Basketry: Plant used in making baskets and other items such as chairs. Includes plants that are only used as an ornamental addition.

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Re: Basketry: Plant used in making baskets and other items such as chairs. Includes plants that are only used as an ornamental addition.

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 15:31




Juncus acutus -
L.


Sharp Rush



AuthorL.
Botanical references17

FamilyJuncaceae
GenusJuncus
Synonyms

Known Hazardswarning signAlthough
no reports of toxicity have been seen for this species, there is a
report that one member of this genus is possibly toxic to mammals[76]..
RangeSouthern Europe, including Britain, south and east from France to N. Africa and Macronesia.
HabitatSandy sea shores and dune slacks, occasionally in salt marshes[17].

Edibility Rating 0 (1-5)
Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Perennial growing to 1.5m.
It is hardy to zone 0. It is in flower in June. The flowers are
hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by
Wind.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in saline soil.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires moist or wet soil and can grow in water.


Habitats



Pond; Bog Garden;

Edible Uses



None known

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.


None known

Other Uses


Basketry; Thatching; Weaving.


The stems are used in making woven baskets, thatching, weaving mats etc[46, 61, 257].

Cultivation details



Easily grown in a moist soil, bog garden or shallow water[1, 200]. Prefers a heavy soil in sun or light shade[200].

Propagation


Seed - surface sow in pots in a cold frame in early spring and keep
the compost moist. When they are large enough to handle, prick the
seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer if
they have grown sufficiently, otherwise in late spring of the following
year.
Division in spring. Very easy, larger clumps can be replanted direct
into their permanent positions, though it is best to pot up smaller
clumps and grow them on in a cold frame until they are rooting well.
Plant them out in the spring.

Links




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Re: Basketry: Plant used in making baskets and other items such as chairs. Includes plants that are only used as an ornamental addition.

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 15:29




Hierochloe odorata -
(L.)P.Beauv.


Holy Grass



Author(L.)P.Beauv.
Botanical references17

FamilyGramineae
GenusHierochloe
SynonymsHierochloe borealis - (Schrad.)Roem.&Schult.


Known Hazardswarning signThe plant contains coumarin, this is toxic if taken internally[169] and is sometimes considered to be carcinogenic[222].
RangeCentral and northern Europe, including Britain, to N. Asia and N. America.

HabitatWet banks in only a few sites in Scotland[17].
Edibility Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Perennial growing to 0.6m by 0.6m.

It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from
April to May. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female
organs) and are pollinated by Wind.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires dry moist or wet soil.


Habitats


Bog Garden;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Seed.

Edible Uses: Colouring; Condiment.


Seed - cooked[105]. Small and fiddly to use. It almost certainly
does not contain coumarin and should be safe to use.
An essential oil from the leaves is used as a food flavouring in sweets
and soft drinks. It has a strong vanilla-like flavour[183].
The leaves are added to vodka as a flavouring[238].
The plant is said to be used as a colouring agent[183] but no more
details are given.

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Birthing aid; Febrifuge; Skin; VD.


A tea made from the leaves is used in the treatment of fevers, coughs,
sore throats, chafing and venereal infections[222, 257]. It is also
used to stop vaginal bleeding and to expel afterbirth[222]. The stems
can be soaked in water and used to treat windburn and chapping and as
an eyewash[257]. Some caution is advised when using this plant
internally, see the notes above on toxicity[222]. The leaves are
harvested in the summer and dried for later use[238].
Smoke from the burning leaves has been inhaled in the treatment of
colds[257].


Other Uses


Basketry; Hair; Incense; Repellent; Soil stabilization; Strewing; Stuffing.


The dried leaves are used as an incense[46, 61, 99], they were formerly
also used as a strewing herb[1, 46, 238] and have been used as a
stuffing in pillows and mattresses[257]. They have also been used as an
insect repellent in the clothes cupboard where they impart a nice smell
to the clothes[99, 238].
The leaves are used to make aromatic baskets[46, 61, 99, 169, 171]. The
wet leaves can be sewn together, dried until they are tight and then
resin used over the stitches to make a waterproof container[257].
The leaves can be soaked in water to make a tonic hair wash[257].
An essential oil distilled from the leaves is used in perfumery where
it acts as an excitant and fixative for other aromas[238].
The plant has a very aggressive root system and has been planted to
stabilize banks[74].

Scented Plants


Plant: Dried
The plant, as it dries, emits a powerful scent of newly mown hay.

Cultivation details



Prefers a damp position in a rich soil but succeeds in most soils
including quite dry conditions[162]. Grows best in a sunny
position[238].
The plants have a running root system and can spread aggressively when
grown in suitable conditions[74].
The plant, as it dries, emits a powerful scent of newly mown hay[245].

Propagation



Seed - sow spring in situ and only just cover the seed[162].
Germination usually takes place within 2 weeks.
If the seed is in short supply it can be sown in the cold frame in the
spring. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out into
individual pots and plant them out in early summer.
Division in spring or summer[162]. Very simple, virtually any part of
the root will regrow to make a new plant[K].



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Re: Basketry: Plant used in making baskets and other items such as chairs. Includes plants that are only used as an ornamental addition.

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 15:28




Fraxinus nigra -
Marshall.


Black Ash



AuthorMarshall.
Botanical references11, 43, 200

FamilyOleaceae
GenusFraxinus
SynonymsFraxinus sambucifolia - Lam.


Known HazardsNone known
RangeNorth-eastern N. America - Newfoundland to Manitoba, south to Virginia and Iowa.

HabitatDeep cold swamps, river banks and shores, tolerating some standing water[43, 82, 229].
Edibility Rating 0 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple icon 1 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of evergreen tree
A decidious Tree growing to 25m.

It is hardy to zone 7 and is frost tender. The flowers are dioecious
(individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to
be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown
if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind.
The plant is not self-fertile.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It cannot grow in the shade.
It requires moist or wet soil.
The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.
It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Canopy; Bog Garden;

Edible Uses



None known

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Laxative; Ophthalmic; Tonic.


The leaves are diaphoretic, diuretic, laxative[4]. They should be
gathered in June, well dried and stored in airtight containers[4].
The inner bark has been used as a tonic for the liver and stomach, to
check vaginal discharge and to treat painful urination[257]. An
infusion of the inner bark has been used as an eye wash for sore
eyes[257].

Other Uses


Basketry; Dye; Fuel; Wood.


Logs of wood can be beaten with mauls to separate the growth layers,
these layers can then be cut into strips and woven into baskets[257].
A blue dye can be obtained from the bark[257].
Wood - not strong, rather soft, durable, heavy, tough, coarse-grained,
easily separated into thin layers. It weighs 39lb per cubic foot.
Largely used for making furniture, cabinet making, interior finish and
veneer[46, 61, 82, 171, 229, 235]. The wood makes a good fuel, it does
not crackle or shoot sparks like many other woods[257]. If the wood is
soaked in water and then pounded, it separates easily into thin
sheets[226]. These sheets have then been used to make woven baskets,
barrel hoops, chair seats etc[226].

Cultivation details



Prefers a deep loamy soil, even if it is on the heavy side[1, 200].
Most members of this genus are gross feeders and require a rich
soil[11, 200]. A plant of swamps in the wild, in Britain this species
requires a moist to wet soil[200]. It succeeds when growing in exposed
positions[200] and also in alkaline soils[11]. Plants are tolerant of
atmospheric pollution[200].
A moderate to slow-growing tree in the wild[229], it is not a great
success in Britain, where it is often damaged by late frosts[11].
This species is closely related to F. mandschurica[200].
Trees can bear hermaphrodite flowers, separate male and female flowers,
or flowers of one sex only[229].

Propagation



The seed is best harvested green - as soon as it is fully developed but
before it has fully dried on the tree - and can then be sown
immediately in a cold frame[80]. It usually germinates in the
spring[80]. Stored seed requires a period of cold stratification and is
best sown as soon as possible in a cold frame[200]. Prick out the
seedlings into individual pots when they are large enough to handle and
grow them on in a cold frame for their first winter. Plant them out
into their permanent positions or a nursery bed in late spring or early
summer of the following year.
If you have sufficient seed then it is possible to sow it directly into
an outdoor seedbed, preferably in the autumn. Grow the seedlings on in
the seedbed for 2 years before transplanting either to their permanent
positions or to nursery beds.



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Re: Basketry: Plant used in making baskets and other items such as chairs. Includes plants that are only used as an ornamental addition.

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 15:26




Equisetum telmateia -
Ehrh.


Giant Horsetail



AuthorEhrh.
Botanical references17, 200

FamilyEquisetaceae
GenusEquisetum
SynonymsEquisetum maximum - auct.


Known Hazardswarning signLarge
quantities of the plant can be toxic. This is because it contains the
enzyme thiaminase[172], a substance that can rob the body of the
vitamin B complex[65]. In small quantities this enzyme will do no harm
to people eating an adequate diet that is rich in vitamin B, though
large quantities can cause severe health problems. The enzyme is
destroyed by heat or thorough drying, so cooking the plant will remove
the thiaminase[172].
The plant also contains equisetic acid - see the notes on medicinal
uses for more information[213].
RangeEurope, including Britain, from Sweden south and east to N. Africa and W. Asia, N.W. N. America.

HabitatDamp shady banks etc, to 350 metres[17].
Edibility Ratingapple icon 1 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple icon 1 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Perennial growing to 2m.

It is hardy to zone 6. It is in flower in March, and the seeds ripen in April.
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires moist soil.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; Cultivated Beds;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Stem.


Strobil (the fertile shoots in spring) - raw or cooked[256]. The tough
outer fibres are peeled off, or can be chewed and then discarded[256].
The vegetative shoots, produced from late spring onwards, were
occasionally cleaned of their leaves, sheathing and branches and then
eaten by native North American Indians, but only when very young and
tightly compacted[256].
Root - cooked[257].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.


Astringent; Diuretic; Poultice.


The plant is astringent and diuretic[257]. A decoction has been used to
treat 'stoppage of urine'[257]. A poultice of the rough leaves and
stems is applied to cuts and sores[257].

Other Uses


Basketry; Fungicide; Hair; Liquid feed; Polish; Sandpaper.


The stems are very rich in silica[4]. They are used for scouring and
polishing metal[1, 4, 46, 61, 99, 257] and as a fine sandpaper[54, 99,
257]. The stems are first bleached by repeated wetting and drying in
the sun[74]. They can also be used as a polish for wooden floors and
furniture[46, 178].
The infused stem is an effective fungicide against mildew, mint rust
and blackspot on roses[14]. It also makes a good liquid feed[54]. Used
as a hair rinse it can eliminate fleas, lice and mites[213].
The black roots have been used for imbrication on coiled baskets[257].

Cultivation details



Prefers a moist soil with a pH between 6.5 and 7.5[200].
Plants are hardy to about -30°c[200].
Plants have a deep and penetrating root system and can be invasive. If
grown in the garden they are best kept in bounds by planting them in a
large container which can be sunk into the ground[200].

Propagation



Spores - best collected as soon as they are ripe in the spring and
surface-sown immediately on a sterile compost. Keep moist and pot up as
soon as the plants are large enough to handle. Very difficult[200].
Division. The plants usually spread very freely when well sited and
should not really need any assistance


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Re: Basketry: Plant used in making baskets and other items such as chairs. Includes plants that are only used as an ornamental addition.

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 15:25




Cytisus scoparius -
(L.)Link.


Broom



Author(L.)Link.
Botanical references11, 17, 200

FamilyLeguminosae
GenusCytisus
SynonymsSarothamnus scoparius - (L.)K.Koch.

Spartium scoparium - L.


Known Hazardswarning signPoisonous[10, 19, 65]. The plant is of extremely low or zero toxicity[76].

RangeEurope, including Britain, from Scandanavia south to Spain, east to Poland and Hungary.
HabitatSandy pastures and heaths, occasionally in open woodland, and often near the coast[4, 17]. Strongly calcifuge[17].
Edibility Ratingapple icon 1 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man

icon of shrub
A decidious Shrub growing to 2.4m by 1m at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May
to June, and the seeds ripen from August to November. The flowers are
hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by
Bees.
The plant is not self-fertile.
It can fix Nitrogen.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay)
soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor
soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow
in very acid soil.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.
The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.
It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Ground Cover;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Flowers.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Condiment.


The flower buds are pickled and used as a substitute for capers[4,
46, 183, 244]. They can also be added to salads[183]. Some caution is
advised, see the notes above on toxicity.
The tender green tops of the plant have been used like hops to give a
bitter flavour to beer and to render it more intoxicating[4, 183].
The roasted seed is a coffee substitute[2, 4, 115, 183].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Cardiotonic; Cathartic; Diuretic; Emetic; Vasoconstrictor.


Broom is a bitter narcotic herb that depresses the respiration and
regulates heart action[238]. It acts upon the electrical conductivity
of the heart, slowing and regulating the transmission of the
impulses[254].
The young herbaceous tips of flowering shoots are cardiotonic,
cathartic, diuretic, emetic and vasoconstrictor[4, 13, 21, 46, 165].
The seeds can also be used[4]. The plant is used internally in the
treatment of heart complaints, and is especially used in conjunction
with Convallaria majalis[238]. The plant is also strongly diuretic,
stimulating urine production and thus countering fluid retention[254].
Since broom causes the muscles of the uterus to contract, it has been
used to prevent blood loss after childbirth[254]. Use this herb with
caution since large doses are likely to upset the stomach[4, 21]. The
composition of active ingredients in the plant is very changeable, this
makes it rather unreliable medicinally and it is therefore rarely
used[9]. This herb should not be prescribed to pregnant women or
patients with high blood pressure[238]. Any treatment with this plant
should only be carried out under expert supervision[9]. See also the
notes above on toxicity.
The young herbaceous tips of flowering shoots are harvested in spring,
generally in May[4]. They can be used fresh or dried[4, 238]. They
should not be stored for more than 12 months since the medicinally
active ingredients break down[238].

Other Uses


Basketry; Broom; Dye; Essential; Fibre; Ground cover; Paper; Repellent; Soil stabilization; Tannin; Wood.


An excellent fibre is obtained from the bark, it is used in the
manufacture of paper, cloth and nets[4, 100, 115]. It is not as strong
as the fibre from the Spanish broom (Spartium junceum)[4]. The fibre is
obtained from the root according to other reports[13, 46]. The bark
fibre is used to make paper, it is 2 - 9mm long[189]. The branches are
harvested in late summer or autumn, the leaves removed and the stems
steamed until the fibres can be stripped. The fibres are cooked for 3
hours in lye then put in a ball mill for 3 hours. The paper is pale tan
in colour[189].
The bark is a good source of tannin[4].
A yellow and a brown dye are obtained from the bark[46].
A yellow dye is obtained from the flowering stem[169].
A green dye is obtained from the leaves and young tops[4].
The branches are used to make baskets, brushes, brooms and besoms[4, 6,
13, 46, 55, 115]. They are also sometimes used for thatching roofs and
as substitutes for reeds in making fences or screens[4].
An essential oil from the flowers is used in perfumery[57].
Growing well on dry banks and on steep slopes, it is an effective sand
binder and soil stabiliser[4, 11, 46]. Broom is one of the first plant
to colonize sand dunes by the coast[4].
The plant attracts insects away from nearby plants[14].
The var. prostratus (= C. scoparius maritimus?[208]) makes a good fast
growing ground cover plant to 30cm tall, though it needs weeding in its
first year[197]. The cultivar 'Andreanus Prostratus' can also be
used[208].
Wood - very hard, beautifully veined[4]. The plant seldom reaches
sufficient size for its wood to be of much value, but larger specimens
are valued by cabinet makers and for veneer[4].

Scented Plants


:

Cultivation details



Succeeds in most soils, preferring a fairly good but not rich soil[11].
Prefers a poor well-drained soil[14]. Succeeds in slightly acid,
neutral and limy soils but dislikes shallow soils over chalk[200].
Plants are strongly calcifuge according to other reports and intolerant
of a pH much above 6.5[17, 186]. Prefers a sunny position but tolerates
some shade[11, 14, 17]. Plants succeed in exposed conditions, and are
very tolerant of maritime exposure[4, K]. Plants have a deep root
system, they are very drought tolerant once established and grow well
on dry banks[4, 11]. Tolerates a smoky atmosphere, growing well in
polluted areas[186].
Plants are hardy to about -20°c[184].
A number of named forms have been developed for their ornamental
value[182].
New leaves are formed in April but these soon drop off the plant,
photosynthesis being carried out by means of the green stems[186].
Very tolerant of cutting, it regenerates quickly from the base[186].
Plants are usually killed by fire but the seeds quickly germinate after
the fire and rapidly become established[186].
A good bee plant and food plant for many caterpillars[24, 30, 46], it
provides the food for the larvae of the green hairstreak
butterfly[186]. Ants are attracted to the seeds, feeding on the juicy
attachment that holds them to the pods and thus distributing the
seed[186].
Dislikes root disturbance, especially when more than 20cm tall[11]. It
is best to plant out into their permanent positions as early as
possible.
This species has a symbiotic relationship with certain soil bacteria,
these bacteria form nodules on the roots and fix atmospheric nitrogen.
Some of this nitrogen is utilized by the growing plant but some can
also be used by other plants growing nearby[200].

Propagation



Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a cold
frame[80]. Pre-soak stored seed for 24 hours in warm water then cold
stratify for 1 month and sow in a cold frame[80]. The seed usually
germinates in 4 weeks at 20°c[98, 113]. Seedlings should be potted up
as soon as possible since plants quickly become intolerant of root
disturbance[186]. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late
summer if they have made sufficient growth, otherwise in late spring of
the following year[K]. The seed has a long viability[186].
Seed can also be sown in situ as soon as it is ripe in the late summer
and autumn[4].
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 4 - 7 cm with a heel, August in a
frame[11]. Produces roots in the spring[11]. Pot up as soon as
possible[11].
Cuttings of mature wood, October/November in a frame.
Layering.

Cultivars



There are some named forms for this species, but these have
been developed for their ornamental value and not for their other uses.
Unless you particularly require the special characteristics of any of
these cultivars, we would generally recommend that you grow the natural
species for its useful properties. We have, therefore, not listed the
cultivars in this database[K


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Re: Basketry: Plant used in making baskets and other items such as chairs. Includes plants that are only used as an ornamental addition.

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 15:22




Cyperus longus -
L.


Galingale



AuthorL.
Botanical references17, 200

FamilyCyperaceae
GenusCyperus
Synonyms

Known HazardsNone known
RangeBritain and the Mediterranean region north to Lake Geneva.
HabitatBy water in ditches and marshy places[17].

Edibility Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple icon 1 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
An evergreen Perennial growing to 1.2m by 2m at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone 7. It is in leaf all year, in flower from August to
September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female
organs)
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It cannot grow in the shade.
It requires moist or wet soil and can grow in water.


Habitats



Pond; Bog Garden;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Root.

Edible Uses: Condiment.


Tuber - used as a spice in soups, pies and sweets[5, 183].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.


Aromatic; Tonic.


The root is an aromatic tonic[4]. It was at one time considered to be a
good stomachic and useful in the first stages of dropsy, but it has now
fallen into disuse[4, 238].

Other Uses


Basketry; Essential; Paper; Weaving.


The leaves are used in basketry and for weaving hats, matting etc[100].
The root and stem have the scent of violets and are used in
perfumery[4, 46, 61, 245]. The aroma becomes more pronounced when the
root has been dried and left to age[245].
A fibre obtained from the plant is used in paper making[100].

Scented Plants


Root: Crushed Dried
The root has a sweet moss-like perfume, resembling that of the violet but not so pure. The aroma becomes more fragrant with age.
Stem: Crushed Dried
The stem has a sweet moss-like perfume, resembling that of the violet but not so pure. The aroma becomes more fragrant with age.

Cultivation details



Prefers a moist sandy loam[95, 117]. Succeeds in any good garden soil
so long as it does not dry out[162], it also grows well in up to 30cm
of water[200].
Plants are hardy to about -15°c[200].
A very ornamental plant[1], though it can spread freely at the roots
when well-suited[233].
Galingale was one of the favourite spices of the medieval kitchen and
was an ingredient of 'pokerounce', a kind of medieval cinnamon
toast[183]. It is rarely used at present. Both the root and the stem
have a sweet moss-like perfume, resembling that of the violet but not
so pure. The aroma becomes more fragrant with age[245].

Propagation



Seed - surface sow in the spring and keep the compost moist[164]. The
seed usually germinates in 2 - 6 weeks at 18°c[164]. Prick out the
seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to
handle. Grow on for their first winter in a greenhouse and plant them
out in late spring after the last expected frosts.
Division in spring or autumn. Division is simple at almost any time of
the year, so long as the roots are not allowed to become dry. Plant
them out straight into their permanent positions.



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Re: Basketry: Plant used in making baskets and other items such as chairs. Includes plants that are only used as an ornamental addition.

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 14:55




Corylus avellana -
L.


Hazel



AuthorL.
Botanical references11, 17, 200

FamilyBetulaceae
GenusCorylus
Synonyms

Known HazardsNone known
RangeEurope, including Britain, from Norway to Spain and east to W. Asia.
HabitatWoods and hedgerows, especially on the slopes of hills, often on calcareous soils[7, 17].

Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 5 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of evergreen tree
A decidious Tree growing to 6m by 3m at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone 4 and is frost tender. It is in flower from January
to April, and the seeds ripen from September to October. The flowers
are monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both
sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.
The plant is self-fertile.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid and very alkaline soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires moist soil.
The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.


Habitats



Woodland Garden; Secondary; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Hedge;
Cultivars: (as above except)
'Cosford Cob'
'Duke of York'
'Heterophylla'
'Nottingham Cob'
'Waterloo'

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Seed.

Edible Uses: Milk; Oil.


Seed - raw or roasted and used in breads, cakes, biscuits, sweets
etc[2, 5, 9, 12, 13, 34, 183]. An excellent nut for raw eating[K]. They
can also be liquidized and used as a plant milk[183]. Rich in oil. The
seed ripens in mid to late autumn and will probably need to be
protected from squirrels[K]. When kept in a cool place, and not
shelled, the seed should store for at least 12 months[K].
A clear yellow edible oil is obtained from the seed[7, 9, 183]. It is
used in salad dressings, baking etc.

Composition


Figures in grams (g) or miligrams (mg) per 100g of food.

Seed (Dry weight)
  • 650 Calories per 100g
  • Water: 0%
  • Protein: 16g; Fat: 60g; Carbohydrate: 20g; Fibre: 4g; Ash: 2.8g;
  • Minerals - Calcium: 250mg; Phosphorus: 400mg; Iron: 4mg; Magnesium: 0mg; Sodium: 2.1mg; Potassium: 900mg; Zinc: 0mg;
  • Vitamins - A: 0mg; Thiamine (B1): 0.3mg; Riboflavin (B2): 0.5mg; Niacin: 5.3mg; B6: 0mg; C: 6mg;
  • Reference: []
  • Notes: 

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Anthelmintic; Astringent; Diaphoretic; Febrifuge; Nutritive; Stomachic; Tonic.


The bark, leaves, catkins and fruits are sometimes used medicinally[7].
They are astringent, diaphoretic, febrifuge, nutritive and
odontalgic[7].
The seed is stomachic and tonic[240].
The oil has a very gentle but constant and effective action in cases of
infection with threadworm or pinworm in babies and young children[7].

Other Uses


Basketry; Charcoal; Cosmetic; Hedge; Miscellany; Oil; Plant support; Polish; Tannin; Wood.


The seed contains up to 65% of a non-drying oil, used in paints,
cosmetics etc[13, 46, 57, 132]. The whole seed can be used to polish
and oil wood[6]. It is very easy to apply and produces a nice
finish[K].
The finely ground seeds are used as an ingredient of face masks in
cosmetics[7].
Plants can be grown as a tall hedge[29]. They need to be left untrimmed
or only lightly trimmed if seed is required[29].
The bark and leaves are a source of tannin[7].
Wood - soft, easy to split, not very durable, beautifully veined. Used
for inlay work, small items of furniture, hurdles, wattles, basketry,
pea sticks etc[7, 13, 23, 46, 61, 63, 66, 125]. The twigs are used as
dowsing rods by water diviners[11]. The wood also yields a good quality
charcoal, used by artists[63, 101].

Cultivation details



An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most soils, but is in general
more productive of seeds when grown on soils of moderate fertility[11,
200]. It does less well in rich heavy soils or poor ones[11, 63]. Does
well in a loamy soil[11]. Very suitable for an alkaline soil[11], but
it dislikes very acid soils[17]. Succeeds in a pH range 4.5 to 8.5, but
prefers a range of 5 to 7[200]. Plants are fairly wind tolerant[1, 11].
A very hardy plant, succeeding in all areas of Britain[200]. The
flowers, however, are produced in late winter and early spring and can
be damaged by heavy frosts at this time[200].
A parent, together with C. maxima, of many cultivated forms of filberts
and cob nuts. There are many named varieties[11]. Plants are
self-fertile but a more certain crop is obtained if more than one
cultivar is grown[200].
The main difference between cob nuts and filberts is that the husk of a
filbert is longer than the seed and often completely encloses it,
whilst the husk on a cob nut is shorter than the seed[200].
Squirrels are a major pest of this plant, often decimating the crop of
nuts[200].
Often grown as a coppiced shrub in woodlands, the stems have a variety
of uses[23, 67, 186]. Members of this genus bear transplanting well and
can be easily moved even when relatively large[11].
A food plant for the caterpillars of many lepidoptera species[30].

Propagation



Seed - best sown as soon as it is harvested in autumn in a cold
frame[164]. Germinates in late winter or spring. Stored seed should be
pre-soaked in warm water for 48 hours and then given 2 weeks warm
followed by 3 - 4 months cold stratification[164]. Germinates in 1 - 6
months at 20°c[164]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings
out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold frame or sheltered
place outdoors for their first winter. Plant them out into their
permanent positions in late spring or early summer[K].
Layering in autumn. Easy, it takes about 6 months[78, 200].
Division of suckers in early spring. Very easy, they can be planted out
straight into their permanent positions.

Cultivars


'Cosford Cob'
A medium-size thin-shelled nut with a sweet flavour[183].
An upright fairly vigorous hardy tree, it bears reliably and produces
abundant pollen which makes it a good pollinator for other
cultivars[183].
'Duke of York'

'Heterophylla'
This cultivar has attractive cut leaves. It has not been bred for
its seeds but these are borne prolifically in a Gloucestershire
garden[K].
'Nottingham Cob'
A medium-size nut with a sweet well-flavoured kernel[183]. It ripens early[183].
A small tree, it crops very well and is useful as a pollinator[183].
'Waterloo'
A small nut with an excellent flavour[



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Re: Basketry: Plant used in making baskets and other items such as chairs. Includes plants that are only used as an ornamental addition.

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 14:53




Cornus sericea -
L.


Red Osier Dogwood



AuthorL.
Botanical references11, 43, 200

FamilyCornaceae
GenusCornus
SynonymsCornus alba - non L.

Cornus stolonifera - Michx.

Swida stolonifera - Rydb.


Thelycrania stolonifera - Pojark.


Known HazardsNone known
RangeN. America - Newfoundland to New York, west to Alaska and California. Naturalized in Britain[17].
HabitatShores and thickets[43]. Along streams, rivers and moist sites, 450 - 2700 metres[229].
Edibility Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)

Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of shrub
A decidious Shrub growing to 2.5m by 4m.
It is hardy to zone 2 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May
to June. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female
organs) and are pollinated by Bees.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires moist or wet soil.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Ground Cover; Bog Garden;

Edible Uses



Edible Parts: Fruit; Seed.

Edible Uses: Oil.

Fruit - raw or cooked[105, 161, 257]. Juicy[101]. Bitter and
unpalatable according to some reports[2], it was mixed with other
fruits such as juneberries (Amelanchier spp) and then dried for winter
use by native North Americans[257]. The fruit can cause nausea[172].
The fruit is up to 9mm in diameter[200].
Seed[101]. No more details are given, but the seeds are quite small and
woody, looking rather less than edible[K].
An edible oil is obtained from the seed[4].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Analgesic; Astringent; Febrifuge; Miscellany; Poultice; Purgative; Skin; Stimulant; Tonic.


Red osier dogwood was widely employed by several native North American
Indian tribes who valued it especially for its astringent and tonic
bark, using it both internally and externally to treat diarrhoea,
fevers, skin problems etc[257]. It is little used in modern herbalism.
The bark and the root bark are analgesic, astringent, febrifuge,
purgative, slightly stimulant and tonic[4, 172, 257]. Drying the bark
removes its tendency to purge[172]. A decoction has been used in the
treatment of headaches, diarrhoea, coughs, colds and fevers[257].
Externally, the decoction has been used as a wash for sore eyes, styes
and other infections and also to treat skin complaints such as poison
ivy rash and ulcers[257]. The bark shavings have been applied as a
dressing on wounds to stop the bleeding[257]. A poultice of the soaked
inner bark, combined with ashes, has been used to alleviate pain[257].
The plant is said to have cured hydrophobia[4].

Other Uses


Basketry; Dye; Fibre; Ground cover; Oil; Teeth.


A fibre obtained from the bark is used as cordage[99]. The bark can be twisted into a rope[257].
The powdered bark has been used as a toothpowder to preserve the gums and keep the teeth white[4].
An oil obtained from the seed burns well and can be used in lighting[4].
A red dye can be obtained from the bark mixed with cedar ashes[257].
The branches are pliable, they are used as rims in basket making[99, 257]. The stem wood is very tough and flexible[212].
Plants can be grown as a tall ground cover for colonising large areas. The cultivar 'Flaviramea' has been recommended[208].

Cultivation details



An easily grown plant, it succeeds in any soil of good or moderate
fertility[1], ranging from acid to shallow chalk[200]. Grows well in
heavy clay soils. Prefers a moist soil and a position in sun or partial
shade[108]. Succeeds in poorly drained soils[200].
Plants are hardy to about -35°c[184].
A rampant suckering shrub[1]. A number of cultivars have been developed
for their ornamental value[182].
This species is closely allied to C. alba[11]. The flowers are very
attractive to bees[108].
Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200].

Propagation



Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame or in an
outdoors seedbed if there is sufficient seed[80, 113]. The seed must be
separated from the fruit flesh since this contains germination
inhibitors[80, 164]. Stored seed should be cold stratified for 3 - 4
months and sown as early as possible in the year[164]. Scarification
may also help as may a period of warm stratification before the cold
stratification[80, 164]. Germination, especially of stored seed, can be
very slow, taking 18 months or more[164]. Prick out the seedlings of
cold-frame sown seeds into individual pots as soon as they are large
enough to handle and grow the plants on for their first winter in a
greenhouse, planting out in the spring after the last expected frosts.
Cuttings of half-ripe side shoots, July/August in a frame.
Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, taken with a heel
if possible, autumn in a cold frame. High percentage[78].
Layering of new growth in June/July. Takes 9 months[78].

Cultivars


'Flaviramea'
A vigorous form with yellowish-green young branches[11, 200], it
has been recommended as a tall ground cover for colonising large
areas[208]



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Re: Basketry: Plant used in making baskets and other items such as chairs. Includes plants that are only used as an ornamental addition.

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 14:51




Cornus sanguinea -
L.


Dogwood



AuthorL.
Botanical references11, 17, 200

FamilyCornaceae
GenusCornus
SynonymsSwida sanguinea - Opiz.

Thelycrania sanguinea - Fourr.


Known Hazardswarning signContrary to some reports, the fruit is not poisonous, but the leaves can cause skin irritations to sensitive people[65].

RangeEurope, including Britain, from Scandanavia to Spain, east to Sicily and Greece. Rare in S.W. Asia..
HabitatMixed woods, scrub and hedgerows, especially on calcareous soils[7, 13, 186].
Edibility Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple icon 1 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man

icon of shrub
A decidious Shrub growing to 3m.
It is hardy to zone 5 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from
June to July, and the seeds ripen in September. The flowers are
hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by
Insects.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires moist soil.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; Hedge;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Fruit.

Edible Uses: Oil.


Fruit - raw or cooked[105]. A bitter flavour, it can also have an
emetic effect on the body[1, 7, 11]. It is not worthwhile[115]. The
fruit is about 8mm in diameter[200].
An oil is obtained from the seed[2], it is edible when refined[75].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Astringent; Emetic; Febrifuge.


The bark is astringent and febrifuge[7]. It is used to treat fevers[254].
The leaves are sometimes used externally as an astringent[7].
The fruit is emetic[7].

Other Uses



Basketry; Charcoal; Dye; Fuel; Hedge; Oil; Wood.


The seed contains 45% of a non-drying oil[74], it is used in soap
making and lighting[7, 13, 100, 115, 177].
A non-drying oil is also obtained from the pericarp, it is used for
lighting[74]. The pericarp contains 19 - 35% oil[74].
A greenish-blue dye is obtained from the fruit[13, 74].
The young stems are very flexible and are used in basketry[7, 13, 74,
100].
Wood - tough, hard. Used for small items such as tool handles, turnery
etc[11, 61, 115]. A good quality charcoal is obtained from the
wood[115], the wood also makes an excellent fuel[115].


Scented Plants


Flowers: Fresh
The flowers have a rather unpleasant smell to most people, though they are attractive to insects.

Cultivation details



An easily grown plant, it succeeds in any soil of good or moderate
fertility[1], ranging from acid to shallow chalk[200]. Grows well in
heavy clay soils. Plants are relatively shade tolerant, though they are
not happy when growing in dense shade[186]. They grow badly when
exposed to strong cold winds[186].
Plants are hardy to about -25°c[184].
The flowers have a rather unpleasant smell to most people, though they
are attractive to insects[186].
Plants have a suckering habit and can quickly form dense thickets[186].
They can be coppiced regularly and will throw up long straight stems
after being cut back[186].
Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200].

Propagation



Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame or in an
outdoors seedbed if there is sufficient seed[80, 113]. The seed must be
separated from the fruit flesh since this contains germination
inhibitors[80, 164]. Stored seed should be cold stratified for 3 - 4
months and sown as early as possible in the year[164]. Scarification
may also help as may a period of warm stratification before the cold
stratification[80, 164]. Germination, especially of stored seed, can be
very slow, taking 18 months or more[164]. Prick out the seedlings of
cold-frame sown seeds into individual pots as soon as they are large
enough to handle and grow the plants on for their first winter in a
greenhouse, planting out in the spring after the last expected frosts.
Cuttings of half-ripe side shoots, July/August in a frame.
Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, taken with a heel
if possible, autumn in a cold frame. High percentage[78].
Layering of new growth in June/July. Takes 9 months[78].



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Re: Basketry: Plant used in making baskets and other items such as chairs. Includes plants that are only used as an ornamental addition.

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 14:48




Clematis vitalba -
L.


Traveller's Joy



AuthorL.
Botanical references11, 17, 200

FamilyRanunculaceae
GenusClematis
Synonyms

Known Hazardswarning signAll parts of the plant are poisonous[7], the toxic principle is dissipated by heat or by drying[65].
RangeEurope, including Britain, from the Netherlands south and east to N. Africa and the Caucasus.
HabitatHedgerows and wood margins, usually on calcareous soils[7, 17].

Edibility Ratingapple icon 1 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of climber
A decidious Climber growing to 15m by 15m at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone 4. It is in flower from July to September, and the
seeds ripen from October to January. The flowers are hermaphrodite
(have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees, flies.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires moist soil.


Habitats



Woodland Garden; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; Hedgerow;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Leaves.


Young shoots - cooked and used like hop shoots (Humulus lupulus)[7, 46, 61]. Caution is advised due to reports of toxicity[7].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Analgesic; Bach; Diuretic; Homeopathy; Rubefacient; Skin.


The leaves are analgesic, diuretic and rubefacient[7, 61]. The
boiled roots and stems are used as a cure for the itch[4]. When applied
in the nostrils, the plant juice has been used to relieve migraine
attacks, but it can also destroy the mucous membranes[7]. The plant
should not be taken internally because it is poisonous[7].
A homeopathic remedy is made from the plant. It is used in the
treatment of rheumatism and skin eruptions[238].
The plant is used in Bach flower remedies - the keywords for
prescribing it are 'Indifference', 'Dreaminess', 'Inattention' and
'Unconsciousness'[209]. It is also one of the five ingredients in the
'Rescue remedy'[209].

Other Uses


Basketry.


The stems are used in basketry[100, 115].

Scented Plants


Flowers: Fresh
The flowers are almond scented.

Cultivation details



Prefers a deep moist soil with its roots in the shade[11, 200].
Dislikes poorly-drained heavy clay soils, but grows well in clay if
grit is added for drainage[11, 200]. Dislikes light sandy soils[11].
Does well on chalk[1]. Dislikes acid soils below a pH of 6.0[186].
Succeeds in acid as well as alkaline soils[200].
Plants are hardy to about -18°c[202].
A twining plant[182]. The leafstalks wrap themselves around twigs and
branches for support. When a side of the stalk touches an object, the
growth on that side slows down whilst the other side grows at its
normal rate - this causes the leaf stalk to entwine the object it is
touching[186, 212]. It is capable of growing 2 metres in a year and can
easily smother small trees and shrubs[186]. Another report says that it
can grow 5 metres in a year[202].
When planting out, in order to avoid the disease 'clematis wilt', it is
best to plant the rootball about 8cm deeper in the soil. This will also
serve to build up a good root crown of growth buds[200].
The flowers are almond-scented[202]. They are produced on the current
season's growth[219]. The plant is very amenable to pruning and can be
cut back severely if required. This is best done in early spring[202].
A greedy plant, inhibiting growth of nearby plants, especially
legumes[54].
Plants seem to be immune to the predations of rabbits[233].
This species is notably resistant to honey fungus[88, 200].

Propagation



Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame[164, 200]. Sow
stored seed as soon as it is obtained in a cold frame. Pre-soak the
seed for 12 hours in warm water and remove as much of the tail and
outer coat as possible[164]. A period of cold stratification is
beneficial[164]. The seed germinates in 1 - 9 months or more at
20°c[164]. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots when they are
large enough to handle and grow them on in a cold frame for their first
winter. Plant out in late spring or early summer, after the last
expected frosts.
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, taken between nodes, July/August in a
frame[1].
Internodal cuttings of soft to semi-ripe wood, late spring in sandy
soil in a frame.
Layering of old stems in late winter or early spring[200].
Layering of current seasons growth in early summer[200].



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Re: Basketry: Plant used in making baskets and other items such as chairs. Includes plants that are only used as an ornamental addition.

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 14:45




Cladium mariscus -
(L.)Pohl.


Saw Grass



Author(L.)Pohl.
Botanical references17, 200

FamilyCyperaceae
GenusCladium
SynonymsCladium jamaicense - Crantz.

Mariscus mariscus - (L.)Borbás.


Known HazardsNone known

RangeWidely distributed in the warmer and damper parts of both hemispheres, including Britain.
HabitatReed swamps and fens, often forming dense pure stands, usually on neutral or alkaline soils[17].
Edibility Ratingapple icon 1 (1-5)
Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man

icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Perennial growing to 3m by 3m at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone 3. It is in flower from July to August, and the
seeds ripen from August to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite
(have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires moist or wet soil.


Habitats


Bog Garden;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Leaves.


The young shoots may be edible[177].


Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.


None known

Other Uses


Basketry; Thatching.


The stems are used in thatching[61].
The roots have been used to make small baskets[257].

Cultivation details



Succeeds in any wet or moisture-retentive soil in full sun or partial shade[200].

Propagation


Seed - best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in a pot
standing in 2cm of water[200]. When large enough to handle, prick the
seedlings out into individual pots and plant them out in the summer.
Division in spring[200].



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Re: Basketry: Plant used in making baskets and other items such as chairs. Includes plants that are only used as an ornamental addition.

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 14:44




Castanea sativa -
Mill.


Sweet Chestnut



AuthorMill.
Botanical references11, 100, 200

FamilyFagaceae
GenusCastanea
SynonymsCastanea vesca - Gaertn.

Castanea vulgaris - Lam.

Fagus castanea - L.



Known HazardsNone known
RangeS. Europe. Long naturalized in Britain[17].
HabitatWoods in mountains[100].
Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 5 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of evergreen tree
A decidious Tree growing to 30m by 15m at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone 5 and is frost tender. It is in flower in July, and
the seeds ripen in October. The flowers are monoecious (individual
flowers are either male or female, but both sexes can be found on the
same plant) and are pollinated by Bees.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay)
soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor
soil.
The plant prefers acid and neutral soils and can grow in very acid
soil.
It cannot grow in the shade.
It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.
The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Canopy;
Cultivars: (as above except)
'Canby Black'
'Marron de Lyon'
'Paragon'


Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Seed.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Sweetener.

Seed - raw or cooked[2, 4, 5, 9, 12, 34]. A somewhat astringent
taste raw, it improves considerably when cooked and is delicious baked
with a floury texture and a flavour rather like sweet potatoes[K]. The
seed is rich in carbohydrates, it can be dried, then ground and used as
a flour in breads, puddings, as a thickener in soups etc[7, 63, 132,
183].
The roasted seed can be used as a coffee substitute[183].
A sugar can be extracted from the seed[183].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.


Antiinflammatory; Astringent; Bach; Expectorant.


Although more commonly thought of as a food crop, sweet chestnut leaves
and bark are a good source of tannins and these have an astringent
action useful in the treatment of bleeding, diarrhoea etc.
The leaves and bark are anti-inflammatory, astringent, expectorant and
tonic[4, 7, 165]. They are harvested in June or July and can be used
fresh or dried[4]. An infusion has been used in the treatment of fevers
and ague, but are mainly employed for their efficacy in treating
convulsive coughs such as whooping cough and in other irritable
conditions of the respiratory system[4, 7]. The leaves can also be used
in the treatment of rheumatism, to ease lower back pains and to relieve
stiff muscles and joints[254]. A decoction is a useful gargle for
treating sore throats[254].
The plant is used in Bach flower remedies - the keywords for
prescribing it are 'Extreme mental anguish', Hopelessness' and
'Despair'[209].

Other Uses


Basketry; Fuel; Hair; Starch; Tannin; Wood.


Tannin is obtained from the bark[46, 223]. The wood, leaves and seed
husks also contain tannin[223]. The husks contain 10 - 13% tannin[223].
On a 10% moisture basis, the bark contains 6.8% tannin and the wood
13.4%[223].
The meal of the seed has been used as a source of starch and also for
whitening linen cloth[4].
A hair shampoo is made from the leaves and the skins of the fruits[7].
It imparts a golden gleam to the hair[7].
Wood - hard, strong, light. The young growing wood is very durable,
though older wood becomes brittle and liable to crack[4]. It is used
for carpentry, turnery, props, basketry, fence posts etc[4, 6, 7, 23,
46, 100]. A very good fuel[6].

Cultivation details



Prefers a good well-drained slightly acid loam in a sunny position but
it also succeeds in dry soils[1, 11, 200, 238]. Once established, it is
very drought tolerant[1, 11, 200, 238]. Plants are very tolerant of
highly acid, infertile dry sands[200]. Averse to calcareous soils but
succeeds on harder limestones[11, 200]. Tolerates maritime exposure
though it is slower growing in such a position[75].
The dormant plant is very cold-hardy in Britain, though the young
growth in spring, even on mature plants, is frost-tender[K].
The sweet chestnut is often cultivated for its edible seed in warm
temperate zones, there are several named varieties[46, 183]. Both
'Marron de Lyon' and 'Paragon' produce fruits with a single large
kernel (rather than 2 - 4 smaller kernels) and so are preferred for
commercial production[238]. Sweet chestnuts require a warm dry summer
in order to ripen their fruit properly in Britain[63] and even then
these seeds are generally inferior in size and quality to seeds grown
in continental climates[4].
Most species in this genus are not very well adapted for the cooler
maritime climate of Britain, preferring hotter summers, but this
species grows well here[11, 200].
An excellent soil-enriching understorey in pine forests[200].
Flowers are produced on wood of the current year's growth[229] and they
are very attractive to bees[7].. Plants are fairly self-sterile[200].
They hybridize freely with other members of this genus[200].
At one time this tree was widely grown in coppiced woodlands for its
wood, but the practise of coppicing has fallen into virtual disuse[11].
Trees regrow very quickly after being cut down, producing utilizable
timber every 10 years.
This species is not often seen in Cornwall though it grows very well
there[59].
Trees take 30 years from seed to come into bearing[98].
Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200].

Propagation



Seed - where possible sow the seed as soon as it is ripe in a cold
frame or in a seed bed outdoors[78]. The seed must be protected from
mice and squirrels. The seed has a short viability and must not be
allowed to become dry. It can be stored in a cool place, such as the
salad compartment of a fridge, for a few months if it is kept moist,
but check regularly for signs of germination. The seed should germinate
in late winter or early spring. If sown in an outdoor seedbed, the
plants can be left in situ for 1 - 2 years before planting them out in
their permanent positions. If grown in pots, the plants can be put out
into their permanent positions in the summer or autumn, making sure to
give them some protection from the cold in their first winter[K].

Cultivars


'Canby Black'
The large and very flavourful nuts peel easily[183].
A large spreading tree, in Oregon it regularly produces 180 - 200 kilos of nuts each year[183].
'Glaberrima'
The tree would appear to be somewhat smaller than the species, a 50
year old specimen was about 10 metres tall and 6 metres wide[K].
A tree seen at Kew in October 1998 had produced a very good crop of
seed that was much larger than the wild species, comparable in size to
the cultivar 'Marron de Lyon'[K].
'Marron de Lyon'
A large round light-coloured nut of excellent flavour[183].
Trees bear at an early age[183]. They produce fruits with a single
large kernel (rather than 2 - 4 smaller kernels) and so are preferred
for commercial production[238].
'Paragon'
This cultivar produces fruits with a single large kernel (rather
than 2 - 4 smaller kernels) and so is preferred for commercial
production[238].

Links


This plant is also mentioned in the following PFAF articles:
Staple seed crops from perennials., Why Perennials, Woodland Garden Plants.



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Re: Basketry: Plant used in making baskets and other items such as chairs. Includes plants that are only used as an ornamental addition.

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 14:41




Calluna vulgaris -
(L.)Hull.


Heather



Author(L.)Hull.
Botanical references11, 17, 200

FamilyEricaceae
GenusCalluna
SynonymsErica vulgaris - L.


Known HazardsNone known
RangeMuch of Europe, including Britain, to N. W. Morocco. Less abundant in the east of its range..

HabitatAcid soils in open woodlands, moors and marshy ground[7]. Often the dominant plant on well-drained acid moors and heaths[17].
Edibility Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of shrub
An evergreen Shrub growing to 0.6m by 0.5m.

It is hardy to zone 4. It is in leaf all year, in flower from July to
October, and the seeds ripen from October to November. The flowers are
hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by
Bees, flies, Lepidoptera (Moths & Butterflies), wind.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and can grow in nutritionally poor soil.
The plant prefers acid soils and can grow in very acid soil.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires dry or moist soil.
The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; Ground Cover; Hedge;

Edible Uses


Edible Uses: Condiment; Tea.


A tea is made from the flowering stems[177, 183].
A kind of mead was once brewed from the flowers and the young shoots have been used instead of hops to flavour beer[7, 183].


Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antiseptic; Bach; Cholagogue; Depurative; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Expectorant; Sedative; Vasoconstrictor.


Heather has a long history of medicinal use in folk medicine. In
particular it is a good urinary antiseptic and diuretic, disinfecting
the urinary tract and mildly increasing urine production[254].
The flowering shoots are antiseptic, astringent, cholagogue,
depurative, diaphoretic, diuretic, expectorant, mildly sedative and
vasoconstrictor[7, 8, 9, 21, 165, 238]. The plant is often macerated
and made into a liniment for treating rheumatism and arthritis, whilst
a hot poultice is a traditional remedy for chilblains[7, 254]. An
infusion of the flowering shoots is used in the treatment of coughs,
colds, bladder and kidney disorders, cystitis etc[9, 238, 254]. A
cleansing and detoxifying plant, it has been used in the treatment of
rheumatism, arthritis and gout[254]. The flowering stems are harvested
in the autumn and dried for later use[7].
The plant is used in Bach flower remedies - the keywords for
prescribing it are 'Self-centredness' and 'Self-concern'[209].
A homeopathic remedy is made from the fresh branches[9]. It is used in
the treatment of rheumatism, arthritis and insomnia[9].

Other Uses


Basketry; Besom; Dye; Fuel; Ground cover; Hedge; Insulation; Musical; Tannin; Thatching.


The branches have many uses, including in thatching, as a bedding or a
stuffing for mattresses, for insulation, basketry, rope making and for
making brooms[6, 7, 11, 46, 61, 66, 100, 254].
The dried branches are a good fuel[6, 66].
The rootstock can be made into musical pipes[254].
A yellow dye is obtained from the plant[7, 46, 61].
The bark is a source of tannin[46].
Heather can be grown as a low hedge and is quite useful as an edging to
beds. It is fairly amenable to trimming[29].
A useful ground cover plant for covering dry banks[188, 197]. The
cultivar 'White Lawn' has been recommended[188]. All except the very
dwarf cultivars will need trimming each spring in order to keep them
compact[208].

Cultivation details



Requires a light acid soil and a sunny position[138, 182]. Prefers a
sunny position but tolerates light shade[186]. Only succeeds if the pH
is below 6.5[186]. Prefers a poor peaty soil[11]. Plants are tolerant
of fairly dry soils but they dislike prolonged drought[186]. They
tolerate wet conditions in the winter[238].
Plants regenerate well from the base after a fire if the heat was not
too great, if the fire was slow and intense then new seedlings will
quickly become established[186].
Commonly grown in the ornamental garden, there are many named
varieties[200, 238].
The flowers are rich in nectar and are very attractive to bees,
butterflies and moths[7, 11, 30]. This plant is also an important food
source for the caterpillars of many lepidoptera[30].

Propagation



Seed - sow as soon as it is ripe or in February in a shaded part of the
greenhouse[78, 113]. Surface sow or only just cover the seed[113, 138].
Cold stratification for 4 - 20 weeks aids germination[138]. The seed
usually germinates in 1 - 2 months at 20°c. When large enough to
handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on
in the greenhouse for at least their first winter, planting them out
into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after
the last expected frosts.
Cuttings of half-ripe wood 4 - 5cm with a heel, July/August in a frame.
Good percentage[78].
Cuttings of mature wood of the current season's growth, 5 - 7cm with a
heel, October/November in a frame. Good percentage[78].
Layering in autumn[78].
Division in spring. Dig up the plant 12 months prior to division and
replant it 15 - 30cm deeper in the soil in order to encourage rooting
along the stems. When ready to take the divisions, it is just a matter
of digging up the plant and cutting off sections of stem with roots on
them. These are best potted up and kept in a cold frame or greenhouse
until they are well rooted before planting them out in the summer or
following spring.

Cultivars


'White Lawn'
This cultivar has been recommended as a useful ground cover plant for covering dry banks[188, 197].



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Re: Basketry: Plant used in making baskets and other items such as chairs. Includes plants that are only used as an ornamental addition.

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 14:39




Anthoxanthum odoratum -
L.


Sweet Vernal Grass



AuthorL.
Botanical references17

FamilyGramineae
GenusAnthoxanthum
Synonyms

Known Hazardswarning signThe
plant contains coumarins, this is what gives it the scent of newly mown
hay. When used internally, especially from dried plants, it can act to
prevent the blood from co-aggulating[13].
RangeMost of Europe, including Britain, south and east to N. Africa and W. Asia.
HabitatMeadows, woodland margins, heaths and moors on acid and basic soils[9, 17].

Edibility Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Perennial growing to 0.45m by 0.3m.
It is hardy to zone 0 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from
April to June, and the seeds ripen from May to July. The flowers are
hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by
Wind.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It cannot grow in the shade.
It requires dry or moist soil.


Habitats



Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Meadow; Cultivated Beds;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Seed.

Edible Uses: Tea.

Seed[105, 177]. The seed is very small and its use would be
fiddly[K].
A tea is made from the fresh or dried leaves[144]. A sweet pleasant
fragrance[183]. Some caution is advised, see notes at top of the page.

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Anticoagulant; Antispasmodic; Stimulant.


The whole plant, and especially the flowering stems, is anticoagulant,
antispasmodic and stimulant[9, 13]. It is normally only applied
externally, where it is used in the treatment of rheumatic pain,
chilblains, nervous insomnia etc[9].
It is said that a tincture made from this grass with spirit of wine is
an effective and immediate cure for hay fever[4, 240].

Other Uses


Basketry; Pot-pourri; Strewing.


The aromatic leaves and dried flowers are used as a strewing herb, they
are also woven into baskets[169, 257] and used in pot-pourri[238].
The plant contains coumarin - this is used medicinally and also in rat
poisons where it prevents the blood from co-aggulating and thus means
that the slightest cut can kill the rat[13].

Scented Plants



Plant: Dried
The dried plant releases a strong and pesistant fragrance with a
refreshing pungent smell that is difficult to describe but is somewhat
like newly-mown hay.

Cultivation details



Succeeds in most soils[200]. Dislikes shade.
This is one of the earliest grasses to flower in the year, it produces
a lot of pollen and is a major irritant to people who suffer from hay
fever[4].
The dried plant releases a strong and persistent fragrance with a
refreshing pungent smell that is difficult to describe but is somewhat
like newly-mown hay[245].

Propagation



Seed - sow April in situ, only just covering the seed. The seed usually
germinates in 2 - 3 weeks[134].
Division in spring. Very easy, it can be done successfully at almost
any time of the year, though it is best to pot up the divisions in a
cold frame if you are doing it outside the growing season.



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Re: Basketry: Plant used in making baskets and other items such as chairs. Includes plants that are only used as an ornamental addition.

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 14:37




Ammophila arenaria -
(L.)Link.


Marram Grass



Author(L.)Link.
Botanical references17, 200

FamilyGramineae
GenusAmmophila
SynonymsAmmophila arundinacea - Host.

Psamma arenaria - (L.)Roem.&Schult.



Known HazardsNone known
RangeW. Europe, including Britain.
HabitatSand dunes by the coast[17].
Edibility Ratingapple icon 1 (1-5)
Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics




icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Perennial growing to 1.2m.
It is hardy to zone 5. It is in flower from July to August, and the
seeds ripen from August to September. The flowers are hermaphrodite
(have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid soil.
It cannot grow in the shade.
It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought.
The plant can tolerate maritime exposure.


Habitats


Cultivated Beds;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Root.


Root[74]. No more details, but the root is rather thin and fibrous[K].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.


None known

Other Uses


Basketry; Broom; Fibre; Paper; Soil stabilization; Thatching; Weaving.


The flowering stems and leaves are used for thatching, in basketry,
making brooms etc[61, 66, 100].
The rhizomes are used for making rope and mats[115].
A fibre obtained from the stems is used for making paper[189]. The
stems are harvested in the summer, cut into usable pieces and soaked
for 24 hours in clear water before cooking for 2 hours with soda ash.
Beat the fibres in a ball mill for 1½ hours. The fibres make a
tan-brown paper[189].
This plant has an extensive root system and grows naturally in sand
dunes along the coast where it is very important for its action of
binding the dunes and therefore allowing other plants to grow. It is
much planted in sand dunes and other similar habitats for erosion
control[200].

Cultivation details



Requires a sunny position in a light well-drained soil. Very tolerant
of severe maritime exposure[17]. Tolerates a pH in the range 4.5 to 6.8.

Propagation



Seed - sow in pots outdoors as soon as it is ripe or sow in situ during March/April.
Division in spring or autumn


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Basketry: Plant used in making baskets and other items such as chairs. Includes plants that are only used as an ornamental addition.

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 14:35






Acorus calamus -
L.


Sweet Flag



AuthorL.
Botanical references200, 266

FamilyAraceae
GenusAcorus
Synonyms

Known Hazardswarning signThe
fresh root can be poisonous[7].
When using the plant medicinally, the isolated essential oil should not
be used[165]. The essential oil in the roots of some populations of
this plant contains the compound asarone. This has tranquillising and
antibiotic activity, but is also potentially toxic and
carcinogenic[218, 238]. It seems that these compounds are found in the
triploid form of the species (found in Asia) whilst the diploid form
(found in N. America and Siberia) is free of the compounds[218, 238].
However, the root (but not the isolated essential oil) has been used in
India for thousands of years without reports of cancer which suggests
that using the whole herb is completely safe, though more research is
needed[254].
RangeEurope, Asia and N. America. Naturalized in Britain[17].
HabitatFound in moist soils and shallow water in ditches, marshes, river edges and ponds[1, 100, 187, 244].

Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 4 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Perennial growing to 1m by 1m.
It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in flower from May
to July, and the seeds ripen from July to August. The flowers are
hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by
Insects.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It cannot grow in the shade.
It requires wet soil and can grow in water.


Habitats



Pond; Bog Garden;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Leaves; Root; Stem.

Edible Uses: Condiment.

The rhizome is candied and made into a sweetmeat[2, 4, 13, 55, 62,
115, 183]. It can be peeled and washed to remove the bitterness and
then eaten raw like a fruit[106, 179]. It makes a palatable vegetable
when roasted[192] and can also be used as a flavouring[61]. Rich in
starch, the root contains about 1% of an essential oil that is used as
a food flavouring[1, 13, 57]. The root also contains a bitter
glycoside[179]. Some caution is advised, see the notes above on
toxicity.
The dried and powdered rhizome has a spicy flavour and is used as a
substitute for ginger, cinnamon and nutmeg[4, 55, 142, 177, 183]. A
pinch of the powdered rhizome is used as a flovouring in tea[272].
The young and tender inflorescence is often eaten by children for its
sweetness[4].
Young leaves - cooked[55]. The fresh leaves contain 0.078% oxalic
acid[240]. The leaves can be used to flavour custards in the same way
as vanilla pods[244].
The inner portion of young stems is eaten raw[62]. It makes a very
palatable salad[183].


Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Abortifacient; Anodyne; Aphrodisiac; Aromatic; Carminative; Diaphoretic; Emmenagogue; Febrifuge; Hallucinogenic; Homeopathy; Odontalgic; Sedative; Stimulant; Stomachic; Tonic; Vermifuge.


Sweet flag has a very long history of medicinal use in many herbal
traditions. It is widely employed in modern herbal medicine as an
aromatic stimulant and mild tonic[4]. In Ayurveda it is highly valued
as a rejuvenator for the brain and nervous system and as a remedy for
digestive disorders[254]. However, some care should be taken in its use
since some forms of the plant might be carcinogenic - see the notes
above on toxicity for more information.
The root is anodyne, aphrodisiac, aromatic, carminative, diaphoretic,
emmenagogue, expectorant, febrifuge, hallucinogenic, hypotensive,
sedative, stimulant, stomachic, mildly tonic and vermifuge[4, 7, 9, 21,
147, 165, 213, 240, 279]. It is used internally in the treatment of
digestive complaints, bronchitis, sinusitis etc[238]. It is said to
have wonderfully tonic powers of stimulating and normalizing the
appetite. In small doses it reduces stomach acidity whilst larger doses
increase stomach secretions[254] and it is, therefore, recommended in
the treatment of anorexia nervosa[244]. However if the dose is too
large it will cause nausea and vomiting[K]. Sweet flag is also used
externally to treat skin eruptions, rheumatic pains and neuralgia[238].
An infusion of the root can bring about an abortion[213] whilst chewing
the root alleviates toothache[213]. It is a folk remedy for arthritis,
cancer, convulsions, diarrhoea, dyspepsia, epilepsy etc. Chewing the
root is said to kill the taste for tobacco[218]. Roots 2 - 3 years old
are used since older roots tend to become tough and hollow[4]. They are
harvested in late autumn or early spring and are dried for later
use[4]. The dry root loses 70% of its weight, but has an improved smell
and taste[244]. It does, however, deteriorate if stored for too
long[244].
Caution is advised on the use of this root, especially in the form of
the distilled essential oil, since large doses can cause mild
hallucinations[192]. See also the notes above on toxicity.
A homeopathic remedy is made from the roots[9]. It is used in the
treatment of flatulence, dyspepsia, anorexia and disorders of the gall
bladder[9].

Other Uses


Basketry; Incense; Insecticide; Repellent; Strewing; Thatching; Weaving.


The leaves are used in basket making or woven into mats[169]. They have
also been used as a thatch for roofs[4].
An essential oil from the rhizome is used in perfumery and as a food
flavouring[1, 13, 57]. The oil is contained mainly in the outer skin of
the root[245], it has a fragrance reminiscent of patchouli oil[192].
The fresh roots yield about 1.5 - 3.5% essential oil, dried roots about
0.8%[4, 240]. Some plants from Japan have yielded 5% essential oil[4].
The essential oil is also an insect repellent and insecticide[218,
272]. It is effective against houseflies[240]. When added to rice being
stored in granaries it has significantly reduced loss caused by insect
damage because the oil in the root has sterilized the male rice
weevils[244].
An essential oil obtained from the leaves is used in perfumery and for
making aromatic vinegars[245].
The leaves and the root have a refreshing scent of cinnamon[245]. All
parts of plant can be dried and used to repel insects or to scent linen
cupboards[8, 14, 61]. They can also be burnt as an incense[14], whilst
the whole plant was formerly used as a strewing herb[4, 14, 115, 238].
The growing plant is said to repel mosquitoes[20, 201].

Scented Plants


Leaves: Crushed
A refreshing scent of cinnamon.
Root: Crushed
The root has a refreshing scent of cinnamon.

Cultivation details



Prefers growing in shallow water or in a very moist loamy soil[200].
Requires a sunny position[200]. Prefers a pH in the range 5.5 to 7.5.
Plants are hardy to about -25°c[187].
The sweet flag has a long history of use as a medicinal and culinary
plant. It has been cultivated for this purpose but was more commonly
allowed to naturalize and was then harvested from the wild.
The plant seldom flowers or sets seed in Britain and never does so
unless it is growing in water[4]. It can spread quite freely at the
roots however and soon becomes established.

Propagation



Seed - best sown in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe. Stand the pot
in about 3cm of water. Pot up young seedlings as soon as they are large
enough to handle, keep them wet by standing the pots in shallow water
and overwinter for the first year in a greenhouse or cold frame. Seed
is rarely produced in Britain[4, 17].
Division in spring just before growth starts[1]. Very easy, it can be
carried out successfully at any time in the growing season and can be
planted direct into its permanent positions


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Re: Basketry: Plant used in making baskets and other items such as chairs. Includes plants that are only used as an ornamental addition.

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