Sandpaper: Plants used to smooth rough wooden surfaces by means of abrasion

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Re: Sandpaper: Plants used to smooth rough wooden surfaces by means of abrasion

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 11:43




Equisetum telmateia -
Ehrh.


Giant Horsetail















AuthorEhrh.Botanical references17, 200
FamilyEquisetaceaeGenusEquisetum
SynonymsEquisetum maximum - auct.

Known Hazardswarning signLarge
quantities of the plant can be toxic. This is because it contains the
enzyme thiaminase[172], a substance that can rob the body of the
vitamin B complex[65]. In small quantities this enzyme will do no harm
to people eating an adequate diet that is rich in vitamin B, though
large quantities can cause severe health problems. The enzyme is
destroyed by heat or thorough drying, so cooking the plant will remove
the thiaminase[172].
The plant also contains equisetic acid - see the notes on medicinal
uses for more information[213].
RangeEurope, including Britain, from Sweden south and east to N. Africa and W. Asia, N.W. N. America.
HabitatDamp shady banks etc, to 350 metres[17].
Edibility Ratingapple icon 1 (1-5)Medicinal Ratingapple icon 1 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Perennial growing to 2m.

It is hardy to zone 6. It is in flower in March, and the seeds ripen in April.
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires moist soil.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; Cultivated Beds;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Stem.


Strobil (the fertile shoots in spring) - raw or cooked[256]. The tough
outer fibres are peeled off, or can be chewed and then discarded[256].
The vegetative shoots, produced from late spring onwards, were
occasionally cleaned of their leaves, sheathing and branches and then
eaten by native North American Indians, but only when very young and
tightly compacted[256].
Root - cooked[257].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.


Astringent; Diuretic; Poultice.


The plant is astringent and diuretic[257]. A decoction has been used to
treat 'stoppage of urine'[257]. A poultice of the rough leaves and
stems is applied to cuts and sores[257].

Other Uses


Basketry; Fungicide; Hair; Liquid feed; Polish; Sandpaper.


The stems are very rich in silica[4]. They are used for scouring and
polishing metal[1, 4, 46, 61, 99, 257] and as a fine sandpaper[54, 99,
257]. The stems are first bleached by repeated wetting and drying in
the sun[74]. They can also be used as a polish for wooden floors and
furniture[46, 178].
The infused stem is an effective fungicide against mildew, mint rust
and blackspot on roses[14]. It also makes a good liquid feed[54]. Used
as a hair rinse it can eliminate fleas, lice and mites[213].
The black roots have been used for imbrication on coiled baskets[257].

Cultivation details



Prefers a moist soil with a pH between 6.5 and 7.5[200].
Plants are hardy to about -30°c[200].
Plants have a deep and penetrating root system and can be invasive. If
grown in the garden they are best kept in bounds by planting them in a
large container which can be sunk into the ground[200].

Propagation



Spores - best collected as soon as they are ripe in the spring and
surface-sown immediately on a sterile compost. Keep moist and pot up as
soon as the plants are large enough to handle. Very difficult[200].
Division. The plants usually spread very freely when well sited and
should not really need any assistance.



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Re: Sandpaper: Plants used to smooth rough wooden surfaces by means of abrasion

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 11:20




Equisetum sylvaticum -
L.


Wood Horsetail















AuthorL.Botanical references17, 200
FamilyEquisetaceaeGenusEquisetum
Synonyms
Known Hazardswarning signLarge
quantities of the plant can be toxic. This is because it contains the
enzyme thiaminase[172], a substance that can rob the body of the
vitamin B complex[65]. In small quantities this enzyme will do no harm
to people eating an adequate diet that is rich in vitamin B, though
large quantities can cause severe health problems. The enzyme is
destroyed by heat or thorough drying, so cooking the plant will remove
the thiaminase[172].
The plant also contains equisetic acid - see the notes on medicinal
uses for more information[213].
RangeTemperate regions of Europe, including Britain, N. America and Asia.
HabitatDamp woods on acid soils, moors etc[17].
Edibility Ratingapple icon 1 (1-5)Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Perennial growing to 0.6m.
It is hardy to zone 2. The seeds ripen from April to May.
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland).
It requires moist soil.


Habitats



Woodland Garden; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Root; Stem.


Strobil (the fertile shoots in spring) - cooked[177]. An asparagus
substitute, though it is neither very palatable nor very nutritious.
Caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity.
Roots - cooked. A source of starch[177]. Caution is advised, see the
notes above on toxicity.

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Astringent; Diuretic; Haemostatic; Kidney; Poultice; Styptic.


Horsetails have an unusual chemistry compared to most other
plants[238]. They are rich in silica, contain several alkaloids
(including nicotine) and various minerals[238]. The plant is
astringent, diuretic and styptic[4]. The barren stems are used, they
are most active when fresh but can also be dried and sometimes the
ashes of the pant are used[4]. The plant is a useful diuretic when
taken internally and is used in the treatment of kidney and bladder
problems, internal bleeding[4, 257]. A decoction applied externally
will stop the bleeding of wounds and promote healing[4, 257].

Other Uses


Dye; Fungicide; Hair; Sandpaper; Scourer.


The stems can be used for scouring and polishing metal and as a fine
sandpaper[4]. The stems are first bleached by repeated wetting and
drying in the sun[74]. They can also be used as a polish for wooden
floors and furniture[46, 178].
The infused stem is an effective fungicide against mildew, mint rust
and blackspot on roses[14]. It also makes a good liquid feed[54]. Used
as a hair rinse it can eliminate fleas, lice and mites[213].
A light pink dye is obtained from the stem[99].

Cultivation details



Prefers a moist soil with a pH between 6.5 and 7.5[200].
Plants are hardy to about -30°c[200].
Plants have a deep and penetrating root system and can be invasive. If
grown in the garden they are best kept in bounds by planting them in a
large container which can be sunk into the ground[200].

Propagation



Spores - best collected as soon as they are ripe in the spring and
surface-sown immediately on a sterile compost. Keep moist and pot up as
soon as the plants are large enough to handle. Very difficult[200].
Division. The plants usually spread very freely when well sited and
should not really need any assistance.



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Re: Sandpaper: Plants used to smooth rough wooden surfaces by means of abrasion

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 11:15




Equisetum hyemale -
L.


Dutch Rush















AuthorL.Botanical references1, 17
FamilyEquisetaceaeGenusEquisetum
Synonyms
Known Hazardswarning signLarge
quantities of the plant can be toxic. This is because it contains the
enzyme thiaminase[172], a substance that can rob the body of the
vitamin B complex[65]. In small quantities this enzyme will do no harm
to people eating an adequate diet that is rich in vitamin B, though
large quantities can cause severe health problems. The enzyme is
destroyed by heat or thorough drying, so cooking the plant will remove
the thiaminase[172].
The plant also contains equisetic acid - see the notes on medicinal
uses for more information[213].
RangeTemperate regions of Europe, including Britain, N. America and Asia.
HabitatShady streambanks etc, to 500 metres[17].
Edibility Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Perennial growing to 1m.
It is hardy to zone 5. The seeds ripen from July to August.
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires moist soil.


Habitats



Bog Garden; Cultivated Beds;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Root; Stem.


Strobil (the fertile shoots in spring) - cooked[177]. An asparagus
substitute. Caution is advised, see the notes above on toxicity.
Roots - dried and then cooked[257]. A source of starch[177]. Caution is
advised, see the notes above on toxicity.
A further report says that the peeled stems, base of the plant, root
and tubers were eaten raw by the N. American Indians, the report went
on to say that this may be inadvisable[85].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antibacterial; Antiinflammatory; Antispasmodic; Appetizer; Cancer; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Expectorant; Febrifuge; Hypotensive; Styptic.


Horsetails have an unusual chemistry compared to most other
plants[238]. They are rich in silica, contain several alkaloids
(including nicotine) and various minerals[238, 279].
The plant is anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, diaphoretic,
diuretic, expectorant, febrifuge, haemostatic, hypotensive and
styptic[147, 176. 218, 279]. It also has an appetite-stimulating
effect[279]]. The barren stems are used, they are most active when
fresh but can also be dried and sometimes the ashes of the pant are
used[4]. The plant is a useful diuretic when taken internally and is
used in the treatment of kidney and bladder problems[4]. A decoction
applied externally will stop the bleeding of wounds and promote
healing[4].
The plant contains polyphenolic flavonoids with bactericidal
activity[218].

Other Uses


Dye; Fungicide; Liquid feed; Musical; Paper; Parasiticide; Polish; Sandpaper; Scourer.


The stems are very rich in silica[4]. They are used for scouring and
polishing metal[1, 4, 46, 61, 99] and as a fine sandpaper[54, 99]. The
stems are first bleached by repeated wetting and drying in the sun[74].
They can also be used as a polish for wooden floors and furniture[46,
178].
The infused stem is an effective fungicide against mildew, mint rust
and blackspot on roses[14]. It also makes a good liquid feed[54]. Used
as a hair rinse it can eliminate fleas, lice and mites[213, 257].
A light pink dye is obtained from the stem[99].
The hollow stems have been used as whistles[257]. Another report says
that the stem joints are pulled apart and used by children to produce a
whistling sound[257].

Cultivation details



Prefers a moist soil with a pH between 6.5 and 7.5[200].
Plants are hardy to about -30°c[200].
The stems of this species were once exported to Britain in quantity
from Holland so that they could be used as an abrasive for cleaning
pots and pans[238].
Plants have a deep and penetrating root system and can be invasive. If
grown in the garden they are best kept in bounds by planting them in a
large container which can be sunk into the ground[200].

Propagation



Spores - best collected as soon as they are ripe in the spring and
surface-sown immediately on a sterile compost. Keep moist and pot up as
soon as the plants are large enough to handle. Very difficult[200].
Division. The plants usually spread very freely when well sited and
should not really need any assistance.



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Sandpaper: Plants used to smooth rough wooden surfaces by means of abrasion

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 11:14






Equisetum arvense -
L.


Field Horsetail















AuthorL.Botanical references17
FamilyEquisetaceaeGenusEquisetum
Synonyms
Known Hazardswarning signLarge
quantities of the plant can be toxic. This is because it contains the
enzyme thiaminase[172], a substance that can rob the body of the
vitamin B complex[65]. In small quantities this enzyme will do no harm
to people eating an adequate diet that is rich in vitamin B, though
large quantities can cause severe health problems. The enzyme is
destroyed by heat or thorough drying, so cooking the plant will remove
the thiaminase[172].
The plant also contains equisetic acid - see the notes on medicinal
uses for more information[213].
RangeArctic and temperate regions of Europe, including Britain, N. America and Asia.
HabitatOpen fields, arable land, waste places, hedgerows and roadsides[9], usually on moist soils[4].
Edibility Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Perennial growing to 0.6m.
It is hardy to zone 2. The seeds ripen in April.
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in nutritionally poor soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires dry or moist soil.


Habitats



Meadow; Hedgerow;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Root; Stem.


Strobil (the fertile shoots in spring) - cooked and used as an
asparagus substitute[7, 46, 61, 94]. They should be used when
young[116] but even so it is probably best to change the water, perhaps
3 - 4 times[85, 102]. One report says that they can be eaten raw[172],
they are peeled and the shoot tip is discarded[213]. It is said to be a
very tedious operation and they should not be eaten raw in any
quantity, see the notes above on toxicity[K].
Some native tribes liked to eat the young vegetative shoots, picked
before they had branched out, and would often collect them in great
quantity then hold a feast to eat them[257]. The leaf sheaths were
peeled off and the stems eaten raw - they were said to be 'nothing but
juice'[257].
Roots - raw[61]. The tuberous growths on the rhizomes are used in the
spring[172]. The black nodules attached to the roots are edible[257].
It takes considerable effort to collect these nodules so it is normally
only done in times of desperation. However, native peoples would
sometimes raid the underground caches of roots collected by lemmings
and other rodents in order to obtain these nodules[257].
A further report says that the peeled stems, base of the plant, root
and tubers were eaten raw by the N. American Indians, the report went
on to say that this may be inadvisable[85].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Anodyne; Antiseptic; Astringent; Cardiac; Carminative; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Galactogogue; Haemostatic; Homeopathy; Nervine; Vulnerary.


Horsetails have an unusual chemistry compared to most other
plants[238]. They are rich in silica, contain several alkaloids
(including nicotine) and various minerals[238]. Horsetail is very
astringent and makes an excellent clotting agent, staunching wounds,
stopping nosebleeds and reducing the coughing up of blood[254]. It
helps speed the repair of damaged connective tissue, improving its
strength and elasticity[254].
The plant is anodyne, antihaemorrhagic, antiseptic, astringent,
carminative, diaphoretic, diuretic, galactogogue, haemostatic and
vulnerary[4, 7, 9, 20, 21, 46, 61, 165, 172, 218, 240]. The green
infertile stems are used, they are most active when fresh but can also
be harvested in late summer and dried for later use[4, 9]. Sometimes
the ashes of the plant are used[4]. The plant is a useful diuretic when
taken internally and is used in the treatment of kidney and bladder
problems, cystitis, urethritis, prostate disease and internal bleeding,
proving especially useful when there is bleeding in the urinary
tract[4, 238, 254]. A decoction applied externally will stop the
bleeding of wounds and promote healing[4]. It is especially effective
on nose bleeds[7]. A decoction of the herb added to a bath benefits
slow-healing sprains and fractures, as well as certain irritable skin
conditions such as eczema[254].
The plant contains equisetic acid, which is thought to be identical to
aconitic acid. This substance is a potent heart and nerve sedative that
is a dangerous poison when taken in high doses[213].
This plant contains irritant substances and should only be used for
short periods of time[238]. It is also best only used under the
supervision of a qualified practitioner.
A homeopathic remedy is made from the fresh plant[7]. It is used in the
treatment of cystitis and other complaints of the urinary system[7].

Other Uses


Dye; Fungicide; Liquid feed; Musical; Paper; Polish; Sandpaper; Scourer.


The stems contain 10% silica and are used for scouring metal[4, 7, 20,
94, 102] and as a fine sandpaper[7, 54, 99, 257]. They can also be used
as a polish for brass, hardwood etc[94].
The infused stem is an effective fungicide against mildew, mint rust
and blackspot on roses[14, 18, 20, 54]. It also makes a good liquid
feed[54].
A light pink dye is obtained from the stem[99, 257]. It is yellow-gray
according to another report[102].
The plant has been used for making whistles[257].

Cultivation details



Prefers poor dusty ground[53, 54]. This rather contradicts another
report which says that the presence of this plant indicates underground
water[4]. Prefers a moist but well-drained fertile soil with a pH
between 6.5 and 7.5[200, 238].
A very cold-hardy species tolerating temperatures down to about
-30°c[200].
Plants have a deep and penetrating root system and can be invasive. If
grown in the garden they are best kept in bounds by planting them in a
large container which can be sunk into the ground[200].

Propagation



Spores - best collected as soon as they are ripe in the spring and
surface-sown immediately on a sterile compost. Keep moist and pot up as
soon as the plants are large enough to handle. Very difficult[200].
Division. The plants usually spread very freely when well sited and
should not really need any assistance.



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Re: Sandpaper: Plants used to smooth rough wooden surfaces by means of abrasion

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