Pipes for Carrying Liquid

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Elderberry (Continued)

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 10:41


Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antiinflammatory; Aperient; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Emetic; Emollient; Expectorant; Galactogogue; Haemostatic; Laxative; Ophthalmic; Purgative; Salve; Stimulant.


Elder has a very long history of household use as a medicinal herb and
is also much used by herbalists[4]. The plant has been called 'the
medicine chest of country people'[4]. The flowers are the main part
used in modern herbalism, though all parts of the plant have been used
at times[238].
Stimulant[9, 53, 165].
The inner bark is collected from young trees in the autumn and is best
sun-dried[4]. It is diuretic, a strong purgative and in large doses
emetic[4, 7]. It is used in the treatment of constipation and arthritic
conditions[238]. An emollient ointment is made from the green inner
bark[4].
The leaves can be used both fresh or dry. For drying, they are
harvested in periods of fine weather during June and July. The leaves
are purgative, but are more nauseous than the bark[4]. They are also
diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant and haemostatic[4, 7]. The juice is
said to be a good treatment for inflamed eyes[4]. An ointment made from
the leaves is emollient and is used in the treatment of bruises,
sprains, chilblains, wounds etc[4].
The fresh flowers are used in the distillation of 'Elder Flower Water'.
The flowers can be preserved with salt to make them available for
distillation later in the season[4]. The water is mildly astringent and
a gentle stimulant. It is mainly used as a vehicle for eye and skin
lotions[4].
The dried flowers are diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, galactogogue
and pectoral[4, 7]. An infusion is very effective in the treatment of
chest complaints and is also used to bathe inflamed eyes[4]. The
infusion is also a very good spring tonic and blood cleanser[4].
Externally, the flowers are used in poultices to ease pain and abate
inflammation[4]. Used as an ointment, it treats chilblains, burns,
wounds, scalds etc[4].
The fruit is depurative, weakly diaphoretic and gently laxative[4, 7].
A tea made from the dried berries is said to be a good remedy for colic
and diarrhoea[4]. The fruit is widely used for making wines, preserves
etc., and these are said to retain the medicinal properties of the
fruit[4].
The pith of young stems is used in treating burns and scalds[46, 61,
100].
The root is no longer used in herbal medicine but it formerly had a
high reputation as an emetic and purgative that was very effective
against dropsy[4].
A homeopathic remedy is made from the fresh inner bark of young
branches[4]. It relieves asthmatic symptoms and spurious croup in
children[4].

Other Uses


Compost; Cosmetic; Dye; Fungicide; Hedge; Insecticide; Litmus; Microscope; Musical; Pioneer; Pipes; Repellent; Wood.


The plant is a valuable addition to the compost heap[14, 18], its
flowers are an alternative ingredient of 'QR' herbal compost
activator[32] and the roots of the plant improve fermentation of the
compost heap when growing nearby[18].
The leaves are used as an insect repellent[4, 6, 14, 66], very
effective when rubbed on the skin though they do impart their own
unique fragrance[K]. They can be powdered and placed amongst plants to
act as a deterrent[14], or made into a spray when they act as an
insecticide[7]. This is prepared by boiling 3 - 4 handfuls of leaves in
a litre of water, then straining and allowing to cool before
applying[201]. Effective against many insects, it also treats various
fungal infections such as leaf rot and powdery mildew[201].The dried
flowering shoots are used to repel insects, rodents etc[101].
The flowers are used in skin lotions, oils and ointments[238].
Tolerant of salt-laden gales, this species can be grown as a shelter
hedge in exposed maritime areas[29, 75], it is rather bare in the
winter though[K].
This is an excellent pioneer species to use when re-establishing
woodlands. It is very tough and wind-resistant, grows quickly and
provides shelter for longer-lived and taller woodland species to
establish. It will generally maintain itself in the developing
woodland, though usually in the sunnier positions[K].
A dye is obtained from the fruit and the bark[13, 15]. The bark of
older branches and the root have been used as an ingredient in dyeing
black[4].
A green dye is obtained from the leaves when alum is used as a
mordant[4].
The berries yield various shades of blue and purple dyes[4]. They have
also been used as a hair dye, turning the hair black[4].
The blue colouring matter from the fruit can be used as a litmus to
test if something is acid or alkaline. It turns green in an alkaline
solution and red in an acid solution[4].
The pith in the stems of young branches pushes out easily and the
hollow stems thus made have been used as pipes for blowing air into a
fire[4]. They can also be made into musical instruments[4].
The pith of the wood is used for making microscope slides and also for
treating burns and scalds[46, 61, 100].
The mature wood is white and fine-grained. It is easily cut and
polishes well[4]. Valued highly by carpenters, it has many used, for
making skewers, mathematical instruments, toys etc[4, 13, 100, 244].

Scented Plants


Flowers: Fresh
The flowers have a sweet, almost overpowering smell, not exactly
pleasant when inhaled near to for it has fishy undertones, but from a
distance its musky scent is appealing[245].
Leaves: Crushed
The crushed foliage has a strong aroma.

Cultivation details



A very easily grown plant, it tolerates most soils and situations[11,
28, 98], growing well on chalk[28, 98, 186], but prefers a moist loamy
soil[200]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Tolerates some shade but
fruits better in a sunny position[37, 200]. Tolerates atmospheric
pollution and coastal situations[200]. Another report says that it is
intolerant of very smoky atmospheres[186].
The elder is very occasionally cultivated for its edible fruit, there
are some named varieties though most of these have been developed for
their ornamental value[182]. The sub-species S. nigra alba has
white/green fruits that are nicer than the type species and are quite
nice raw[K]. The elder also has a very long history of folk use, both
medicinally and for a wide range of other uses. All in all it is a very
valuable plant to have in the garden.
The leaves often begin to open as early as January and are fully open
in April[186]. The leaves fall in October/November in exposed sites,
later in sheltered positions[186]. Young stems can be killed by late
frosts but they are soon replaced from the ground level[186]. Very
tolerant of pruning, plants can be cut back to ground level and will
regrow from the base[186].
The flowers have a sweet, almost overpowering smell, not exactly
pleasant when inhaled near to for it has fishy undertones, but from a
distance its musky scent is appealing[245].
Very resistant to the predations of rabbits[17, 186].
The flowers are very attractive to insects[186]. The fruit is very
attractive to birds[186] and this can draw them away from other
cultivated fruits[14, 186].
The elder is an early colonizer of derelict land, the seed arriving in
the defecations of birds and mammals[186]. It is a very good pioneer
species for re-establishing woodlands.
Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200].

Propagation



Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame,
when it should germinate in early spring. Stored seed can be sown in
the spring in a cold frame but will probably germinate better if it is
given 2 months warm followed by 2 months cold stratification first[78,
98, 113]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are
large enough to handle. If good growth is made, the young plants can be
placed in their permanent positions during the early summer. Otherwise,
either put them in a sheltered nursery bed, or keep them in their pots
in a sheltered position and plant them out in spring of the following
year.
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 - 10cm with a heel, July/August in a
frame[78].
Cuttings of mature wood of the current season's growth, 15 - 20cm with
a heel, late autumn in a frame or a sheltered outdoor bed[78].
Division of suckers in the dormant season.

Cultivars


'Alba'
The fruit of this form is very pale and seems to be much more
acceptable to the human palate than the type species. In a taste test
all 7 people found the raw fruit of this form quite acceptable to
eat[K].
'Cae Rhos Lligwy'
The fruit is large and green with a gooseberry flavour[200].



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Re: Pipes for Carrying Liquid

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 10:37




Sambucus nigra -
L.


Elderberry















AuthorL.Botanical references11, 17, 200
FamilyCaprifoliaceaeGenusSambucus
Synonyms
Known Hazardswarning signThe
leaves and stems are poisonous[9, 76]. The fruit of many species
(although no records have been seen for this species) has been known to
cause stomach upsets to some people. Any toxin the fruit might contain
is liable to be of very low toxicity and is destroyed when the fruit is
cooked[65, 76].
RangeEurope, including Britain, from Scandanavia south and east to N. Africa and W. Asia.
HabitatHedgerows, scrub, woods, roadsides, waste places etc, especially on disturbed base-rich and nitrogen rich soils[9, 17].
Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 4 (1-5)Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of shrub
A decidious Shrub growing to 6m by 6m at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf from March
to November, in flower from June to July, and the seeds ripen from
August to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and
female organs) and are pollinated by Flies.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires moist soil.
The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.
It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.


Habitats



Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; Hedge;
Cultivars: (as above except)
'Alba'

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Flowers; Fruit.

Edible Uses: Colouring; Tea.


Fruit - raw or cooked[2, 3, 5, 46, 61]. The flavour of the raw fruit
is not acceptable to many tastes, though when cooked it makes delicious
jams, preserves, pies and so forth[K]. It can be used fresh or dried,
the dried fruit being less bitter[12, 183, 238]. The fruit is used to
add flavour and colour to preserves, jams, pies, sauces, chutneys etc,
it is also often used to make wine[13, 183]. The fruit is about 8mm in
diameter and is borne in large clusters[200]. Some caution is advised,
see the notes above on toxicity.
Flowers - raw or cooked[2, 5, 12, 53]. They can also be dried for later
use[21]. The flowers are crisp and somewhat juicy, they have an
aromatic smell and flavour and are delicious raw as a refreshing snack
on a summers day, though look out for the insects[K]. The flowers are
used to add a muscatel flavour to stewed fruits, jellies and jams
(especially gooseberry jam)[238]. They are often used to make a
sparkling wine[183].
A sweet tea is made from the dried flowers[21, 183].
The leaves are used to impart a green colouring to oils and fats[183].

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Pipes for Carrying Liquid

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 07:43






Rubus spectabilis -
Pursh.


Salmonberry















AuthorPursh.Botanical references11, 71, 200
FamilyRosaceaeGenusRubus
Synonyms
Known HazardsNone known
RangeWestern N. America - Alaska to California. Occasionally naturalized in Britain[17].
HabitatMoist spots in and about woods below 300 metres in California[71].
Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of shrub
A decidious Shrub growing to 1.8m by 1m at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower in
April, and the seeds ripen from June to July. The flowers are
hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by
Insects.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid soil.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires moist soil.


Habitats



Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Flowers; Fruit; Stem.

Edible Uses: Tea.

Fruit - raw, cooked or dried for later use[1, 2, 17, 85, 101, 183].
Juicy with a very good flavour[182, 183]. The fruit can be made into
jams and jellies[257]. This species is not of much value in Britain, it
does not fruit freely in the cooler summers of this country and the
fruits do not always develop their full flavour[11]. The fruit can
range in colour from yellow, through orange to red, it is about the
size of a cultivated raspberry but is rather inferior in flavour and
often has a distinctive bitterness, especially in cooler summers[K].
Another report says that it fruits freely in Britain[182].
Young shoots - peeled and eaten raw or cooked like asparagus[11, 101,
118, 183, 257]. They are harvested in the spring as they grow above the
soil and whilst they are still tender[161].
Flowers - raw[172].
The leaves are used as a tea substitute[183].


Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Analgesic; Astringent; Disinfectant; Odontalgic; Poultice; Stomachic.


The leaves and the root are astringent[172]. A poultice of the chewed
leaves has been used as a dressing on burns[257].
The root bark is analgesic, astringent, disinfectant and
stomachic[257]. A decoction is used in the treatment of stomach
complaints[257]. A decoction has been used to lessen the pains of
labour[257]. The powdered bark has been used as a dusting powder on
burns and sores[257]. A poultice of the bark has been applied to wounds
and aching teeth to ease the pain[257]. A poultice of the chewed bark
has been used as a dressing to relive pain and clean burns and
wounds[257].

Other Uses


Dye; Pipes.


A purple to dull blue dye is obtained from the fruit[168].
The hollowed stems are used as pipes[99]. (The report does not specify what type of pipes)

Cultivation details



Easily grown in a good well-drained loamy soil in sun or semi-shade[1,
11, 200]. Grows well in the shade of trees[200] though it is less
likely to fruit well in such a position[K].
Hardy to about -25°c[184].
A very ornamental plant, but it is invasive[1]. It does not fruit well
in Britain[11], but has become naturalized in Surrey and Cumbria in
cool acid woodland soils[182].
This species is a raspberry with biennial stems, it produces a number
of new stems each year from the perennial rootstock, these stems fruit
in their second year and then die[200].
Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[200].


Propagation



Seed - requires stratification and is best sown in early autumn in a
cold frame. Stored seed requires one month stratification at about 3°c
and is best sown as early as possible in the year. Prick out the
seedlings when they are large enough to handle and grow on in a cold
frame. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring of
the following year.
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame[200].
Tip layering in July. Plant out in autumn.
Division in early spring or just before leaf-fall in the autumn[200].



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