Adhesive - Glues

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Re: Adhesive - Glues

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 13:49




Pteridium aquilinum -
(L.)Kuhn.


Bracken



Author(L.)Kuhn.
Botanical references17, 200

FamilyPolypodiaceae
GenusPteridium
SynonymsPteris aquilina - L.


Known Hazardswarning signThere
are a number of reports regarding the possible health risks of this
plant. The huge quantity of spores released by large areas of bracken
are suggested to be implicated in stomach cancers. A recent study
suggests that this is not such a problem in Britain as was once
believed, the spores are not produced in such high quantities nor do
they travel so far due to our normally humid atmosphere. The leaves and
roots contain substances that deprive the body of vitamin B1 if they
are eaten raw, though they are possibly alright cooked[102]. The leaves
are also said to be carcinogenic[65, 76].
RangeMost areas of the globe, including Britain, but absent from the Arctic and temperate S. America.

HabitatHeath,
woodland and grassland. A common and highly invasive weed of acid
soils[9], it is rarely found on limestone or wet peats[17].
Edibility Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of fern
Fern growing to 1.2m by 2m at a fast rate.

It is hardy to zone 4. The seeds ripen from July to August.
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.
The plant prefers acid and neutral soils and can grow in very acid soil.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires dry or moist soil.
The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; Meadow;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Leaves; Root.

Edible Uses: Sweetener.


Root - cooked. It can be dried and ground into a powder[2, 13, 46, 55,
66, 94, 95, 102, 257]. The root is very fibrous so traditionally it was
baked after being dried, the outer skin was peeled off and the roots
pounded into a powder with sticks so that the inner fibres could be
removed[173, 256]. The dried root will store for years[173]. The root
contains 60% starch[74]. The dry weight content of starch is between 43
and 72%[173]. This starch can be extracted from the roots and is used
in making dumplings which are eaten with soya flour and sugar as a
delicacy[183]. The root has a somewhat constipating effect upon the
body so is best eaten with foods that have a laxative quality[256].
Young shoots, harvested when still unfurling, can be eaten raw or
cooked[2, 13, 55, 62, 94, 102, 183, 257]. They can be used like
asparagus or like spinach[9, 257]. Somewhat flavourless, though they
are considered to be a delicacy in Japan[4]. The fronds should be used
when less than 20cm long, longer ones have a terrible taste[9, 213].
The shoots are somewhat bitter so they are often blanched for a few
minutes in boiling water, then left to soak in cold water for two hours
before being cooked[4, 9]. Although this might well improve the
flavour, it will greatly reduce the nutritional value[K]. The shoots
should be steeped in lye first[55]. Occasional use should cause no
problems, but regular consumption is not advisable because the shoots
might be carcinogenic[9, 65].
The plant yields an edible saccharine substance[55]. (from the cooking
root??).

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Anthelmintic; Antiemetic; Antiseptic; Diuretic; Poultice; Refrigerant; Tonic.


The young shoots are diuretic, refrigerant and vermifuge[4, 46, 94,
218]. They have been eaten as a treatment for cancer[257]. The leaves
have been used in a steam bath as a treatment for arthritis[257].
A decoction of the plant as been used in the treatment of
tuberculosis[257].
A poultice of the pounded fronds and leaves has been used to treat
sores of any type and also to bind broken bones in place[257].
The root is antiemetic, antiseptic, appetizer and tonic[257]. A
tincture of the root in wine is used in the treatment of
rheumatism[218]. A tea made from the roots is used in the treatment of
stomach cramps, chest pains, internal bleeding, diarrhoea, colds and
also to expel worms[4, 46, 94, 222, 257]. The poulticed root is applied
to sores, burns and caked breasts[222, 257].

Other Uses


Adhesive; Basketry; Biomass; Compost; Dye; Hair; Lining; Mulch; Packing; Repellent; Soap; Soap making; Stuffing; Thatching; Tinder.


A glue can be made from the rootstock[74].
A brown dye is obtained from the fronds[6, 67, 141]. It is green
according to another report[141].
The fibrous remnants from edible roots make a good tinder[99].
The rhizome lathers readily in water and can be used as a soap[74]. A
decoction of the root has been used as a hair wash[257].
The roots have been rubbed into the scalp in order to promote hair
growth[257].
The roots have been pounded to remove the bark, then split into flat
bands and used as the black strands of cheap baskets[257].
The ashes of the plant are rich in potassium and could be used as a
fertilizer[4]. They are also used in the manufacture of glass (when
mixed with sand) and in making soap (when mixed with vegetable oil)[4,
74]. The roots contain up to 20% potash in early summer, but this
reduces to about 5% in the autumn[4].
The whole plant is a very valuable addition to the compost heap, it is
rich in potash and makes an excellent compost for tree seeds[67, 94].
Cut twice a year if you want the plants to continue growing, three cuts
annually will weaken and eventually kill off the plants.
The dried ferns produce a very durable thatch[4].
The leaves are used as a packing material for fruit, keeping it fresh
and cool without imparting any colour or flavour[4, 66, 99]. They are
also used as a lining for baskets, fruit drying racks etc and as a
bedding[66, 99]. The leaves repel insects and can help to prevent rot
in the fruits etc[99].
Dried bracken fronds are very useful in the garden as a mulch for
somewhat tender plants. This will keep the soil warmer, protect from
wind damage and also keep off some of the rain[4, K].

Cultivation details



Prefers a light, acid, deep sandy soil[1]. Dislikes shade according to
some reports[13, 17] whilst another says that it tolerates full sun but
prefers light shade[200]. Prefers a pH in the range 4 to 6[200].
Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing
deer[233].
This is an extremely invasive plant and is a noxious weed. It is one of
the most widespread plants in the world, being found in all parts of
the globe other than the extreme north and south[4]. Plants can be cut
down twice a year to provide compost material, this will not kill the
plants. If the plants are cut down three times a year this will
gradually weaken and eventually kill them.

Propagation



Spores can be surface sown in the same way as other ferns but this
plant really does not need any help in spreading itself about.
Division is also possible but usually totally unnecessary.



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Re: Adhesive - Glues

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 13:48




Prunus domestica -
L.


Plum



AuthorL.
Botanical references11, 17, 200

FamilyRosaceae
GenusPrunus
SynonymsPrunus communis - non L.


Known Hazardswarning signAlthough
no specific mention has been seen for this species, it belongs to a
genus where most, if not all members of the genus produce hydrogen
cyanide, a poison that gives almonds their characteristic flavour. This
toxin is found mainly in the leaves and seed and is readily detected by
its bitter taste. It is usually present in too small a quantity to do
any harm but any very bitter seed or fruit should not be eaten. In
small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate
respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit
in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, it can cause
respiratory failure and even death.
RangeEurope to W. Asia. Naturalized in Britain. A hybrid P. spinosa x P. cerasifera divaricata.

HabitatFound in hedges in Britain[17].
Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 5 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of evergreen tree
A decidious Tree growing to 12m by 10m at a medium rate.

It is hardy to zone 5. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen
from July to November. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male
and female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.
The plant is self-fertile.
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay)
soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires moist soil.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Secondary; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; East Wall By; South Wall By; West Wall By;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Flowers; Fruit; Seed.

Edible Uses: Gum; Oil; Tea.


Fruit - raw or cooked[1, 2, 7, 46]. The fruit varies considerably
from cultivar to cultivar, but it is generally somewhat mealy, soft and
juicy with a delicious flavour ranging from very sweet to acid[K]. The
more acid fruits are usually only used for cooking purposes[K]. The
fruit varies widely in size according to cultivar but can be 8cm long
and contains a single large seed[200].
Seed - raw or cooked. Do not eat the seed if it is too bitter - see the
notes above on toxicity.
An edible gum is obtained from points of damage on the trunk[64].
The seed contains about 20% of an edible semi-drying oil[4, 57]. It has
an agreeable almond smell and flavour[4].
The flowers are eaten. They are used as a garnish for salads and ice
cream or brewed into a tea[183].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Febrifuge; Laxative; Stomachic.


The dried fruit, known as prunes, is a safe and effective laxative and
is also stomachic[4, 7, 21, 238].
The bark is sometimes used as a febrifuge[7].
Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, all
members of the genus contain amygdalin and prunasin, substances which
break down in water to form hydrocyanic acid (cyanide or prussic acid).
In small amounts this exceedingly poisonous compound stimulates
respiration, improves digestion and gives a sense of well-being[238].

Other Uses



Adhesive; Dye; Oil; Wood.


A green dye can be obtained from the leaves[168].
A dark grey to green dye can be obtained from the fruit[168].
A yellow dye is obtained from the bark[115].
A gum obtained from points of damage along the stem can be used as an adhesive[64].
The ground up seeds are used cosmetically in the production of face-masks for dry skin[7].
A semi-drying oil is obtained from the seed[64]. No details of its uses.
Wood - hard, compact. Used for musical instruments[115].

Cultivation details



Requires a well-drained moisture retentive soil[1, 11] and a sheltered
position[200]. Succeeds in light shade but fruits better in a sunny
position[11, 200]. Thrives in a loamy soil, doing well on
limestone[11]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Prefers some chalk in
the soil but it is apt to become chlorotic if too much is present[1].
Prefers a pH between 6 and 6.5[200].
The plum is widely cultivated for its edible fruit in temperate zones,
there are many named varieties able to supply fresh fruits from late
July to November or December[183]. Many cultivars are fully
self-fertile, though some are partially self-sterile and others require
cross-pollination[200]. Where space is at a premium, or at the limits
of their climatic range, plums can be grown against a wall. Most
cultivars will grow well against a sunny south or west facing wall,
whilst an east facing wall will suit some of the tougher cultivars, a
north facing wall is not really suitable[219].
This species is probably a hybrid of ancient origin between P. spinosa
and P. cerasifera, coupled with chromosome doubling[17]. It does not
cross-pollinate with the Japanese plum, P. salicina[200].
Prefers growing in a continental climate, mild winters tend to
encourage earlier flowering with a greater risk of frost damage to the
blossom. In Britain the best fruits are produced away from the western
side of the country.
Most members of this genus are shallow-rooted and will produce suckers
if the roots are damaged[238].
Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[200].


Propagation



Seed - requires 2 - 3 months cold stratification and is best sown in a
cold frame as soon as it is ripe[200]. Sow stored seed in a cold frame
as early in the year as possible[200]. Protect the seed from mice etc.
The seed can be rather slow, sometimes taking 18 months to
germinate[113]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they
are large enough to handle. Grow them on in a greenhouse or cold frame
for their first winter and plant them out in late spring or early
summer of the following year.
Cuttings of half-ripe wood with a heel, July/August in a frame[11,
200].
Softwood cuttings from strongly growing plants in spring to early
summer in a frame[200].
Layering in spring.

Cultivars


'Brompton'
This rootstock produces moderately productive, very large,
well-anchored trees that are nearly free from suckering[183]. It is
compatible with most European plums (P. domestica), though it is
incompatible with some prunes[183].
Adapted to heavy damp soils, it is resistant to cold temperatures
though susceptible to bacterial canker[183].
'Greengage'
Small to medium dessert plum, it is very juicy, firm but tender,
sweet and mild with a rich aromatic flavour[183]. The stone is
partially self-clinging[183]. Ripens mid-season.
A moderately vigorous hardy productive tree[183].
'Kea'
A cultivar originating near Truro in Cornwall, the fruit is fairly
damson-like, the plant thriving in the moister climate of Cornwall[K].
'Kirke's Blue'
A medium-size dessert plum, the flesh is juicy with a very good
flavour[39, 183], the stone is large and free[183]. Ripens
mid-September.
The tree is dwarfish but spreading with many fruiting spurs[38, 183].
It grows poorly in northern areas of Britain[38, 39]. A low-yielding
cultivar, averaging 3.5 to 4.5 kilos of fruit a year (compared to 25
kilos or more from a Victoria)[39].
Flowers mid season. Self-incompatible.
'Marjorie's Seedling'

'Oullin's Golden Gage'
A medium-size dual purpose plum, the flesh is somewhat dry, firm
sweet, lacking flavour in all except good summers, but of good
quality[38, 183]. The stone is semi-free[183]. Ripens early August.
A large vigorous hardy spreading tree, it is rather slow to come into
bearing but from its fifth or sixth year it is very productive[38,
183]. Succeeds on a north, east or west wall[41].
Flowering late. This cultivar is self-fertile.
'Victoria'
A large dual-purpose plum, the flesh is firm, fairly sweet, juicy
with a fair flavour[183]. The stone is large and free[183]. Ripens in
mid-season. It makes a jam of good quality and colour, it also bottles
and cans well[183].
A heavy yielding cultivar, 25 kilos or more of fruit is the annual
average[39].



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Re: Adhesive - Glues

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 13:46




Prunus cerasus -
L.


Sour Cherry



AuthorL.
Botanical references11, 17, 200

FamilyRosaceae
GenusPrunus
SynonymsCerasus communis - Poiteau.&Turpin.

Cerasus vulgaris - Mill.



Known Hazardswarning signAlthough
no specific mention has been seen for this species, it belongs to a
genus where most, if not all members of the genus produce hydrogen
cyanide, a poison that gives almonds their characteristic flavour. This
toxin is found mainly in the leaves and seed and is readily detected by
its bitter taste. It is usually present in too small a quantity to do
any harm but any very bitter seed or fruit should not be eaten. In
small quantities, hydrogen cyanide has been shown to stimulate
respiration and improve digestion, it is also claimed to be of benefit
in the treatment of cancer. In excess, however, it can cause
respiratory failure and even death.
RangeS.E. Europe to W. Asia. Naturalized in Britain.
HabitatHedges in S. England[17].
Edibility Ratingapple icon 1 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics




icon of man
icon of evergreen tree
A decidious Tree growing to 6m.
It is hardy to zone 3. It is in flower in May, and the seeds ripen in
July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)
and are pollinated by Bees.
The plant is self-fertile.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid soil.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires moist soil.
The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Secondary; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Hedge;
Cultivars: (as above except)
'Montmorency' North Wall By; East Wall By;
'Morello' North Wall By; East Wall By;
'Semperflorens' North Wall By; East Wall By;

Edible Uses



Edible Parts: Fruit; Seed.

Edible Uses: Gum; Oil; Tea.

Fruit - raw or cooked[1, 2, 5, 11, 12]. Pleasantly acid, the fruit
can be eaten out of hand, used in pies, preserves etc or dried for
later use[183]. The fruit is about 18mm in diameter and contains one
large seed[200].
Seed - raw or cooked. Do not eat the seed if it is too bitter - see the
notes above on toxicity.
An edible oil is obtained from the seed[46, 61]. When refined it is
used as a salad oil[183].
The leaves are used as a tea substitute[46, 61, 183].
A gum obtained from the trunk is used for chewing[61, 64].

Medicinal Uses



Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Astringent; Bitter; Febrifuge; Nervine; Salve.


The bark is astringent, bitter and febrifuge[240]. An infusion of the
bark has been used in the treatment of fevers, coughs and colds[257].
The root bark has been used as a wash for old sores and ulcers[257].
The seed is nervine[240].
Although no specific mention has been seen for this species, all
members of the genus contain amygdalin and prunasin, substances which
break down in water to form hydrocyanic acid (cyanide or prussic acid).
In small amounts this exceedingly poisonous compound stimulates
respiration, improves digestion and gives a sense of well-being[238].

Other Uses



Adhesive; Dye; Gum; Hedge; Oil; Wood.


An edible drying oil obtained from the seed is also used in cosmetics[61].
The gum obtained from the stem is also used as an adhesive[61, 64].
Plants can be grown as a hedge[50], succeeding in fairly exposed positions[K].
A green dye can be obtained from the leaves[168].
A dark grey to green dye can be obtained from the fruit[168].

Cultivation details



Thrives in a well-drained moisture-retentive loamy soil[11, 200].
Prefers some lime in the soil but is likely to become chlorotic if too
much lime is present[1]. Prefers an acid soil according to another
report[5]. Succeeds in sun or partial shade though it fruits better in
a sunny position[11, 200]. Plants are succeeding in a fairly exposed
maritime position at Rosewarne in N. Cornwall[K].
Plants are hardy to about -20°c[184].
Long cultivated for its edible fruit, there are many named varieties[1,
50]. See separate entries for the various sub-species[K]. It is also a
parent, with P. avium, of many cultivars of sweet cherries[1, 17]. Many
cultivars will succeed on a north or east facing wall[219].
Most members of this genus are shallow-rooted and will produce suckers
if the roots are damaged[238]. Plants produce suckers freely[184].
Plants in this genus are notably susceptible to honey fungus[200].

Propagation



Seed - requires 2 - 3 months cold stratification and is best sown in a
cold frame as soon as it is ripe[200]. Sow stored seed in a cold frame
as early in the year as possible[200]. Protect the seed from mice etc.
The seed can be rather slow, sometimes taking 18 months to
germinate[113]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they
are large enough to handle. Grow them on in a greenhouse or cold frame
for their first winter and plant them out in late spring or early
summer of the following year.
Cuttings of half-ripe wood with a heel, July/August in a frame[113].
Softwood cuttings from strongly growing plants in spring to early
summer in a frame.
Layering in spring.
Division of suckers during the dormant season. They can be planted out
direct into their permanent positions.

Cultivars


'Montmorency'
A medium to large, roundish fruit, the skin is bright red, thin and
tender, the flesh pale yellow with a reddish tinge, tender, melting,
sprightly tart, of very good quality with abundant juice[183]. Ripens
mid-season[183].
A semi-dwarf tree, it is very productive[183].
'Semperflorens'
This cultivar produces a first flush of flowers in April and then
commences flowering again from June to September. The fruit is acid but
pleasantly flavoured[11].
Morello'
A large roundish heart-shaped fruit, the skin is very dark red to
black, thin and tender, the flesh is dark red, tender and melting,
sprightly, tart, with abundant juice and of good quality[183]. It
ripens very late[183]. It is excellent for cooking, becoming rich dark
wine-coloured and pleasantly aromatic[183].
A small tree with drooping branchlets[183].



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Re: Adhesive - Glues

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 13:43




Picea abies -
(L.)H.Karst.


Norway Spruce



Author(L.)H.Karst.
Botanical references11, 200

FamilyPinaceae
GenusPicea
SynonymsAbies picea - Mill.

Picea excelsa - (Lam.)Link.

Pinus abies - L.



Known HazardsNone known
RangeN. and C. Europe.
HabitatNot known
Edibility Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple icon 1 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of decid tree
An evergreen Tree growing to 30m by 10m at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone 4 and is frost tender. It is in leaf all year, in
flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from October to November.
The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or
female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant) and are
pollinated by Wind.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in nutritionally poor soil.
The plant prefers acid and neutral soils and can grow in very acid soil.
It cannot grow in the shade.
It requires moist or wet soil.
The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.
It cannot tolerate atmospheric pollution.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Canopy; Ground Cover; Bog Garden;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Flowers; Inner bark; Seed.


Edible Uses: Tea.

Young male catkins - raw or cooked. Used as a flavouring[172].
Immature female cones - cooked. The central portion, when roasted, is
sweet and syrupy[172].
Inner bark - dried, ground into a powder and used as a thickener in
soups etc or added to cereals when making bread[172]. An emergency
food, used when all else fails.
Seed - raw. Rich in oil and with a pleasant slightly resinous flavour,
but too small and fiddly to be worthwhile unless you are
desperate[172].
A refreshing tea, rich in vitamin C, can be made from the young shoot
tips[172]. These tips are also used in making spruce beer[183].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antibiotic; Antiseptic; Balsamic; Expectorant; Poultice; Sedative.


The buds, leaves and resin are antibiotic, antiseptic, balsamic,
expectorant, sedative[7].
A pitch, or resin, obtained from the trunk is rubefacient and
stimulant[240]. It is used externally in plasters etc for its healing
and antiseptic properties[7]. A poultice of the sap or gum has been
used in the treatment of boil and abscess pain[257].

Other Uses


Adhesive; Essential; Ground cover; Pitch; Shelterbelt; Tannin; Varnish; Wood.


The tree is a source of pitch (Burgundy pitch) and turpentine (Jura
turpentine)[1, 7, 46, 64]. Burgundy pitch is used as a varnish and in
medicinal plasters[57]. It is a strong adhesive[61, 64]. The turpentine
is a waterproofer and wood preservative. They are obtained by incisions
in the trunk, the resin is scraped out some months later[64].
An essential oil from the leaves is used in perfumery[46, 61].
The seed contains 30% of a fatty oil, this is used in the production of
a varnish[74].
The bark contains some tannin[171]. Both the bark and bark extract have
been widely used in Europe as a source of tannin, the bark containing
up to 13% tannin[223]. Yields of tannin have been doubled by heating or
steaming the bark as soon as possible after the tree has been
felled[223].
A fairly wind resistant tree and fast growing, it can be planted in
shelterbelts to provide protection from the wind[200].
The dwarf cultivar 'Inversa' can be grown as a ground cover plant in a
sunny position[188]. The cultivars 'Reflexa' and 'Procumbens' can also
be used[208]. They are best spaced about 1 metre apart each way[208].
Wood - medium hard, fairly elastic, durable under water, light in
weight and colour. Used for general carpentry, joinery, musical
instruments etc. Valued for its use in the pulp industry to make
paper[1, 11, 13, 46, 66].

Scented Plants


Leaves: Crushed
The bruised leaves emit a delicious musky smell[245].

Cultivation details



Likes abundant moisture at the roots, if grown in drier areas it must
be given a deep moist soil[11]. Succeeds in most soils including those
that are wet cold and shallow, but it is not very wind-firm in shallow
soils[1]. Intolerant of chalky or poor acid soils[11]. Tolerates poor
peaty soils[200]. Prefers a pH between 4 to 6[200]. Dislikes shade[200]
according to one report whilst another says that it is moderately shade
tolerant[125]. Intolerant of atmospheric pollution[11]. Resists wind
exposure to some degree and is tolerant of saline winds[200].
A very cold-hardy tree when fully dormant, though the young shoots are
subject to injury by late frosts[1], though less so than P.
sitchensis[125].
A fast growing tree, it is widely planted in cool temperate zones for
its wood[200]. Young trees often grow 1 metre or more a year and can
sustain an average of 60cm for at least the first 60 years though
growth tails off as they grow older[185]. Probably not that long-lived
in Britain, about 200 years seems the absolute maximum[185]. In some
upland areas, especially over granitic or other base-poor soils, growth
rate and health have been seriously affected by aluminium poisoning
induced by 'acid rain' pollution[200]. There are many named varieties,
almost all of them dwarf forms[200].
A food plant for many caterpillars[30].
A very aggressive tree, it is hostile to other trees[18]. Susceptible
to attacks by bark beetles so it should be kept away from more valuable
trees. A biological control is being introduced (1983)[125].
This species is susceptible to honey fungus[81].
Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are
quite small, between 30 and 90cm. Larger trees will check badly and
hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly affects
root development and wind resistance[200].
Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows
poorly[200]. They hybridize freely with other members of this
genus[200]. The seed is shed in spring[1], the cones release their seed
whilst they are still on the tree[81].
The bruised leaves emit a delicious musky smell[245].

Propagation



Seed - stratification will probably improve germination so sow fresh
seed in the autumn in a cold frame if possible[80]. Sow stored seed as
early in the year as possible in a cold frame[78]. A position in light
shade is probably best[78]. Seed should not be allowed to dry out and
should be stored in a cool place[80]. Prick out the seedlings into
individual pots when they are large enough to handle and grow them on
in the greenhouse or cold frame for their first winter. They can be
planted out into their permanent positions in early summer of the
following year, or be placed in an outdoor nursery bed for a year or so
to increase in size. They might need protection from spring frosts.
Cuttings of semi-ripe terminal shoots, 5 - 8cm long, August in a frame.
Protect from frost. Forms roots in the spring[78].
Cuttings of mature terminal shoots, 5 - 10cm long, September/October in
a cold frame. Takes 12 months[78].
Cuttings of soft to semi-ripe wood, early summer in a frame. Slow but
sure.


Cultivars


'Inversa'
A dwarf weeping form[200], it can be grown as a ground cover plant
in a sunny position[188]. Plants are best spaced about 1 metre apart
each way[208].
'Procumbens'
A low, flat-topped shrub to about 75cm tall and much wider[11], it
can be grown as a ground cover plant in a sunny position[208]. Plants
are best spaced about 1 metre apart each way[208].
'Reflexa'
A pendulous variety that does not develop a leader and eventually
covers a wide area with its trailing branches[11], it can be grown as a
ground cover plant in a sunny position[208]. Plants are best spaced
about 1 metre apart each way[208]



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Re: Adhesive - Glues

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 13:40




Phormium tenax -
J.R.Forst.&G.Forst.


New Zealand Flax



AuthorJ.R.Forst.&G.Forst.
Botanical references11, 44, 200

FamilyAgavaceae
GenusPhormium
Synonyms

Known HazardsNone known
RangeNew Zealand. Naturalized in Britain in S.W. England[17].
HabitatLowland swamps and intermittently flooded land, North South Stewart, Chatham and Auckland Islands[44].

Edibility Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)
Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
An evergreen Perennial growing to 3m by 2m.
It is hardy to zone 8 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf all year,
in flower from June to July. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both
male and female organs)
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in saline soil.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires moist or wet soil.
The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.


Habitats



Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Bog Garden; Cultivated Beds;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Nectar.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Gum.


The roasted seed is used as a coffee substitute[153, 173]. An edible
nectar is obtained from the flowers[173]. Very wholesome eating[183]. A
long hollow grass-stalk or straw is used to suck it out of the
flowers[183].
An edible gum is obtained from the base of the leaves[173].

Medicinal Uses



Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.


None known

Other Uses


Adhesive; Alcohol; Basketry; Dye; Fibre; Gum; Paper; Tannin.


A very high quality pliable fibre is obtained from the leaves[11, 57,
61, 128, 153]. It is used in the manufacture of ropes (they are not
very strong[46]), twine, fine cloth etc. The fibre can also be used for
making paper[189] The leaves are harvested in summer, they are scraped
to remove the outer skin and are then soaked in water for 2 hours prior
to cooking. The fibres are cooked for 24 hours with lye and then beaten
in a ball mill for 4 hours. They make a cream paper[189].
The split leaves can be used to make nets, cloaks, sandals, straps
etc[153]. They are also used in making paper and basket making[153,
169]. A strip of a leaf is an excellent emergency string substitute for
tying up plants in the garden, it can be tied into a knot without
breaking[128].
The leaf pulp, after the fibre has been removed, can be fermented to
make alcohol[153]. A gum found in the leaves is used as a paper
glue[173]. A brown dye is obtained from the flowers[168], it does not
require a mordant[169]. A terra-cotta dye is obtained from the
seedpods[168]. A mauve can also be obtained[168].
The flowers are rich in tannin[168].

Cultivation details



Prefers a rich loamy soil[1] but is not too fussy, succeeding in peaty
soils and in boggy moorland[11]. Tolerates light shade[1] but prefers
full sun[200]. Plants can be grown in quite coarse grass, which can be
cut annually in the autumn[233]. Prefers a sheltered position[42] but
tolerates maritime exposure[75]. Plants tolerate occasional flooding
with saline water[200].
Plants can withstand temperatures down to about -11°c[42], but they can
be killed in very severe winters in Britain[11].
A polymorphic species[78], there are many named varieties grown in
Britain[11, 200]. This species hybridizes readily with P. colensoi and
there are many named forms that may be hybrids with that species[11].
This plant has been considered for commercial cultivation for its
fibre, though there is some difficulty in mechanically extracting the
fibres due to the presence of a gum in the leaves. An alkali has been
successfully used to break down the gum but this weakens the fibre. The
Maoris had selected many different cultivars for different uses[153].
Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer or
rabbits[233].

Propagation



The seed is best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Sow stored
seed in February in a cold frame. Germination is sometimes poor but
should take place in 1 - 6 months at 15°c. The seedlings are very
variable. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out
into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least
their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in
late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. The seed
remains viable for about 12 months in normal storage[1].
Division in spring as growth commences. Very easy, larger divisions can
be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found
that it is better to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in
light shade in a cold frame until they are well established before
planting them out in late spring or early summer.

Cultivars


'Yellow Wave'
This cultivar is somewhat smaller growing than the type species and
has attractively variegated leaves. It might be a hybrid with P.
colensoi



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Re: Adhesive - Glues

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 13:38




Phormium cookianum -
Le Jolis.


Wharariki



AuthorLe Jolis.
Botanical references11, 44, 200

FamilyAgavaceae
GenusPhormium
SynonymsPhormium colensoi - Hook.f.

Phormium hookeri - Hook.f.


Known Hazardswarning signThe root is highly purgative[173].

RangeNew Zealand. Naturalized in Britain on the Scilly Isles.
HabitatCoastal cliffs to mountain slopes, locally dominant on shady faces in high country, North, South and Stewart Islands[44].
Edibility Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)
Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man

icon of perennial/biennial/annual
An evergreen Perennial growing to 1.2m by 0.3m.
It is hardy to zone 8 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf all year,
in flower from July to August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both
male and female organs)
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires moist or wet soil.
The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Bog Garden; Cultivated Beds;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Nectar.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Gum.


The roasted seed is used as a coffee substitute[173].
An edible nectar is obtained from the flowers[173].
An edible gum is obtained from the base of the leaves[173].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.


None known

Other Uses


Adhesive; Fibre; Gum.


A high quality pliable fibre is obtained from the leaves[153].
A gum found at the base of the leaves is used as a paper glue[173].

Cultivation details



Prefers a rich loamy soil[1] but is not too fussy, succeeding in peaty
soils and in boggy moorland[11]. Tolerates light shade[1] but prefers
full sun[200]. Plants can be grown in quite coarse grass, which can be
cut annually in the autumn[233]. Very tolerant of maritime exposure,
this species is recommended for coastal plantings[166, 187].
Hardy to about -10°c[187].
Polymorphic, there are many named varieties[200]. This species often
hybridizes with P. tenax and there are many cultivars of uncertain
origin.
Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer or
rabbits[233].

Propagation



The seed is best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame. Sow stored
seed in February in a cold frame. Germination is sometimes poor but
should take place in 1 - 6 months at 15°c. The seedlings are very
variable. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out
into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least
their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in
late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts. The seed
remains viable for about 12 months in normal storage[1].
Division in spring as growth commences. Very easy, larger divisions can
be planted out direct into their permanent positions. We have found
that it is better to pot up the smaller divisions and grow them on in
light shade in a cold frame until they are well established before
planting them out in late spring or early summer.



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Re: Adhesive - Glues

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 13:37




Liquidambar styraciflua -
L.


Sweet Gum



AuthorL.
Botanical references11, 43, 200

FamilyHamamelidaceae
GenusLiquidambar
Synonyms

Known HazardsNone known
RangeEastern N. America - Connecticut to Florida, west to Texas and Illinois.
HabitatSwampy woods which are often inundated annually[43] and on rich bottom lands[82].

Edibility Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of evergreen tree
A decidious Tree growing to 25m by 15m at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone 5 and is frost tender. It is in flower in May, and
the seeds ripen from October to November. The flowers are monoecious
(individual flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be
found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Bees.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.
The plant prefers acid and neutral soils.
It cannot grow in the shade.
It requires moist soil.


Habitats



Woodland Garden; Canopy;

Edible Uses


Edible Uses: Gum.

A chewing gum and a stabilizer for cakes etc is obtained from the
resin[102, 105, 149, 159]. It can also be chewed to sweeten the
breath[183].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antiseptic; Astringent; Carminative; Diuretic; Expectorant; Parasiticide; Poultice; Salve; Sedative; Stimulant; Vulnerary.


A resin obtained from the trunk of the tree (see 'Uses notes' below) is
antiseptic, carminative, diuretic, expectorant, parasiticide, poultice,
salve, sedative, stimulant, vulnerary[21, 46, 57, 61, 149, 171, 213,
218, 222, 238]. It is chewed in the treatment of sore throats, coughs,
asthma, cystitis, dysentery etc[222, 238, 257]. Externally, it is
applied to sores, wounds, piles, ringworm, scabies etc[222, 238].
The resin is an ingredient of 'Friar's Balsam', a commercial
preparation based on Styrax benzoin that is used to treat colds and
skin problems[238].
The mildly astringent inner bark is used in the treatment of diarrhoea
and childhood cholera[222].

Other Uses


Adhesive; Incense; Resin; Teeth; Wood.


The aromatic resin 'Storax' is obtained from the trunk of this tree[46,
57, 61, 64]. It forms in cavities of the bark and also exudes
naturally. It is harvested in autumn[181, 238]. Production can be
stimulated by beating the trunk in the spring[171, 238]. The resin has
a wide range of uses including medicinal, incense, perfumery, soap and
as an adhesive[149]. It is also chewed and used as a tooth
cleaner[183].
Wood - heavy, fairly hard, fine-grained, not strong, light, tough,
resilient. It weighs about 37lb per cubic foot[227]. The wood takes a
high polish and can be stained then used as a cherry, mahogany or
walnut substitute[171]. It is also used for furniture, flooring, fruit
dishes, veneer etc[46, 61, 82, 149, 227].

Scented Plants


Plant: Fresh Crushed Dried
An aromatic gum is exuded from the bark. The leaves emit a
balsam-like fragrance when they fall in the autumn, this is retained
until the leaves are quite withered.

Cultivation details



Prefers a moist but not swampy loam in a sunny sheltered position[11,
200]. Succeeds in light shade[188]. Prefers a neutral to acid
soil[130]. Plants grow poorly in shallow soils overlying chalk[188].
Young plants are susceptible to damage from late frosts.
A highly ornamental plant, especially in its autumn foliage[1, 227], it
grows well in Cornwall[59] and S. England but does not do well in the
north[98].
A fast-growing and long lived tree, it is fairly free from pests and
diseases and has the potential to be a re-afforestation tree in cutover
lands[227]. Trees commence flowering when about 20 - 25 years old[229].
The leaves emit a balsam-like fragrance when they fall in the autumn,
this is retained until the leaves are quite withered[245].
Plants in the north of their range do not produce much resin[183].
Resists honey fungus[88].
This species resents root disturbance, young plants should be pot-grown
and be placed in their permanent positions as soon as possible[200].

Propagation



Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold frame.
Harvest the seed capsules at the end of October or November, dry in a
warm place and extract the seed by shaking the capsule. Stored seed
requires 1 - 3 months stratification and sometimes takes 2 years to
germinate. Sow it as early in the year as possible. Germination rates
are often poor. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they
are large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame or
greenhouse for their first winter. Since they resent root disturbance,
it is best to plant them out into their permanent positions in early
summer of their second year and give them some protection from cold for
their first winter outdoors[K].
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame.
Suckers in early spring.
Layering in October/November. Takes 12 months


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Re: Adhesive - Glues

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 13:35




Hyacinthoides nonscripta -
(L.)Chouard. ex Rothm.


Bluebell



Author(L.)Chouard. ex Rothm.
Botanical references17, 200

FamilyLiliaceae
GenusHyacinthoides
SynonymsEndymion nonscriptus - (L.)Garcke.

Scilla nonscripta - (L.)Hoffmanns.&Link.



Known Hazardswarning signThe bulb (and the whole plant?) is poisonous[4].
RangeWestern Europe from the Netherlands and Britain o Belgium and France.
HabitatDeciduous woodland[28], usually on slightly acid soils[17].
Edibility Rating 0 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple icon 1 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics




icon of man
icon of bulb
Bulb growing to 0.3m by 0.2m.
It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May
to June, and the seeds ripen from July to August. The flowers are
hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by
Flies, beetles.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires dry or moist soil.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge;

Edible Uses



None known

Medicinal Uses



Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Diuretic; Styptic.


The bulb has diuretic and styptic properties[4]. It is used as a remedy for leucorrhoea[4].

Other Uses


Adhesive; Starch.

A glue is obtained from the sap in the bulb and stem[4, 6, 66].
Simply cut open a bulb and apply the sap to whatever needs to be
joined[K]. It makes an excellent paper glue, the join is stronger than
the surrounding paper[6]. It would not work on non-absorbent materials
such as plastics and glass[K].
A starch from the bulb has been used in laundering[4], it is very harsh
on the skin[6].


Scented Plants


Flowers: Fresh
The flowers diffuse a balsam-like scent in the sunshine.

Cultivation details



Easily grown in a soil rich in leafmold[90], preferring semi-shade[28,
31] but tolerating full sun. Succeeds in most soils but prefers a heavy
one[200]. Succeeds in the dry shade of trees[188, 233].
Bulbs like to be quite deep in the soil[200].
The flowers diffuse a balsam-like scent in the sunshine[245].

Propagation



Seed - sow early spring or as soon as ripe in a cold frame. It usually
requires stratification. If you have plenty of seed it can be sown in
situ, but it is usually more economical to sow it in a frame. If sown
thinly, the seedlings can be left in their pots for the first year,
though give them regular liquid feeds to make sure that they get
sufficient nutrient. Prick out the seedlings about 3 to a pot and grow
on for 1 - 2 more years before planting out into their permanent
positions when they are dormant[K].
Division of the bulbs in summer after the leaves die down. Larger bulbs
can be replanted direct into their permanent positions, but it is best
to pot up smaller bulbs and grow them on for a year in a cold frame
before planting them out when dormant in late summer.



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Re: Adhesive - Glues

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 13:33




Carthamnus tinctorius -
L.


Safflower



AuthorL.
Botanical references200

FamilyCompositae
GenusCarthamnus
Synonyms

Known HazardsNone known
RangeN. Africa - Egypt. A rare casual in Britain[17].
HabitatPoor dry soils in full sun.

Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 4 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Annual growing to 1m by 0.35m.
It is hardy to zone 0. It is in leaf from May to October, in flower
from August to October, and the seeds ripen from September to October.
The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and
are pollinated by Insects.
The plant is self-fertile.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil.
It cannot grow in the shade.
It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.


Habitats



Cultivated Beds;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Leaves; Seed.

Edible Uses: Colouring; Oil.

An edible oil is obtained from the seed. It contains a higher
percentage of essential unsaturated fatty acids and a lower percentage
of saturated fatty acids than other edible vegetable seed oils[269].
The oil, light coloured and easily clarified, is used in salad
dressings, cooking oils and margarines[2, 4, 7, 34, 46, 183, 244, 269].
A very stable oil, it is said to be healthier than many other edible
oils and its addition to the diet helps to reduce blood-cholesterol
levels[238].
Seed - cooked. They can be roasted, or fried and eaten in chutneys[61,
105, 183, 269].
Tender young leaves and shoots - cooked or raw[105, 171, 177]. A sweet
flavour, they can be used as a spinach[179, 183]. A famine food, it is
only used when all else fails[178].
An edible yellow and a red dye are obtained from the flowers[244]. The
yellow is used as a saffron substitute to flavour and colour food[183,
244].
The (fried?) seeds are used as a curdling agent for plant milks
etc[183].


Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Alterative; Analgesic; Antibacterial; Anticholesterolemic; Antiphlogistic; Antitumor; Cardiac; Contraceptive; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Emmenagogue; Febrifuge; Laxative; Purgative; Sedative; Stimulant; Tonic; Vermifuge.


Safflower is commonly grown as a food plant, but also has a wide range
of medicinal uses. Modern research has shown that the flowers contain a
number of medically active constituents and can, for example, reduce
coronary heart disease and lower cholesterol levels[254, 279].
Alterative, analgesic, antibacterial, antiphlogistic, haemopoietic[14,
174, 178]. Treats tumours and stomatitis[174].
The flowers are anticholesterolemic, diaphoretic, emmenagogue,
laxative, purgative, sedative and stimulant[4, 7, 147, 176, 240, 269].
They are used to treat menstrual pains and other complications by
promoting a smooth menstrual flow[218] and were ranked third in a
survey of 250 potential anti-fertility plants[218]. In domestic
practice, the flowers are used as a substitute or adulterant for
saffron in treating infants complaints such as measles, fevers and
eruptive skin complaints[4, 269]. Externally, they are applied to
bruising, sprains, skin inflammations, wounds etc[238]. The flowers are
harvested in the summer and can be used fresh or dried[238]. They
should not be stored for longer than 12 months[238]. It is possible to
carefully pick the florets and leave the ovaries behind so that seed
can be produced, though this procedure is rather more
time-consuming[238].
The plant is febrifuge, sedative, sudorific and vermifuge[218]. When
combined with Ligusticum wallichii it is said to have a definite
therapeutic effect upon coronary diseases[218].
The seed is diuretic, purgative and tonic[240]. It is used in the
treatment of rheumatism[240] and tumours, especially inflammatory
tumours of the liver[269].
The oil is charred and used to heal sores and treat rheumatism[240]. In
Iran, the oil is used as a salve for treating sprains and
rheumatism[269].

Other Uses


Adhesive; Cosmetic; Dye; Oil; Waterproofing.


The seed yields up to 40% of a drying oil[114], it is used for
lighting, paint, varnishes, linoleum and wax cloths[57, 171, 269]. The
oil can also be used as a diesel substitute[269]. It does not yellow
with age[114]. When heated to 300°c for 2 hours and then poured into
cold water, the oil solidifies to a gelatinous mass and is then used as
a cement for glass, tiles, stones etc or as a substitute for 'plaster
of Paris'. If the oil is heated to 307°c for 2½ hours, it suddenly
becomes a stiff elastic solid by polymerization and can then be used in
making waterproof cloth etc[114].
A yellow dye is obtained by steeping the flowers in water, it is used
as a saffron substitute[2, 4, 7, 14, 171, 238].
A red dye can be obtained by steeping the flowers in alcohol[169, 171,
238]. It is used for dyeing cloth and, mixed with talcum powder, is
used as a rouge to colour the cheeks[244].

Cultivation details



Succeeds in ordinary garden soil[1, 169]. Safflower thrives in heavy
clays with good water-holding capacity, but will also grow
satisfactorily in deep sandy or clay loams with good drainage[269]. It
needs soil moisture from the time of planting until it is
flowering[269]. It requires a well-drained soil and a position in full
sun[138, 169, 238]. Safflower is reported to tolerate an annual
precipitation of 20 to 137cm, an annual average temperature range of
6.3 to 27.5deg.C and a pH in the range of 5.4 to 8.2[269]. Plants are
reported to tolerate bacteria, disease, drought, frost, fungus, high
pH, phage, salt, sand, rust, virus and wind[269].
Safflower grows in the temperate zone in areas where wheat and barley
do well, and grows slowly during periods of cool short days in early
part of season. Seedlings can withstand temperatures lower than many
species; however, varieties differ greatly in their tolerance to frost;
in general, frost damages budding and flowering thus reducing yields
and quality[269].
Safflower is a long-day plant, requiring a photoperiod of about 14
hours. It is shade and weed intolerant, will not grow as a weed because
other wild plants overshadow it before it becomes established. It is
about as salt tolerant as cotton, but less so than barley[269].
Safflower matures in from 110-150 days from planting to harvest as a
spring crop, as most of it is grown, and from 200 or more days as an
autumn-sown crop[269]. It should be harvested when the plant is
thoroughly dried. Since the seeds do not shatter easily, it may be
harvested by direct combining. The crop is allowed to dry in the fields
before threshing[269].
Plants are self-fertile, though cross-pollination also takes
place[269].
Plants have a sturdy taproot that can penetrate 2.5 metres into the
soil[269].
Safflower has been grown for thousands of years for the dye that can be
obtained from the flowers[238]. This is not much used nowadays, having
been replaced by chemical dyes, but the plant is still widely
cultivated commercially for its oil-rich seed in warm temperate and
tropical areas of the world. There are many named varieties[174, 200].
A number of spineless cultivars have been developed, but at present
these produce much lower yields of oil than the spiny varieties[269].
Safflower is unlikely to be a worthwhile crop in Britain since it only
ripens its seed here in long hot summers. There is more chance of
success in the drier eastern part of the country with its usually
warmer summers, the cooler moister conditions in the west tend to act
against the production of viable seed[K].

Propagation



Seed - sow spring in gentle heat in a greenhouse. Germination usually
takes place within 2 - 4 weeks at 15°c[138]. When they are large enough
to handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and plant them
out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer.
The seed can also be sown in situ in April/May[138] but plants may not
then mature their seed.

Cultivars


'Dart'
Cold tolerant during early growth, it has tolerance for
Phytophthora, Puccinia and Verticillium. In a 5-year period of testing
at Mesa, 'Dart' averaged 4,004 kg/ha[269].
'Frio'
A highly cold tolerant variety with oil and protein content higher than 'Gila'[269].
'Gila'
A high yielding, high test-weight variety, adapted to Arizona growing conditions[269].
'US 10'
Yield and oil percentage about equal to 'Gila', but plants are resistant to Phytophthora root rot[269].



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Re: Adhesive - Glues

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 13:31




Betula pubescens -
Ehrh.


White Birch



AuthorEhrh.
Botanical references11, 17, 200

FamilyBetulaceae
GenusBetula
SynonymsBetula alba - L. pro parte


Known HazardsNone known
RangeMost of Europe, including Britain, east to W. Siberia and central Asia.

HabitatOpen woodland and heaths, usually on acid soils, from sea level to 830 metres[1, 17, 100].
Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of evergreen tree
A decidious Tree growing to 20m by 10m at a fast rate.

It is hardy to zone 1. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen
from August to September. The flowers are monoecious (individual
flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the
same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid soil.
It cannot grow in the shade.
It requires dry moist or wet soil.
The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Canopy; Secondary; Sunny Edge; Bog Garden;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Flowers; Inner bark; Leaves; Sap.


Edible Uses: Tea.

Inner bark - cooked or dried, ground into a powder then used with
cereals for making bread etc[2, 15, 46]. Inner bark is generally only
seen as a famine food, used when other forms of starch are not
available or are in short supply[177, K].
Sap - raw or cooked. A sweet flavour[2, 15, 177]. Harvested in early
spring, before the leaves unfurl, by tapping the trunk. The flow is
best on sunny days following a heavy frost. The sap is often
concentrated into a sugar by boiling off the water. Between 4 and 7
litres can be drawn off a mature tree in a day and this will not kill
the tree so long as the tap hole is filled up afterwards[115]. However,
prolonged or heavy tapping will kill the tree. A beer can be fermented
from the sap. An old English recipe for the beer is as follows:-
"To every Gallon of Birch-water put a quart of Honey, well stirr'd
together; then boil it almost an hour with a few Cloves, and a little
Limon-peel, keeping it well scumm'd. When it is sufficiently boil'd,
and become cold, add to it three or four Spoonfuls of good Ale to make
it work...and when the Test begins to settle, bottle it up . . . it is
gentle, and very harmless in operation within the body, and exceedingly
sharpens the Appetite, being drunk ante pastum."[269].
Young leaves - raw or cooked[15, 177].
Young catkins[15]. No more details are given.
A tea is made from the leaves[15] and another tea is made from the
essential oil in the inner bark[21].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antirheumatic; Astringent; Bitter; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Lithontripic; Miscellany; Skin.


Anti-inflammatory, cholagogue, diaphoretic[21, 165, 201].
The bark is diuretic and laxative[7].
The inner bark is bitter and astringent, it is used in treating
intermittent fevers[4].
An oil obtained from the inner bark is astringent and is used in the
treatment of various skin afflictions, especially eczema and
psoriasis[4, 238]. The bark is usually obtained from trees that have
been felled for timber and can be distilled at any time of the
year[238].
The buds are balsamic[7]. The young shoots and leaves secrete a
resinous substance which has acid properties, when combined with
alkalis it is a tonic laxative[4].
The leaves are anticholesterolemic and diuretic[7]. They also contain
phytosides, which are effective germicides[7]. An infusion of the
leaves is used in the treatment of gout, dropsy and rheumatism, and is
recommended as a reliable solvent of kidney stones[4]. The young leaves
and leaf buds are harvested in the spring and dried for later use[238].
A decoction of the leaves and bark is used for bathing skin
eruptions[4].
The vernal sap is diuretic[4].
The boiled and powdered wood has been applied to chafed skin[257].
Moxa is made from the yellow fungous excrescences of the wood, which
sometimes swell out of the fissures[4].

Other Uses


Adhesive; Besom; Charcoal; Compost; Dye; Essential; Fibre; Fungicide; Paper; Pioneer; Polish; Repellent; Tannin; Thatching; Waterproofing; Wood.


The bark is used to make drinking vessels, canoe skins, roofing tiles
etc. It is waterproof, durable, tough and resinous[11, 61]. Only the
outer bark is removed, this does not kill the tree. It is most easily
removed in late spring to early summer. The bark was pressed flat and
stored until the following spring. When required for making canoes it
would be heated over a fire to make it pliable for shaping to the canoe
frame[257].
A pioneer species, it readily invades old fields, cleared or burnt-over
land and creates conditions suitable for other woodland trees to become
established. Since it is relatively short-lived and intolerant of
shade, it is eventually out-competed by these trees[11, 186].
A tar-oil is obtained from the white bark in spring. It has fungicidal
properties and is also used as an insect repellent[4, 14, 61, 100]. It
makes a good shoe polish[61]. Another report says that an essential oil
is obtained from the bark and this, called 'Russian Leather' has been
used as a perfume[245].
A glue is made from the sap.
Cordage can be made from the fibres of the inner bark. This inner bark
can also be separated into thin layers and used as a substitute for
oiled paper[4].
A decoction of the inner bark is used to preserve cordage, it is rich
in tannin. The bark contains up to 16% tannin[223].
A brown dye is obtained from the inner bark.
An oil similar to Wintergreen oil (obtained from Gaultheria procumbens)
is obtained from the inner bark[21, 61]. It is used medicinally and
also makes a refreshing tea[21].
The young branches are very flexible and are used to make whisks,
besoms etc[6]. They are also used in thatching and to make wattles[4].
The leaves are a good addition to the compost heap, improving
fermentation[20].
A black paint is obtained from the soot of the plant[61].
A high quality charcoal is obtained from the bark. It is used by
artists, painters etc.
Wood - soft, light, durable. It is used for a wide range of purposes
including furniture, tool handles, carving, toys etc[100, 238]. It is a
source of charcoal that is used by artists and is also pulped and used
for making paper[238].

Scented Plants


:

Cultivation details



Succeeds in a well-drained light loamy soil in a sunny position[11,
200]. Grows well in heavy clay soils. Tolerates a wet position[11, 24],
succeeding in poorly drained soils[186]. Fairly wind tolerant[200].
Prefers an acid soil.
A very ornamental tree and fast growing, capable of growing 1 metre a
year but it is short-lived[186]. It is one of the first trees to
colonize open land and it creates a suitable environment for other
woodland trees to follow[11]. These trees eventually shade out the
birch trees[186].
Trees take about 15 years from seed to produce their own seed[98].
Although closely related, it does not usually hybridize with B.
pendula[11]. It hybridizes freely with B. pendula according to another
report[186].
A superb tree for encouraging wildlife, it has over 200 associated
insect species[24, 30]. A good plant to grow near the compost heap,
aiding the fermentation process[14, 20]. It is also a good companion
plant, its root activity working to improve the soil[14].
Trees are notably susceptible to honey fungus[200].

Propagation



Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a light position in a cold
frame[78, 80, 113, 134]. Only just cover the seed and place the pot in
a sunny position[78, 80, 134]. Spring sown seed should be surface sown
in a sunny position in a cold frame[113, 134]. If the germination is
poor, raising the temperature by covering the seed with glass can
help[134]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings
out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame for at least
their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in
late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.
If you have sufficient seed, it can be sown in an outdoor seedbed,
either as soon as it is ripe or in the early spring - do not cover the
spring sown seed. Grow the plants on in the seedbed for 2 years before
planting them out into their permanent positions in the winter[78, 80,
113, 134].



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Re: Adhesive - Glues

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 13:29




Betula pendula -
Roth.


Silver Birch



AuthorRoth.
Botanical references11, 17, 200

FamilyBetulaceae
GenusBetula
SynonymsBetula alba - L. pro parte.

Betula alba pendula - Aiton.

Betula verrucosa - Ehrh.



Known HazardsNone known
RangeMost of Europe, including Britain, south and east to Morocco, W. Siberia and central Asia.
HabitatOpen woodland and heaths[17, 100]. Rarely found on chalk[17].
Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of evergreen tree
A decidious Tree growing to 20m by 10m at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone 2. It is in flower in April, and the seeds ripen
from July to August. The flowers are monoecious (individual flowers are
either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the same plant)
and are pollinated by Wind.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay)
soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in heavy clay and
nutritionally poor soils.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow
in very acid soil.
It cannot grow in the shade.
It requires dry or moist soil.
The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Canopy; Secondary; Sunny Edge;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Flowers; Inner bark; Leaves; Sap.


Edible Uses: Tea.

Inner bark - cooked or dried and ground into a meal[2, 15, 105]. It
can be added as a thickener to soups etc or can be mixed with flour for
making bread, biscuits etc. Inner bark is generally only seen as a
famine food, used when other forms of starch are not available or are
in short supply[115, 177, K].
Sap - raw or cooked. A sweet flavour. It is harvested in early spring,
before the leaves unfurl, by tapping the trunk. It makes a pleasant
drink[115]. It is often concentrated into a syrup by boiling off the
water[2, 9, 13, 15, 177]. Between 4 and 7 litres can be drawn off a
mature tree in a day and this will not kill the tree so long as the tap
hole is filled up afterwards[115]. However, prolonged or heavy tapping
will kill the tree[115]. The flow is best on sunny days following a
frost. The sap can be fermented into a beer. An old English recipe for
the beer is as follows:-
"To every Gallon of Birch-water put a quart of Honey, well stirr'd
together; then boil it almost an hour with a few Cloves, and a little
Limon-peel, keeping it well scumm'd. When it is sufficiently boil'd,
and become cold, add to it three or four Spoonfuls of good Ale to make
it work...and when the Test begins to settle, bottle it up . . . it is
gentle, and very harmless in operation within the body, and exceedingly
sharpens the Appetite, being drunk ante pastum."[269].
Young leaves - raw or cooked[15].
Young catkins[15]. No more details are given.
A tea is made from the leaves[15, 161] and another tea is made from the
essential oil in the inner bark[21].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Anticholesterolemic; Antiinflammatory; Antirheumatic; Antiseptic; Astringent; Bitter; Cholagogue; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Laxative; Lithontripic; Miscellany; Skin.


Anti-inflammatory, cholagogue, diaphoretic[21, 165, 201].
The bark is diuretic and laxative[7].
An oil obtained from the inner bark is astringent and is used in the
treatment of various skin afflictions, especially eczema and
psoriasis[4, 238]. The bark is usually obtained from trees that have
been felled for timber and can be distilled at any time of the
year[238].
The inner bark is bitter and astringent, it is used in treating
intermittent fevers[4].
The vernal sap is diuretic[4].
The buds are balsamic[7]. The young shoots and leaves secrete a
resinous substance which has acid properties, when combined with
alkalis it is a tonic laxative[4].
The leaves are anticholesterolemic and diuretic[7]. They also contain
phytosides, which are effective germicides[7]. An infusion of the
leaves is used in the treatment of gout, dropsy and rheumatism, and is
recommended as a reliable solvent of kidney stones[4]. The young leaves
and leaf buds are harvested in the spring and dried for later use[238].
A decoction of the leaves and bark is used for bathing skin
eruptions[4].
Moxa is made from the yellow fungous excrescences of the wood, which
sometimes swell out of the fissures[4].

Other Uses


Adhesive; Besom; Charcoal; Compost; Dye; Essential; Fibre; Fungicide; Hair; Paper; Pioneer; Polish; Repellent; Tannin; Thatching; Waterproofing; Wood.


The bark is used to make drinking vessels, canoe skins, roofing tiles
etc[115]. It is waterproof, durable, tough and resinous. Only the outer
bark is removed, this does not kill the tree. It is most easily removed
in late spring to early summer.
A pioneer species, it readily invades old fields, cleared or burnt-over
land and creates conditions suitable for other woodland trees to become
established. Since it is relatively short-lived and intolerant of
shade, it is eventually out-competed by these trees[17, 186].
A tar-oil is obtained from the white bark in spring. It has fungicidal
properties and is also used as an insect repellent[4, 13, 100]. It
makes a good shoe polish[61]. Another report says that an essential oil
is obtained from the bark and this, called 'Russian Leather' has been
used as a perfume[245].
A decoction of the inner bark is used to preserve cordage[115], it
contains up to 16% tannin[178, 223]. An oil similar to Wintergreen oil
(obtained from Gaultheria procumbens) is obtained from the inner
bark[21, 61]. It is used medicinally and also makes a refreshing
tea[21].
The resin glands (the report does not say where these glands are found)
are used to make a hair lotion[226].
A brown dye is obtained from the inner bark
A glue is made from the sap[2, 9, 13, 15]. Cordage can be made from the
fibres of the inner bark[115]. This inner bark can also be separated
into thin layers and used as a substitute for oiled paper[4].
The young branches are very flexible and are used to make whisks,
besoms etc[6]. They are also used in thatching[13, 100] and to make
wattles[4].
The leaves are a good addition to the compost heap, improving
fermentation[14].
Wood - soft, light, durable. It is used for a wide range of purposes
including furniture, tool handles, toys and carving[13, 100, 238]. A
high quality charcoal is obtained from the bark. It is used by artists,
painters etc[13]. The wood is also pulped and used for making
paper[238].

Scented Plants


:

Cultivation details



A very easily grown plant, it tolerates most soils including poor
ones[1, 24], sandy soils[188] and heavy clays. It prefers a
well-drained loamy soil in a sunny position[11, 200]. It is
occasionally found on calcareous soils in the wild but it generally
prefers a pH below 6.5, doing well on acid soils[186]. Fairly wind
tolerant[200] though it becomes wind shaped when exposed to strong
winds[K].
The silver birch is a very ornamental tree[1] with many named
varieties[11, 200]. It also has a very wide range of economic uses. It
is a fast growing tree, increasing by up to 1 metre a year, but is
short-lived[17, 200]. It is often one of the first trees to colonize
open land and it creates a suitable environment for other woodland
trees to follow[17]. These trees eventually out-compete and shade out
the birch trees[17, 186]. It makes an excellent nurse tree for seedling
trees, though its fine branches can cause damage to nearby trees when
blown into them by the wind.
Trees take about 15 years from seed to produce their own seed[98].
Although closely related, it does not usually hybridize with B.
pubescens[11]. It often hybridizes with B. pubescens according to
another report[186].
A superb tree for encouraging wildlife, it has 229 associated insect
species[24]. A good plant to grow near the compost heap, aiding the
fermentation process[14, 20]. It is also a good companion plant, its
root action working to improve the soil[14].
Trees are notably susceptible to honey fungus[200].

Propagation



Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a light position in a cold
frame[78, 80, 113, 134]. Only just cover the seed and place the pot in
a sunny position[78, 80, 134]. Spring sown seed should be surface sown
in a sunny position in a cold frame[113, 134]. If the germination is
poor, raising the temperature by covering the seed with glass can
help[134]. When they are large enough to handle, prick the seedlings
out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame for at least
their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in
late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts.
If you have sufficient seed, it can be sown in an outdoor seedbed,
either as soon as it is ripe or in the early spring - do not cover the
spring sown seed. Grow the plants on in the seedbed for 2 years before
planting them out into their permanent positions in the winter[78, 80,
113, 134].

Cultivars



There are some named forms for this species, but these have
been developed for their ornamental value and not for their other uses.
Unless you particularly require the special characteristics of any of
these cultivars, we would generally recommend that you grow the natural
species for its useful properties. We have, therefore, not listed the
cultivars in this database[K].



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Adhesive - Glues

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 13:27






Althaea officinalis -
L.


Marsh Mallow



AuthorL.
Botanical references17, 200

FamilyMalvaceae
GenusAlthaea
Synonyms

Known HazardsNone known
RangeCentral and southern Europe, including Britain, to N. Africa and W. Asia.
HabitatThe upper margins of salt and brackish marshes, sides of ditches and grassy banks near the sea[7, 17].

Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 5 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 5 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Perennial growing to 1.2m by 0.75m.
It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from
July to September, and the seeds ripen from August to October. The
flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are
pollinated by Bees.
The plant is self-fertile.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in saline soil.
It cannot grow in the shade.
It requires dry or moist soil.


Habitats



Cultivated Beds;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Leaves; Root.

Edible Uses: Egg; Tea.

Leaves - raw or cooked[2, 4, 100]. They are used as a potherb or to
thicken soups[62, 183]. When used as a small proportion with other
leaves, the taste and texture is acceptable, but if a lot of the leaves
are cooked together their mucilaginous texture makes them
unpalatable[K]. The leaves can be eaten raw but are rather fibrous and
somewhat hairy, though the taste is mild and pleasant[K]. We have found
them to be quite acceptable in salads when chopped up finely[K].
Root - raw or cooked[61]. When boiled and then fried with onions it is
said to make a palatable dish that is often used in times of
shortage[4]. The root is used as a vegetable[62, 141, 183], it is also
dried then ground into a powder, made into a paste and roasted to make
the sweet 'marshmallow'[4, 5, 7, 17, 61]. The root contains about 37%
starch, 11% mucilage, 11% pectin[254].
The water left over from cooking any part of the plant can be used as
an egg-white substitute in making meringues etc[62]. The water from the
root is the most effective[183], it is concentrated by boiling until it
has a similar consistency to egg white.
A tea is made from the flowers[183]. A tea can also be made from the
root[183].


Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antitussive; Demulcent; Diuretic; Emollient; Laxative; Odontalgic.


Marsh mallow is a very useful household medicinal herb. Its soothing
demulcent properties make it very effective in treating inflammations
and irritations of the mucous membranes such as the alimentary canal,
the urinary and the respiratory organs[4, 254]. The root counters
excess stomach acid, peptic ulceration and gastritis[254]. It is also
applied externally to bruises, sprains, aching muscles, insect bites,
skin inflammations, splinters etc[4, 238].
The whole plant, but especially the root, is antitussive, demulcent,
diuretic, highly emollient, slightly laxative and odontalgic[4, 17, 21,
46, 165]. An infusion of the leaves is used to treat cystitis and
frequent urination[254]. The leaves are harvested in August when the
plant is just coming into flower and can be dried for later use[4]. The
root can be used in an ointment for treating boils and abscesses[254].
The root is best harvested in the autumn, preferably from 2 year old
plants, and is dried for later use[238].

Other Uses


Adhesive; Fibre; Oil; Teeth.


The dried root is used as a toothbrush or is chewed by teething
children[6, 7]. It has a mechanical affect on the gums whilst also
helping to ease the pain. The root is also used as a cosmetic, helping
to soften the skin[7].
A fibre from the stem and roots is used in paper-making[46, 61, 74,
115].
The dried and powdered root has been used to bind the active
ingredients when making pills for medicinal use[268].
A glue can be made from the root[74]. The root is boiled in water until
a thick syrup is left in the pan, this syrup is used as a glue.
An oil from the seed is used in making paints and varnishes[74].

Cultivation details



Succeeds in almost any soil and situation[1, 4, 200], though it prefers
a rich moist soil in a sunny position[4, 200]. It also tolerates fairly
dry soil conditions[1].
Plants are hardy to about -25°c[187].
Marsh mallow is often cultivated in the herb garden, as a culinary and
medicinal herb as well as for ornament[61]. Its roots were at one time
the source of the sweet 'marsh mallow', but this sweet is now made
without using the plant[4].

Propagation



Seed - sow spring or autumn in a cold frame. The seed is best sown as
soon as it is ripe in late summer, the germination is often
erratic[238]. Stratification can improve germination rates and time.
Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough
to handle and plant them out in the summer[K].
Division in spring or autumn. Fairly easy, it is best to pot up the
divisions in a lightly shaded position in a cold frame or greenhouse
until they are growing away well and then plant them out into their
permanent positions.
Root cuttings in December.



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Re: Adhesive - Glues

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