948
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.


[82] Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. 1965 ISBN 0-486-20278-X
Two
volumes, a comprehensive listing of N. American trees though a bit out
of date now. Good details on habitats, some details on plant uses. Not
really for the casual reader.

[149] Vines. R. A. Trees of Central Texas. University of Texas Press 1987 ISBN 0-292-78958-3
Fairly readable, it gives details of habitats and some of the uses of trees growing in Texas.

[159] McPherson. A. and S. Wild Food Plants of Indiana. Indiana University Press 1977 ISBN 0-253-28925-4
A nice pocket guide to this region of America.


[160] Natural Food Institute, Wonder Crops. 1987. 0
Fascinating reading, this is an annual publication. Some reports do seem somewhat exaggerated though.

[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent.
Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food
plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N.
American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other
nurseries from around the world.

[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.


[202] Davis. B. Climbers and Wall Shrubs. Viking. 1990 ISBN 0-670-82929-3
Contains
information on 2,000 species and cultivars, giving details of
cultivation requirements. The text is terse but informative.

[218] Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. 1985 ISBN 0-917256-20-4
Details
of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their
uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents.
Heavy going if you are not into the subject.

[222] Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1990 ISBN 0395467225
A
concise book dealing with almost 500 species. A line drawing of each
plant is included plus colour photographs of about 100 species. Very
good as a field guide, it only gives brief details about the plants
medicinal properties.


[226] Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. 1989 ISBN 0889025649
Very good on identification for non-experts, the book also has a lot of information on plant uses.

[227] Vines. R.A. Trees of North Texas University of Texas Press. 1982 ISBN 0292780206
A
readable guide to the area, it contains descriptions of the plants and
their habitats with quite a bit of information on plant uses.

[229] Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. 1980 ISBN 0442238622
A
very good concise guide. Gives habitats, good descriptions, maps
showing distribution and a few of the uses. It also includes the many
shrubs that occasionally reach tree proportions.


[240] Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. 1986
Very
terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of
references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for
the casual reader.

[245] Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. 1994 ISBN 0-7090-5440-8
An
excellent, comprehensive book on scented plants giving a few other
plant uses and brief cultivation details. There are no illustrations.

[257] Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. 1998 ISBN 0-88192-453-9
Very
comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent
bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to
further information. Not for the casual reader.


[260] Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Conservatory and Indoor Plants Volumes 1 & 2 Pan Books, London. 1998 ISBN 0-330-37376-5
Excellent
photos of over 1,100 species and cultivars with habits and cultivation
details plus a few plant uses. Many species are too tender for outdoors
in Britain though there are many that can be grown outside.

[269] Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops - 1983
Published only on the Internet, excellent information on a wide range of plants.

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Glycine max - (L.)Merr. Soya Bean

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 15:50




Glycine max -
(L.)Merr.


Soya Bean



Author(L.)Merr.
Botanical references58, 200

FamilyLeguminosae
GenusGlycine
SynonymsGlycine hispida - (Moench.)Maxim.

Phaseolus max - L.

Soja max - (L.)Piper.



Known Hazardswarning signThe
raw mature seed is toxic and must be thoroughly cooked before being
eaten[76]. The sprouted raw seed is sometimes eaten and is considered
to be a wholesome food.
RangeE. Asia.
HabitatLowland thickets, C. and S. Japan[58].
Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 4 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Annual growing to 0.6m.
It is hardy to zone 8. It is in flower from July to September. The
flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are
pollinated by Insects.
It can fix Nitrogen.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It cannot grow in the shade.
It requires moist soil.


Habitats


Cultivated Beds;
Cultivars: (as above except)
'Fiskeby V'

Edible Uses



Edible Parts: Leaves; Seed; Seedpod.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Milk; Oil.

Mature seed - cooked[2, 33]. The seeds furnish one of the world's
most important sources of oil and protein, they can be eaten as they
are in soups, stews etc[183, 269], though they are also very commonly
used in the preparation of various meat substitutes[34, 46]. The dried
seed can be ground into a flour and added to cereal flours or used for
making noodles etc[183]. The Japanese make a powder from the roasted
and ground seed, it is called 'Kinako' and has a nutty flavour and
fragrance - it is used in many popular confections[183]. The sprouted
seed is eaten raw or added to cooked dishes. The toasted seeds can be
eaten as a peanut-like snack[183]. The seed is also made into numerous
fermented foods such as miso and tempeh[183] and is also used to make
soya milk, a valuable protein supplement in infant feeding which also
provides curds and cheese[269]. The seed contains 20% oil and 30 - 45%
protein[100]. All seeds on a soybean plant mature at essentially the
same time. Maturity of the seed is accompanied by a rapid dropping of
the leaves and drying of the stems[269]. Average yield of beans is
about 1700 kg/ha[269]. High-yielding cvs, adapted to the locality and
grown under proper culture and favourable conditions will yield more
than twice the average yield[269].
The immature seed is cooked and used like peas or eaten raw in
salads[105, 183].
The strongly roasted and ground seeds are used as a coffee
substitute[183].
The young seedpods are cooked and used like French beans[116, 183].
An edible semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed[269]. It is cooked
or can be used as a dressing in salads etc and for manufacture of
margarine and shortening[34, 183, 269].
Young leaves - raw or cooked[179, 183].


Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antidote; Astringent; Diaphoretic; Laxative; Ophthalmic; Resolvent; Stomachic.


The fermented seed is weakly diaphoretic and stomachic[176]. It is used
in the treatment of colds, fevers and headaches, insomnia, irritability
and a stuffy sensation in the chest[176].
The bruised leaves are applied to snakebite[218].
The flowers are used in the treatment of blindness and opacity of the
cornea[218].
The ashes of the stems are applied to granular haemorrhoids or fungus
growths on the anus[218].
The immature seedpods are chewed to a pulp and applied to corneal and
smallpox ulcers[218].
The seed is antidote[218]. It is considered to be specific for the
healthy functioning of bowels, heart, kidney, liver and stomach[218,
269].
The seed sprouts are constructive, laxative and resolvent[218]. They
show an oestrogen-like activity in the body and are also
antispasmodic[279].The sprous are used in the treatment of oedema,
dysuria, chest fullness, decreased perspiration, the initial stages of
flu and arthralgia[176].
A decoction of the bark or root is astringent[240, 269].
Soybean diets are valued for treating acidosis[269].
Since soybean oil has a high proportion of unsaturated fatty acid, it
is recommended, like safflower, poppy seed, etc. to combat
hypercholesteremia[269].
Commercial grades of natural lecithin, which are often derived from
soybean, are reported to contain a potent vasopressor. Medicinally
lecithin is indicated as a lipotropic agent[269].
Soybean is listed as a major starting material for stigmasterol, once
known as an antistiffness factor. Sitosterol, also a soy by-product,
has been used to replace diosgenin in some antihypertensive drugs[269].

Other Uses


Biomass; Green manure; Oil; Paper.


The seed contains up to 20% of an edible semi-drying oil[171, 269]. It
is non-drying according to another report[57]. This oil has a very wide
range of applications and is commonly used in the chemical
industry[171, 206]. The oil is used industrially in the manufacture of
paints, linoleum, oilcloth, printing inks, soap, insecticides, and
disinfectants[34, 46, 100, 269].
Lecithin phospholipids, obtained as a by-product of the oil industry,
are used as a wetting and stabilizing agent in food, cosmetic,
pharmaceutical, leather, paint, plastic, soap, and detergent
industries[269].
Both the meal and the soy bean protein are used in the manufacture of
synthetic fibre, adhesives, textile sizing, waterproofing,
fire-fighting foam and many other uses[269].
The plant is sometimes grown as a green manure[269].
The straw can be used to make paper, stiffer than that made from wheat
straw[269].
The plant is an excellent source of biomass. The oil from the seeds can
be used as a diesel fuel whilst the stems can be burnt as a fuel[269].


Cultivation details



A fairly easily-grown plant, it grows best in a sunny position on
fertile, well-drained soils[33, 38], but does tolerate a wide range of
soil conditions[269]. Soybeans will brow better than many crops on
soils that are low in fertility, droughty or poorly drained[269].
Prefers a well-drained sandy soil[1]. Prefers a slightly acid soil[200,
206]. Soya does not grow well in a wet climate[132], nor will it
withstand excessive heat or severe cold winters[269]. The plant has
been reported to tolerate an annual precipitation in the range of 31 to
410cm (though it requires at least 50cm for a good crop), an annual
mean temperature range of 5.9 to 27°C and a pH in the range of 4.3 to
8.4 (preferring 6 - 6.5)[269]. Soya is one of the most widely
cultivated plants in the world, being grown for its oil and protein
rich edible seed, there are many named varieties[183, 206, 269]. A
subtropical plant, but its cultivation extends from the tropics to as
far north as latitude 52°N[269]. The species, and most of its
cultivars, is a short-day plant and does not flower or set seed unless
the daylight hours are less than 13 hours per day[269].
There are three basic types of soya bean, those with green seeds are
considered to be the most tender and best flavoured and are the type
best suited for northern climates. Black seeded forms are normally used
dried and yellow seeded forms are used for making soya milk, flour
etc[206]. The plant requires a hot summer with a mean July temperature
between 16 and 18°c[206] and a dry autumn if it is to do well in
Britain[1, 33], though it is as hardy as the runner bean, Phaseolus
coccineus[1]. The best crops outdoors in Britain are obtained if the
plants are started off in a greenhouse and planted out in late spring
although a direct sowing outdoors in early May can succeed in good
summers but yields will then normally be low. Many cultivars will not
flower in the shorter days of late summer in the northern hemisphere
and so are not suitable for growing in Britain[206].
Some botanists separate the cultivated forms of soya from this species
and call them G. soja. Sieb.&Zucc[200].
This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria,
these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen.
Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can
also be used by other plants growing nearby[200]. Soybean soils must
contain the proper nitrogen-fixing bacteria. When grown on the same
land for 2 - 3 successive years, increasing yields are obtained year
after year[269]. Seed can be purchased that has been treated with this
rhizobium, it is unnecessary on soils with a pH below 5.5 but can be
helpful on other soils[206]. When removing plant remains at the end of
the growing season, it is best to only remove the aerial parts of the
plant, leaving the roots in the ground to decay and release their
nitrogen.




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Glycine max - (L.)Merr. Soya Bean...contd

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 15:50

Propagation



Pre-soak the seed for 12 hours in warm water and then sow in early
spring in a greenhouse. The seed should germinate within two weeks at a
temperature between 12 - 16°c[206]. When they are large enough to
handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out
in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.
Seed can also be pre-soaked for 12 hours in warm water and then sown in
situ in late spring, though this will not yield well unless the summer
is very hot.

Cultivars


'Fiskeby V'
Produces mosty 3 small light-yellow beans per pod[183]. It is grown
mainly for eating when the pods are still green, though it can also be
grown as a seed crop[183, K]. The seeds contain about 40% protein,
which is very low in the antitrypsin factor that interferes with the
digestion of uncooked soya protein[183].
An exceptionally hardy and early maturing form, it has produced good
yields as far north as southern Canada[183]. Unfortunately, most
gardeners who have tried growing it in Britain have had very low
yields[K].

Links



References

[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive
listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been
replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).

[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.


[33] Organ. J. Rare Vegetables for Garden and Table. Faber 1960
Unusual vegetables that can be grown outdoors in Britain. A good guide.

[34] Harrison. S. Wallis. M. Masefield. G. The Oxford Book of Food Plants. Oxford University Press 1975
Good drawings of some of the more common food plants from around the world. Not much information though.

[38] Simmons A. E. Simmons' Manual of Fruit. David & Charles. 1978 ISBN 0-7153-7607-1
A good guide to some of the cultivars of temperate fruits. It covers quite a wide range of fruits.


[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An
excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short
descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the
plants. Not for the casual reader.

[57] Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. 0
Fairly readable but not very comprehensive. Deals with plants from around the world.

[58] Ohwi. G. Flora of Japan. (English translation) Smithsonian Institution 1965
The standard work. Brilliant, but not for the casual reader.


[76] Cooper. M. and Johnson. A. Poisonous Plants in Britain and their Effects on Animals and Man. HMSO 1984 ISBN 0112425291
Concentrates mainly on the effects of poisonous plants to livestock.

[100] Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press 1969 ISBN 0192176218
An excellent and well illustrated pocket guide for those with very large pockets. Also gives some details on plant uses.

[105] Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing 1976
The
most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the
briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are
more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.


[116] Brooklyn Botanic Garden Oriental Herbs and Vegetables, Vol 39 No. 2. Brooklyn Botanic Garden 1986
A small booklet packed with information.

[132] Bianchini. F., Corbetta. F. and Pistoia. M. Fruits of the Earth. 0
Lovely pictures, a very readable book.

[171] Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press 1952
Not very comprehensive, but it is quite readable and goes into some a bit of detail about the plants it does cover.


[176] Yeung. Him-Che. Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas. Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles 1985
An
excellent Chinese herbal giving information on over 500 species. Rather
technical and probably best suited to the more accomplished user of
herbs.

[179] Reid. B. E. Famine Foods of the Chiu-Huang Pen-ts'ao. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre 1977
A translation of an ancient Chinese book on edible wild foods. Fascinating.

[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent.
Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food
plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N.
American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other
nurseries from around the world.


[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

[206] Larkcom J. Oriental Vegetables John Murray 1991 ISBN 0-7195-4781-4
Well written and very informative.

[218] Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. 1985 ISBN 0-917256-20-4
Details
of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their
uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents.
Heavy going if you are not into the subject.


[240] Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. 1986
Very
terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of
references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for
the casual reader.

[269] Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops - 1983
Published only on the Internet, excellent information on a wide range of plants.

[279] Medicinal Plants in the Republic of Korea World Health Organisation, Manila 1998 ISBN 92 9061 120 0
An
excellent book with terse details about the medicinal uses of the
plants with references to scientific trials. All plants are described,
illustrated and brief details of habitats given.

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Glycine soja - Siebold.&Zucc. Wild Soya Bean

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 15:52




Glycine soja -
Siebold.&Zucc.


Wild Soya Bean



AuthorSiebold.&Zucc.
Botanical references58

FamilyLeguminosae
GenusGlycine
SynonymsGlycine ussuriensis - Regel.&Maack.


Known Hazardswarning signThe
raw mature seed is toxic and must be thoroughly cooked before being
eaten[76]. The sprouted raw seed is sometimes eaten and is considered
to be a wholesome food.
RangeE. Asia - China.

HabitatLowland thickets, C. and S. Japan[58].
Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Annual growing to 0.6m.

It is hardy to zone 8 and is frost tender. It is in flower from July to
September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female
organs) and are pollinated by Insects.
It can fix Nitrogen.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It cannot grow in the shade.
It requires moist soil.


Habitats


Cultivated Beds;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Leaves; Seed; Seedpod.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Milk; Oil.


Mature seed - cooked[2, 33]. Very rich in protein, the seeds can be
eaten as they are in soups, stews etc[183], though they are very
commonly used in the preparation of various meat substitutes[34, 46].
The dried seed can be ground into a flour and added to cereal flours or
used for making noodles etc[183]. The Japanese make a powder from the
roasted and ground seed, it is called 'Kinako' and has a nutty flavour
and fragrance - it is used in many popular confections[183]. The
sprouted seed is eaten raw or added to cooked dishes. The toasted seeds
can be eaten as a peanut-like snack[183]. The seed is also made into
numerous fermented foods such as miso and tempeh[183] and is also used
to make soya milk, used in place of cow's milk. The seed contains 20%
oil and 30 - 45% protein[100].
The immature seed is cooked and used like peas or eaten raw in
salads[105, 183].
The strongly roasted and ground seeds are used as a coffee
substitute[183].
The young seedpods are cooked and used like French beans[116, 183].
An edible oil is obtained from the seed. It is cooked or used as a
dressing in salads etc[34, 183].
Young leaves - raw or cooked[179, 183].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antidote; Astringent; Diaphoretic; Laxative; Ophthalmic; Resolvent; Stomachic.


The fermented seed is weakly diaphoretic and stomachic[176]. It is used
in the treatment of colds, fevers and headaches, insomnia, irritability
and a stuffy sensation in the chest[176].
The bruised leaves are applied to snakebite[218].
The flowers are used in the treatment of blindness and opacity of the
cornea[218].
The ashes of the stems are applied to granular haemorrhoids or fungus
growths on the anus[218].
The immature seedpods are chewed to a pulp and applied to corneal and
smallpox ulcers[218].
The seed is antidote[218]. It is considered to be specific for the
healthy functioning of bowels, heart, kidney, liver and stomach[218].
The seed sprouts are constructive, laxative and resolvent[218]. They
are used in the treatment of oedema, dysuria, chest fullness, decreased
perspiration, the initial stages of flu and arthralgia[176].
A decoction of the bark is astringent[240].

Other Uses


Oil.


The seed contains up to 20% of an edible semi-drying oil[171]. It is
non-drying according to another report[57]. This oil has a very wide
range of applications and is commonly used in the chemical
industry[171, 206]. It is used in making soap, plastics, paints etc[34,
46, 100].

Cultivation details



Requires a rich soil and a sunny position[33, 38]. Prefers a
well-drained sandy soil[1]. Prefers a slightly acid soil[200, 206].
Does not grow well in a wet climate[132].
This is the wild ancestor of the cultivated soya bean and is of
potential value as a genetic resource, especially when trying to breed
for increased yields.
This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria,
these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen.
Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can
also be used by other plants growing nearby[200]. Seed can be purchased
that has been treated with this rhizobium, it is unnecessary on soils
with a pH below 5.5 but can be helpful on other soils[206]. When
removing plant remains at the end of the growing season, it is best to
only remove the aerial parts of the plant, leaving the roots in the
ground to decay and release their nitrogen.

Propagation



Pre-soak the seed for 12 hours in warm water and then sow in early
spring in a greenhouse. The seed should germinate within two weeks at a
temperature between 12 - 16°c[206]. When they are large enough to
handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out
in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.
Seed can also be pre-soaked for 12 hours in warm water and then sown in
situ in late spring, though this will not yield well unless the summer
is very hot.

Links


References

[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive
listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been
replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).

[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.


[33] Organ. J. Rare Vegetables for Garden and Table. Faber 1960
Unusual vegetables that can be grown outdoors in Britain. A good guide.

[34] Harrison. S. Wallis. M. Masefield. G. The Oxford Book of Food Plants. Oxford University Press 1975
Good drawings of some of the more common food plants from around the world. Not much information though.

[38] Simmons A. E. Simmons' Manual of Fruit. David & Charles. 1978 ISBN 0-7153-7607-1
A good guide to some of the cultivars of temperate fruits. It covers quite a wide range of fruits.


[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An
excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short
descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the
plants. Not for the casual reader.

[57] Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. 0
Fairly readable but not very comprehensive. Deals with plants from around the world.

[58] Ohwi. G. Flora of Japan. (English translation) Smithsonian Institution 1965
The standard work. Brilliant, but not for the casual reader.


[76] Cooper. M. and Johnson. A. Poisonous Plants in Britain and their Effects on Animals and Man. HMSO 1984 ISBN 0112425291
Concentrates mainly on the effects of poisonous plants to livestock.

[100] Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press 1969 ISBN 0192176218
An excellent and well illustrated pocket guide for those with very large pockets. Also gives some details on plant uses.

[105] Tanaka. T. Tanaka's Cyclopaedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing 1976
The
most comprehensive guide to edible plants I've come across. Only the
briefest entry for each species, though, and some of the entries are
more than a little dubious. Not for the casual reader.


[116] Brooklyn Botanic Garden Oriental Herbs and Vegetables, Vol 39 No. 2. Brooklyn Botanic Garden 1986
A small booklet packed with information.

[132] Bianchini. F., Corbetta. F. and Pistoia. M. Fruits of the Earth. 0
Lovely pictures, a very readable book.

[171] Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press 1952
Not very comprehensive, but it is quite readable and goes into some a bit of detail about the plants it does cover.


[176] Yeung. Him-Che. Handbook of Chinese Herbs and Formulas. Institute of Chinese Medicine, Los Angeles 1985
An
excellent Chinese herbal giving information on over 500 species. Rather
technical and probably best suited to the more accomplished user of
herbs.

[179] Reid. B. E. Famine Foods of the Chiu-Huang Pen-ts'ao. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre 1977
A translation of an ancient Chinese book on edible wild foods. Fascinating.

[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent.
Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food
plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N.
American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other
nurseries from around the world.


[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

[206] Larkcom J. Oriental Vegetables John Murray 1991 ISBN 0-7195-4781-4
Well written and very informative.

[218] Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. 1985 ISBN 0-917256-20-4
Details
of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their
uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents.
Heavy going if you are not into the subject.


[240] Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. 1986
Very
terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of
references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for
the casual reader.



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Gymnocladus dioica - (L.)K.Koch. Kentucky Coffee Tree

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 15:58




Gymnocladus dioica -
(L.)K.Koch.


Kentucky Coffee Tree



Author(L.)K.Koch.
Botanical references11, 43, 200

FamilyLeguminosae
GenusGymnocladus
SynonymsGuilandina dioica - L.

Gymnocladus canadensis - Lam.


Known Hazardswarning signThe
ripe seed contains hydrocyanic acid. This toxin can be destroyed by
thoroughly heating the seed for at least 3 hours at 150°c[183].
The seed contains saponins[222]. Although toxic, these substances are
very poorly absorbed by the body and so tend to pass through without
causing harm. They are also broken down by heat so a long slow baking
can destroy them. Saponins are found in many plants, including several
that are often used for food, such as certain beans. It is not
advisable to eat large quantities of food that contain saponins.
Saponins are much more toxic to some creatures, such as fish, and
hunting tribes have traditionally put large quantities of them in
streams, lakes etc in order to stupefy or kill the fish[K].

RangeEastern and Central N. America - New York to Tennessee, west to Arkansas and South Dakota.
HabitatPrefers deep rich soils in bottomlands, deep ravines and moist lower slopes[229].
Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man

icon of evergreen tree
A decidious Tree growing to 20m by 15m at a slow rate.
It is hardy to zone 4. It is in flower in June, and the seeds ripen in
October. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male
or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both
male and female plants must be grown if seed is required)The plant is
not self-fertile.
It can fix Nitrogen.
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay)
soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor
soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow
in very alkaline and saline soils.
It cannot grow in the shade.
It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.
It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Canopy; Secondary;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Seed; Seedpod.

Edible Uses: Coffee.


Seedpod - raw or cooked. The roasted seeds can be eaten like sweet
chestnuts[257]. The pulp is sweet[2, 82]. A flavour like caramel[222].
The pods are up to 25cm long and 5cm wide[229].
The roasted seed is a caffeine-free coffee substitute[2, 11, 46, 95,
213]. A bitter flavour[226]. Thorough roasting for at least 3 hours at
150°c is necessary in order to destroy the poisonous hydrocyanic acid
that is found in the seed[183].
Seed - roasted and eaten like a nut[161, 213, 226]. The seed contains
toxic substances, see notes above.

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Homeopathy; Miscellany.


The pulverised root bark is used as an effective enema[213, 222, 257].
A tea made from the bark is diuretic[222]. It is used in the treatment
of coughs due to inflamed mucous membranes and also to help speed up a
protracted labour[222]. A snuff made from the pulverized root bark has
been used to cause sneezing in comatose patients[257].
A tea made from the leaves and pulp from the pods is laxative and has
also been used in the treatment of reflex troubles[222].
A decoction of the fresh green pulp of the unripe fruit is used in
homeopathic practice[82].

Other Uses


Insecticide; Soap; Soil reclamation; Wood.


The fruit is high in saponins and is used as a soap[200].
The leaves are used as a fly poison[222].
Trees are planted on the spoil tips of mines to stabilize and reclaim
the soil[200].
Wood - coarse-grained, heavy though not hard, strong, very durable in
contact with the soil, finishes to a fine lustre. A handsome wood, it
weighs 43lb per cubic foot and is used for cabinet work, furniture,
construction, fencing etc[46, 61, 82, 171, 229, 235].

Cultivation details



Requires a deep rich soil and a sunny position[1, 200]. Tolerates
drought, atmospheric pollution, salt and limestone soils[200].
A very cold-hardy plant, tolerating temperatures down to about
-30°c[200].
A very ornamental[1] but slow growing tree[11], it rarely flowers in
Britain, requiring more summer heat than it usually gets here[11, 200].
Trees in the wild seldom live longer than 100 years[229]. The tree has
a light canopy so does not cast much shade[200], making it a good tree
to use for the top canopy of a woodland garden.
Dioecious. Male and female plants must be grown if seed is required.
Unlike most members of the Leguminosae, his species does not form
nodules of nitrogen-producing bacteria on the roots[274].

Propagation



Seed - best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe[200]. The seed
can also be sown in early spring in a greenhouse[78]. Scarification and
pre-soaking the seed for 24 hours in warm water, especially if it has
been stored, will improve germination[200]. Make sure the seed has
swollen after soaking, soak it again if it has not and, if it still
does not swell, try filing away some of the seedcoat but be careful not
to damage the embryo. As soon as they are large enough to handle, prick
the seedlings out into fairly deep individual pots and grow them on in
the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into
their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the
last expected frosts. Consider giving them some protection against the
cold for their first couple of winters outdoors
Root cuttings 4cm long and 1cm thick in a greenhouse in December[200].
Plant the roots horizontally in pots[78]. Good percentage.

Links


References

[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive
listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been
replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).


[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.

[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.

[43] Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. 1950
A bit dated but good and concise flora of the eastern part of N. America.


[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An
excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short
descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the
plants. Not for the casual reader.

[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget
the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a
very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very
brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.

[78] Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co 1948
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.


[82] Sargent. C. S. Manual of the Trees of N. America. Dover Publications Inc. New York. 1965 ISBN 0-486-20278-X
Two
volumes, a comprehensive listing of N. American trees though a bit out
of date now. Good details on habitats, some details on plant uses. Not
really for the casual reader.

[95] Saunders. C. F. Edible and Useful Wild Plants of the United States and Canada. Dover Publications 1976 ISBN 0-486-23310-3
Useful wild plants of America. A pocket guide.

[161] Yanovsky. E. Food Plants of the N. American Indians. Publication no. 237. U.S. Depf of Agriculture. 0
A comprehensive but very terse guide. Not for the casual reader.


[171] Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press 1952
Not very comprehensive, but it is quite readable and goes into some a bit of detail about the plants it does cover.

[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent.
Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food
plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N.
American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other
nurseries from around the world.

[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.


[213] Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books 1980 ISBN 0-449-90589-6
A
nice book to read though it is difficult to look up individual plants
since the book is divided into separate sections dealing with the
different medicinal uses plus a section on edible plants. Common names
are used instead of botanical.

[222] Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1990 ISBN 0395467225
A
concise book dealing with almost 500 species. A line drawing of each
plant is included plus colour photographs of about 100 species. Very
good as a field guide, it only gives brief details about the plants
medicinal properties.


[226] Lauriault. J. Identification Guide to the Trees of Canada Fitzhenry and Whiteside, Ontario. 1989 ISBN 0889025649
Very good on identification for non-experts, the book also has a lot of information on plant uses.

[229] Elias. T. The Complete Trees of N. America. Field Guide and Natural History. Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. 1980 ISBN 0442238622
A
very good concise guide. Gives habitats, good descriptions, maps
showing distribution and a few of the uses. It also includes the many
shrubs that occasionally reach tree proportions.

[235] Britton. N. L. Brown. A. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States and Canada Dover Publications. New York. 1970 ISBN 0-486-22642-5
Reprint of a 1913 Flora, but still a very useful book.


[257] Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. 1998 ISBN 0-88192-453-9
Very
comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent
bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to
further information. Not for the casual reader.

[274] Diggs, Jnr. G.M.; Lipscomb. B. L. & O'Kennon. R. J Illustrated Flora of North Central Texas Botanical Research Institute, Texas. 1999 ISBN 1-889878-01-4
An excellent flora, which is also available on-line.



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Helianthus annuus - L. Sunflower

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 16:03




Helianthus annuus -
L.


Sunflower



AuthorL.
Botanical references60, 200

FamilyCompositae
GenusHelianthus
Synonyms

Known Hazardswarning signThe growing plant can accumulate nitrates, especially when fed on artificial fertilizers[76].
The pollen or plant extracts may cause allergic reactions[222].
RangeWestern N. America. An occasional garden escape in Britain.
HabitatOpen dry or moderately moist soils on the plains[60].

Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 5 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Annual growing to 3m by 0.3m at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone 7 and is frost tender. It is in flower from July to
September, and the seeds ripen from September to October. The flowers
are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated
by Bees, flies.
The plant is not self-fertile.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.


Habitats



Cultivated Beds;
Cultivars: (as above except)
'Dwarf Russian'
'Rostov'

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Flowers; Seed; Stem.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Oil.


Seed - raw or cooked[4, 14, 94, 101, 183]. A delicious nut-like
flavour, but very fiddly to extract due to the small size of the seed.
Commercially there are machines designed to do this. Rich in fats, the
seed can be ground into a powder[95], made into sunflower butter or
used to make seed yoghurt. When mixed with cereal flours, it makes a
nutritious bread[244]. Cultivars with up to 50% oil have been developed
in Russia[218]. The oil contains between 44 - 72% linoleic acid[218].
The germinated seed is said to be best for seed yoghurt, it is blended
with water and left to ferment[183]. The sprouted seed can be eaten
raw[183]. A nutritional analysis of the seed is available[218].
Young flower buds - steamed and served like globe artichokes[2, 85,
101, 117, 183]. A mild and pleasant enough flavour, but rather
fiddly[K]. Average yields range from 900 - 1,575 kg/ha of seed, however
yields of over 3,375 kg/ha have been reported[269].
A high quality edible semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed[4]. It
is low in cholesterol[244], and is said to be equal in quality to olive
oil[4]. Used in salads, margarines, or in cooking[2, 34, 46, 57, 94,
95, 183, 269].
The roasted seed is a coffee and drinking chocolate substitute[4, 7,
100, 102]. Another report says the roasted hulls are used[183].
The leaf petioles are boiled and mixed in with other foodstuffs[7].

Composition


Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.

Seed (Fresh weight)
  • 560 Calories per 100g
  • Water: 4.8%
  • Protein: 24g; Fat: 47.3g; Carbohydrate: 19.4g; Fibre: 3.8g; Ash: 4g;
  • Minerals - Calcium: 120mg; Phosphorus: 837mg; Iron: 7.1mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 30mg; Potassium: 920mg; Zinc: 0mg;
  • Vitamins - A: 30mg; Thiamine (B1): 1.96mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0.23mg; Niacin: 5.4mg; B6: 0mg; C: 0mg;
  • Reference: []
  • Notes: 

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Diuretic; Expectorant; Febrifuge; Stomachic.


A tea made from the leaves is astringent, diuretic and expectorant, it
is used in the treatment of high fevers[222]. The crushed leaves are
used as a poultice on sores, swellings, snakebites and spider
bites[222, 257]. The leaves are harvested as the plant comes into
flower and are dried for later use[238].
A tea made from the flowers is used in the treatment of malaria and
lung ailments[222, 257].
The flowering head and seeds are febrifuge, nutritive and stomachic[7].
The seed is also considered to be diuretic and expectorant[4, 218,
222]. It has been used with success in the treatment of many pulmonary
complaints[4].
A decoction of the roots has been used as a warm wash on rheumatic
aches and pains[257].

Other Uses



Blotting paper; Dye; Fibre; Fuel; Green manure; Herbicide; Kindling; Microscope; Paper.


An edible semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed. Some varieties
contain up to 45% oil[61]. The oil is also used, often mixed with a
drying oil such as linseed (Linum usitatissimum) to make soap, candles,
varnishes, paint etc, as well as for lighting. The oil is said to be
unrivalled as a lubricant[4, 21, 34, 46, 100, 269].
A blotting paper is made from the seed receptacles[2, 4, 101, 117].
A high quality writing paper is made from the inner stalk[4, 14, 100,
101].
The pith of the stems is one of the lightest substances known, having a
specific gravity of 0.028[4]. It has a wide range of applications,
being used for purposes such as making life-saving appliances and
slides for microscopes[4, 46, 61].
The dried stems make an excellent fuel, the ash is rich in
potassium[4]. Both the dried stems and the empty seed receptacles are
an excellent kindling[4].
A fibre from the stem is used to make paper[4] and a fine quality
cloth[1, 94, 101].
A yellow dye is obtained from the flowers[4, 14, 94, 95].
A purple-black dye is obtained from the seed of certain varieties that
were grown by the Hopi Indians of S.W. North America[117, 169].
Sunflowers can be grown as a spring-sown green manure, they produce a
good bulk of material[87].
Root secretions from the plant can inhibit the growth of nearby
plants[201].

Cultivation details



An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most soils[1, 34, 117], including
poor soils provided they are deep and well-drained[269], but it grows
best in a deep rich soil[1, 200]. Plants are intolerant of acid or
waterlogged conditions[269]. Especially when grown for its edible seed,
the plant prefers a sunny position[1, 34, 117, 269] though it also
tolerates light shade[1]. Requires a neutral or preferably calcareous
soil[200]. As sunflowers have highly efficient root systems, they can
be grown in areas which are too dry for many other crops[269].
Established plants are quite drought-resistant except during
flowering[117, 269]. The sunflower tolerates an annual precipitation of
20 - 400cm, an average annual temperature in the range of 6 - 28°C and
a pH in the range of 4.5 - 8.7[269].
The young growth is extremely attractive to slugs, plants can be
totally destroyed by them[K].
Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer or
rabbits[233].
The sunflower is a very ornamental plant that is widely grown in
gardens and is also a major commercial crop for its edible seed and
many other uses[1, 4]. It grows well in Britain, but it does not ripen
its seed reliably in this country and so is not suitable for commercial
cultivation at the present[K]. It is the state flower of Kansas[85].
Three distinct groups of sunflowers are cultivated:- Giant types grow
from 1.8 - 4.2 metres tall with flower heads 30 - 50cm in diameter. The
seeds are large, white or gray in colour, sometimes with black stripes,
and are the best for culinary purposes, though the oil content is lower
than for other types. 'Grey Stripe', 'Hopi Black Dye', 'Mammoth
Russian' and 'Sundak' are examples of this type[183, 200, 269].
Semi-dwarf types grow from 1.3 - 1.8 m tall, are early maturing and
have heads 17 - 23 cm diameter. The seeds are smaller, black, gray or
striped, the oil content is also higher. Examples include 'Pole Star'
and 'Jupiter' Dwarf types grow from 0.6 - 1.4 m tall, are early
maturing and have heads 14 - 16 cm in diameter[269. The seeds are small
but the oil content is the highest. Examples include 'Advance' and
'Sunset'[269].
Some forms are being bred for greater cold tolerance and should be more
reliable in Britain[117, 141]. Plants tend to grow better in the south
and south-west of England[4]. Most forms require a four month
frost-free growing season[117], though some Russian cultivars can
mature a crop in 70 days[269]. When plants are grown in cooler
latitudes the seed contains higher proportions of polyunsaturated fatty
oils[117].
The plant has a strong taproot that can penetrate the soil to depth of
3 metres, it also has a large lateral spread of surface roots[269].
Sunflowers grow badly with potatoes but they do well with cucumbers and
corn[18, 20, 201]. A very greedy and vigorous plant, it can inhibit the
growth of nearby plants[20]. Plants tend to impoverish the soil if they
are grown too often in the same place[117].
A good bee plant, providing large quantities of nectar[18, 34, 244].
The flowers attract beneficial insects such as lacewings and parasitic
wasps[238]. These prey on various insect pests, especially aphis[238].




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Helianthus annuus - L. Sunflower contd

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 16:04

Propagation



Seed - sow in mid spring in situ. An earlier start can be made by
sowing 2 - 3 seeds per pot in a greenhouse in early spring. Use a
fairly rich compost. Thin to the strongest seedling, give them an
occasional liquid feed to make sure they do not become nutrient
deficient and plant them out in late spring or early summer.
Seed, harvested at 12% moisture content and stored, will retain its
viability for several years[269].

Cultivars


'Dwarf Russian'
Grown mainly for its edible seeds, this is an early ripening
cultivar that is sturdy and vigorous yet smaller than the cultivar
'Mammoth Russian'[183]. The seed heads are the same size as in other
cultivars, and the seeds are large[183].
'Rostov'
Grown mainly as an oil seed, this is an early-maturing, black-seeded form[183]. The heads average 30cm or more in diameter[183].
Plants grow up to 2.5 metres tall, they can withstand heavy rain and winds[183].

Links


References

[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive
listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been
replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).

[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.


[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.

[7] Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald 1984 ISBN 0-356-10541-5
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.

[14] Holtom. J. and Hylton. W. Complete Guide to Herbs. Rodale Press 1979 ISBN 0-87857-262-7
A good herbal.


[18] Philbrick H. and Gregg R. B. Companion Plants. Watkins 1979
Details of beneficial and antagonistic relationships between neighbouring plants.

[20] Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening. Garden Way, Vermont, USA. 1978 ISBN 0-88266-064-0
Fairly good.

[21] Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books 1983 ISBN 0-553-23827-2
Lots of information tightly crammed into a fairly small book.


[34] Harrison. S. Wallis. M. Masefield. G. The Oxford Book of Food Plants. Oxford University Press 1975
Good drawings of some of the more common food plants from around the world. Not much information though.

[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An
excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short
descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the
plants. Not for the casual reader.

[57] Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. 0
Fairly readable but not very comprehensive. Deals with plants from around the world.


[60] Hitchcock. C. L. Vascular Plants of the Pacific Northwest. University of Washington Press 1955
A
standard flora for Western N. America with lots of information on
habitat etc. Five large volumes, it is not for the casual reader.

[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget
the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a
very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very
brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.

[76] Cooper. M. and Johnson. A. Poisonous Plants in Britain and their Effects on Animals and Man. HMSO 1984 ISBN 0112425291
Concentrates mainly on the effects of poisonous plants to livestock.


[85] Harrington. H. D. Edible Native Plants of the Rocky Mountains. University of New Mexico Press 1967 ISBN 0-8623-0343-9
A superb book. Very readable, it gives the results of the authors experiments with native edible plants.

[87] Woodward. L. Burge. P. Green Manures. Elm Farm Research Centre. 1982
Green manure crops for temperate areas. Quite a lot of information on a number of species.

[94] Sweet. M. Common Edible and Useful Plants of the West. Naturegraph Co. 1962 ISBN 0-911010-54-8
Useful wild plants in Western N. America. A pocket guide.


[95] Saunders. C. F. Edible and Useful Wild Plants of the United States and Canada. Dover Publications 1976 ISBN 0-486-23310-3
Useful wild plants of America. A pocket guide.

[100] Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press 1969 ISBN 0192176218
An excellent and well illustrated pocket guide for those with very large pockets. Also gives some details on plant uses.

[101] Turner. N. J. and Szczawinski. A. Edible Wild Fruits and Nuts of Canada. National Museum of Natural Sciences 1978
A very readable guide to some wild foods of Canada.


[102] Kavasch. B. Native Harvests. Vintage Books 1979 ISBN 0-394-72811-4
Another guide to the wild foods of America.

[117] Rosengarten. jnr. F. The Book of Edible Nuts. Walker & Co. 1984 ISBN 0802707699
A very readable and comprehensive guide. Well illustrated.


[141] Carruthers. S. P. (Editor) Alternative Enterprises for Agriculture in the UK. Centre for Agricultural Strategy, Univ. of Reading 1986 ISBN 0704909820
Some suggested alternative commercial crops for Britain. Readable. Produced by a University study group.

[169] Buchanan. R. A Weavers Garden. 0
Covers all aspects of growing your own clothes, from fibre plants to dyes.

[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent.
Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food
plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N.
American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other
nurseries from around the world.


[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

[201] Allardice.P. A - Z of Companion Planting. Cassell Publishers Ltd. 1993 ISBN 0-304-34324-2
A well produced and very readable book.

[218] Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. 1985 ISBN 0-917256-20-4
Details
of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their
uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents.
Heavy going if you are not into the subject.


[222] Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1990 ISBN 0395467225
A
concise book dealing with almost 500 species. A line drawing of each
plant is included plus colour photographs of about 100 species. Very
good as a field guide, it only gives brief details about the plants
medicinal properties.

[233] Thomas. G. S. Perennial Garden Plants J. M. Dent & Sons, London. 1990 ISBN 0 460 86048 8
A concise guide to a wide range of perennials. Lots of cultivation guides, very little on plant uses.


[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A
very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the
globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student.
Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries
for each plant.

[244] Phillips. R. & Foy. N. Herbs Pan Books Ltd. London. 1990 ISBN 0-330-30725-8
Deals
with all types of herbs including medicinal, culinary, scented and dye
plants. Excellent photographs with quite good information on each plant.


[257] Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. 1998 ISBN 0-88192-453-9
Very
comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent
bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to
further information. Not for the casual reader.

[269] Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops - 1983
Published only on the Internet, excellent information on a wide range of plants.

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Helianthus lenticularis - Douglas. Wild Sunflower

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 16:07




Helianthus lenticularis -
Douglas.


Wild Sunflower



AuthorDouglas.
Botanical references1, 43, 71

FamilyCompositae
GenusHelianthus
SynonymsHelianthus annuus lenticularis - (Dougl. ex Lindl.) Cockerell.


Known HazardsNone known
RangeN. America - Minnesota to North Dakota, Idaho, Missouri, Texas and California.

HabitatRoadsides and waste places[71] in rich soils[43].
Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)
Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Annual growing to 3m.

It is hardy to zone 0. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It cannot grow in the shade.
It requires moist soil.


Habitats


Cultivated Beds;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Seed.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Oil.


Seed - raw or cooked[172]. The seed can be dried and ground into a
powder then used with cereal flowers in making breads, cakes and rich
soups[183].
An edible oil is obtained from the seed[183].
The roasted shells, after the starch has been removed, or the roasted
seeds, can be used in preparing a coffee-like beverage[183].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.


None known

Other Uses



None known

Cultivation details



Succeeds in most soils in a sunny position[1]. Requires a rich soil[1].
Dislikes shade[1].
The young growth is extremely attractive to slugs, plants can be
totally destroyed by them[K].
Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer or
rabbits[233].
Probably no more than the wild form of the cultivated sunflower, H.
annuus, it is treated as a sub-species of that by many botanists[1,
200].

Propagation



Seed - sow in mid spring in situ. An earlier start can be made by
sowing 2 - 3 seeds per pot in a greenhouse in early spring. Use a
fairly rich compost. Thin to the strongest seedling, give them an
occasional liquid feed to make sure they do not become nutrient
deficient and plant them out in late spring or early summer.

Links


References

[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive
listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been
replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).


[43] Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. 1950
A bit dated but good and concise flora of the eastern part of N. America.

[71] Munz. A California Flora. University of California Press 1959
An excellent flora but no pictures. Not for the casual reader.

[172] Schofield. J. J. Discovering Wild Plants - Alaska, W. Canada and the Northwest. 0
A nice guide to some useful plants in that area.


[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent.
Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food
plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N.
American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other
nurseries from around the world.

[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

[233] Thomas. G. S. Perennial Garden Plants J. M. Dent & Sons, London. 1990 ISBN 0 460 86048 8
A concise guide to a wide range of perennials. Lots of cultivation guides, very little on plant uses.



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Helianthus tuberosus - L. Jerusalem Artichoke

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 16:09




Helianthus tuberosus -
L.

Jerusalem Artichoke



AuthorL.
Botanical references43, 200
FamilyCompositae

GenusHelianthus
Synonyms

Known HazardsNone known
RangeEastern N. America - Nova Scotia to Minnesota and Kansas. Occasionally naturalized in Britain.
HabitatRich and damp thickets[43].
Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 4 (1-5)

Medicinal Ratingapple icon 1 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Perennial growing to 2.4m by 0.6m at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone 4 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in
October, and the seeds ripen in November. The flowers are hermaphrodite
(have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies.
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay)
soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor
soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It cannot grow in the shade.
It requires dry or moist soil.
The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Cultivated Beds;
Cultivars: (as above except)
'Boston Red'
'Dwarf Sunray'
'Fuseau'
'Long Red'
'Stampede'


Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Root.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Sweetener.

Tubers - raw or cooked[2, 46, 61, 95]. The tuber develops a pleasant
sweetness during the winter, especially if subjected to frosts, and is
then reasonably acceptable raw[K]. Otherwise it is generally best
cooked, and can be used in all the ways that potatoes are used[K]. The
tubers are rich in inulin[46], a starch which the body cannot digest,
so Jerusalem artichokes provide a bulk of food without many
calories[K]. Some people are not very tolerant of inulin, it tends to
ferment in their guts and can cause quite severe wind[K]. The tubers
are fairly large, up to 10cm long and 6cm in diameter[200]. The tubers
bruise easily and lose moisture rapidly so are best left in the ground
and harvested as required[200].
The inulin from the roots can be converted into fructose, a sweet
substance that is safe for diabetics to use[46, 171].
The roasted tubers are a coffee substitute[183].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.


Aperient; Cholagogue; Diuretic; Stomachic; Tonic.


Reported to be aperient, aphrodisiac, cholagogue, diuretic,
spermatogenetic, stomachic, and tonic, Jerusalem artichoke is a folk
remedy for diabetes and rheumatism[269].

Other Uses


Biomass.


The plants are a good source of biomass. The tubers are used in
industry to make alcohol etc[141]. The alcohol fermented from the
tubers is said to be of better quality than that from sugar beets[269].
A fast-growing plant, Jerusalem artichokes can be grown as a temporary
summer screen[200]. Very temporary, it is July before they reach a
reasonable height and by October they are dying down[K].

Cultivation details



A very easily grown plant, it grows best in a loose circumneutral loam
but succeeds in most soils and conditions in a sunny position[1, 16,
37, 38, 269]. Plants are more productive when grown in a rich soil[1,
37, 38]. Heavy soils produce the highest yields, but the tubers are
easily damaged at harvest-time so lighter well-drained sandy loams are
more suitable[200]. Dislikes shade[1]. Likes some lime in the soil[16].
Jerusalem artichoke is reported to tolerate an annual precipitation of
31 to 282cm, an average annual temperature of 6.3 to 26.6°C and a pH in
the range of 4.5 to 8.2[269].
Jerusalem artichokes were cultivated as a food plant by the N. American
Indians and they are today often grown in temperate areas for their
edible tubers. There are some named varieties[4, 46, 183, 200]. The
plant is a suitable crop in any soil and climate where corn (Zea mays)
will grow. It survives in poor soil and in areas as cold as Alaska. It
also tolerates hot to sub-zero temperatures[269]. The first frost kills
the stems and leaves, but the tubers can withstand freezing for
months[269]. The plants are particularly suited to dry regions and poor
soils where they will out-yield potatoes[200]. Tuber production occurs
in response to decreasing day-length in late summer[200]. Yields range
from 1 - 2kg per square metre[200]. The tubers are very cold-tolerant
and can be safely left in the ground in the winter to be harvested as
required. They can be attacked by slugs, however, and in sites prone to
slug damage it is probably best to harvest the tubers in late autumn
and store them over the winter. It is almost impossible to find all the
tubers at harvest time, any left in the soil will grow away vigorously
in the spring.
Plants do not flower in northern Europe. They are sensitive to
day-length hours, requiring longer periods of light from seedling to
maturation of plant, and shorter periods for tuber formation. They do
not grow where day-lengths vary little[269].
The plant is good weed eradicator, it makes so dense a shade that few
other plants can compete[269].
The young growth is extremely attractive to slugs, plants can be
totally destroyed by them[K].
Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer or
rabbits[233].
Plants only produce flowers in Britain after a long hot summer[17] and
seed is rarely formed[200]. Grows well with corn[20].
Plants can be invasive[1].

Propagation



Seed - sow spring in a cold frame. When they are large enough to
handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on
in the greenhouse for their first winter. Plant them out into their
permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last
expected frosts.
Division in spring or autumn[200]. Harvest the tubers in late autumn or
the winter and either replant the tubers immediately or store them in a
cool but frost-free place and plant them out in early spring. Jerusalem
artichoke is propagated by tubers, which should be planted as early as
possible in the spring when the soil can be satisfactorily worked[269].
Late planting usually reduces tuber yields and size seriously. Whole
tubers or pieces about 50 g (2 oz.) should be planted like potatoes and
covered to a depth of 10 cm. Pieces larger than 50 g do not increase
the yield, though those smaller will decrease it. Deeper planting may
delay emergence, weaken the sprouts, and cause the tubers to develop
deeper, making harvest more difficult[269].
Basal cuttings in spring. Harvest the shoots when they are about 10 -
15cm long with plenty of underground stem. Pot them up into individual
pots and keep them in light shade in a cold frame or greenhouse until
they are rooting well. Plant them out in the summer.

Cultivars


'Boston Red'

'Dwarf Sunray'
Tubers are so crisp and tender that no peeling of the outer skin is necessary[183].
A relatively low-growing cultivar, 1.5 - 2 metres tall. Unlike other cultivars, this form usually flowers freely[183].
'Fuseau'
Long tapered tubers 10 - 12cm long and up to 4cm wide[183]. Very
smooth and free from the knobs that characterize most Jerusalem
Artichokes, thus making them easier to clean[183].
'Long Red'
Large tapered tubers that are free from the knobs that make cleaning Jerusalem Artichokes so difficult[183].
'Stampede'
The white-skinned tubers are large, sometimes weighing more than
250 grams each[183].
A special high-yielding, extra early strain, maturing a month or more
before other cultivars[183]. Relatively dwarf, growing to 1.8 metres
tall[183]. It is winter hardy even in severe cold[183].

Links


This plant is also mentioned in the following PFAF articles:
Alternative Root Crops.

References

[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive
listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been
replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).


[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.

[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.

[16] Simons. New Vegetable Growers Handbook. Penguin 1977 ISBN 0-14-046-050-0
A good guide to growing vegetables in temperate areas, not entirely organic.


[17] Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press 1962
A very comprehensive flora, the standard reference book but it has no pictures.

[20] Riotte. L. Companion Planting for Successful Gardening. Garden Way, Vermont, USA. 1978 ISBN 0-88266-064-0
Fairly good.

[37] Thompson. B. The Gardener's Assistant. Blackie and Son. 1878
Excellent
general but extensive guide to gardening practices in the 19th century.
A very good section on fruits and vegetables with many little known
species.


[38] Simmons A. E. Simmons' Manual of Fruit. David & Charles. 1978 ISBN 0-7153-7607-1
A good guide to some of the cultivars of temperate fruits. It covers quite a wide range of fruits.

[43] Fernald. M. L. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Co. 1950
A bit dated but good and concise flora of the eastern part of N. America.


[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An
excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short
descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the
plants. Not for the casual reader.

[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget
the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a
very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very
brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.

[95] Saunders. C. F. Edible and Useful Wild Plants of the United States and Canada. Dover Publications 1976 ISBN 0-486-23310-3
Useful wild plants of America. A pocket guide.


[141] Carruthers. S. P. (Editor) Alternative Enterprises for Agriculture in the UK. Centre for Agricultural Strategy, Univ. of Reading 1986 ISBN 0704909820
Some suggested alternative commercial crops for Britain. Readable. Produced by a University study group.

[171] Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press 1952
Not very comprehensive, but it is quite readable and goes into some a bit of detail about the plants it does cover.

[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent.
Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food
plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N.
American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other
nurseries from around the world.


[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

[233] Thomas. G. S. Perennial Garden Plants J. M. Dent & Sons, London. 1990 ISBN 0 460 86048 8
A concise guide to a wide range of perennials. Lots of cultivation guides, very little on plant uses.


[269] Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops - 1983
Published only on the Internet, excellent information on a wide range of plants.



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Hibiscus sabdariffa - L. Roselle

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 16:11




Hibiscus sabdariffa -
L.


Roselle



AuthorL.
Botanical references200, 266

FamilyMalvaceae
GenusHibiscus
Synonyms

Known HazardsNone known
RangeTropics.
HabitatDisturbed ground[238].

Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Annual/Perennial growing to 3m by 2m.
It is hardy to zone 10 and is frost tender. It is in flower from August
to October, and the seeds ripen from October to November. The flowers
are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated
by Insects.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It cannot grow in the shade.
It requires moist soil.


Habitats



Cultivated Beds;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Flowers; Leaves; Root; Seed.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Oil; Pectin.


The fresh calyx (the outer whorl of the flower) is eaten raw in
salads, is cooked and used as a flavouring in cakes etc and is also
used in making jellies, soups, sauces, pickles, puddings etc[74, 171,
183, 269]. The calyx is rich in citric acid and pectin and so is useful
for making jams, jellies etc[240, 269]. It is also used to add a red
colour and to flavour to herb teas[238, 269], and can be roasted and
used as a coffee substitute[183].
A refreshing and very popular beverage can be made by boiling the
calyx, sweetening it with sugar and adding ginger[183].
Tender young leaves and stems - raw or cooked[177, 269, 272]. Used in
salads, as a potherb and as a seasoning in curries, they have an acid,
rhubarb-like flavour[183, 238, 269].
Seed - roasted and ground into a powder then used in oily soups and
sauces[177, 183].
The roasted seeds have been used as a coffee substitute that is said to
have aphrodisiac properties[269].
Root - it is edible but very fibrousy[144]. Mucilaginous, without very
much flavour[144].
The seed yields 20% oil[74]. (This is probably edible[K]).

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antiscorbutic; Astringent; Diuretic; Febrifuge; Stomachic.


Roselle is an aromatic, astringent, cooling herb that is much used in
the Tropics. It is said to have diuretic effects, to help lower fevers
and is antiscorbutic[74, 238].
The leaves are antiscorbutic, emollient, diuretic, refrigerant, and
sedative[269]. The leaves are very mucilaginous and are used as an
emollient and as a soothing cough remedy. They are used externally as a
poultice on abscesses[269].
The fruits are antiscorbutic[269].
The flowers contain gossypetin, anthocyanin, and the glycoside
hibiscin[269]. These may have diuretic and choleretic effects,
decreasing the viscosity of the blood, reducing blood pressure and
stimulating intestinal peristalsis[269]. The leaves and flowers are
used internally as a tonic tea for digestive and kidney functions[74,
238]. Experimentally, an infusion decreases the viscosity of the blood,
reduces blood pressure and stimulates intestinal peristalsis[240].
The ripe calyces are diuretic and antiscorbutic[269]. The succulent
calyx, boiled in water, is used as a drink in the treatment of bilious
attacks[269].
The seeds are diuretic, laxative and tonic[269]. They are used in the
treatment of debility[269].
The bitter root is aperitif and tonic[269].
The plant is also reported to be antiseptic, aphrodisiac, astringent,
cholagogue, demulcent, digestive, purgative and resolvent[269]. It is
used as a folk remedy in the treatment of abscesses, bilious
conditions, cancer, cough, debility, dyspepsia, dysuria, fever,
hangover, heart ailments, hypertension, neurosis, scurvy, and
strangury[269].
One report says that the plant has been shown to be of value in the
treatment of arteriosclerosis and as an intestinal antiseptic, though
it does not say which part of the plant is used[269].
Simulated ingestion of the plant extract decreased the rate of
absorption of alcohol, lessening the intensity of alcohol effects in
chickens[269].

Other Uses


Dye; Fibre; Oil.


A strong fibre obtained from the stem (called rosella hemp) is used for
various household purposes including making sackcloth, twine and
cord[74, 171, 238, 272].
A yellow dye is obtained from the petals[240]. It is used in medicines
etc[74].
The seed yields 20% oil[74].

Cultivation details



Prefers a well-drained humus rich fertile soil in full sun[200].
Roselle requires a permeable soil, a friable sandy loam with humus
being preferable; however, it will adapt to a variety of soils[269]. It
is not shade tolerant and must be kept weed-free[269]. It will tolerate
floods, heavy winds or stagnant water[269]. Roselle is reported to
tolerate an annual precipitation of 64 to 429cm, an annual temperature
in the range of 12.5 to 27.5°C and a pH of 4.5 to 8.0[269].
This species is not hardy in Britain, but it can be grown as a
half-hardy annual, flowering in its first year from seed[200]. Plants
are sensitive to the length of daylight and do not flower if there are
more than 13 hours of light in the day[169].
Roselle is widely cultivated in the Tropical and Sub-tropical zones for
its fibre and edible calyx, there are some named varieties[183].
Roselle is best suited to tropical climates with a well-distributed
rainfall of 1500 - 2000 mm yearly, from sea-level to about 600 m
altitude[269]. It tolerates a warmer and more humid climate than kenaf
(Hibiscus cannabinus), but is more susceptible to damage from frost and
fog[269]. Plants exhibit marked photoperiodism, not flowering at
shortening days of 13.5 hours, but flowering at 11 hours. In the United
States plants do not flower until short days of late fall or early
winter. Since flowering is not necessary for fibre production, long
light days for 3 - 4 months is the critical factor[269].
There are two main forms of the plant:- var. sabdariffa has red or pale
yellow inflated edible calyces but a poor quality fibre; var. altissima
is grown for its fibre but has inedible calyces[269].
Plants have a deep penetrating taproot[269].

Propagation



Seed - sow early spring in a warm greenhouse. Germination is usually
fairly rapid. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they
are large enough to handle. If growing them as annuals, plant them out
into their permanent positions in early summer and protect them with a
frame or cloche until they are growing away well. If hoping to grow
them as perennials, then it is better to grow them on in the greenhouse
for their first year and to plant them out in early summer of the
following year.
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame. Overwinter them in
a warm greenhouse and plant out after the last expected frosts.

Cultivars


No entries have been made for this species as yet.

Links


References

[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[74] Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation 1968
An
immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of
the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but
heavy going for casual readers.


[144] Cribb. A. B. and J. W. Wild Food in Australia. Fontana 1976 ISBN 0-00-634436-4
A very good pocket guide.

[169] Buchanan. R. A Weavers Garden. 0
Covers all aspects of growing your own clothes, from fibre plants to dyes.

[171] Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press 1952
Not very comprehensive, but it is quite readable and goes into some a bit of detail about the plants it does cover.


[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.

[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent.
Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food
plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N.
American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other
nurseries from around the world.

[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.


[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A
very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the
globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student.
Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries
for each plant.

[240] Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. 1986
Very
terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of
references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for
the casual reader.

[266] Flora of China 1994
On-line version of the Flora - an excellent resource giving basic info on habitat and some uses.


[269] Duke. J. Handbook of Energy Crops - 1983
Published only on the Internet, excellent information on a wide range of plants.

[272] Manandhar. N. P. Plants and People of Nepal Timber Press. Oregon. 2002 ISBN 0-88192-527-6
Excellent
book, covering over 1,500 species of useful plants from Nepal together
with information on the geography and peoples of Nepal. Good
descriptions of the plants with terse notes on their uses.



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