Beads: Used as necklaces, etc.

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Re: Beads: Used as necklaces, etc.

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 15:45




Berberis vulgaris -
L.


Barberry



AuthorL.
Botanical references11, 17, 200

FamilyBerberidaceae
GenusBerberis
Synonyms

Known HazardsNone known
RangeBarberry Coast. Naturalized, or possibly native, in Britain[17].
HabitatLight deciduous woodland, hedges, roadsides, clearings etc, preferring a sunny position and a chalky soil[9, 268].

Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



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icon of shrub
A decidious Shrub growing to 3m by 2m at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone 3 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf from March
to November, in flower from May to June, and the seeds ripen from
September to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and
female organs) and are pollinated by Insects.
The plant is self-fertile.
It is noted for attracting wildlife.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay and nutritionally poor soils.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires dry or moist soil.


Habitats



Woodland Garden; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; Hedge;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Fruit; Leaves.

Edible Uses: Condiment; Tea.

Fruit - raw or cooked[2, 3, 5, 7, 9, 11, 95, 183]. Rich in vitamin
C[268], the fruit has a very acid flavour and is mainly used in
preserves[100], though children and some adults seem to like it raw
when it is fully ripe[K]. A refreshing lemon-like drink can be made
from the fruit[183]. The fruits are about 10mm long[200].
Young leaves - used as a flavouring or as an acid nibble[177, 183].
They can be used in much the same way as sorrel (Rumex acetosa)[9].
The dried young leaves and shoot tips make a refreshing tea[9, 183].


Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antibacterial; Antipruritic; Antirheumatic; Antiseptic; Appetizer; Astringent; Cancer; Cholagogue; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Expectorant; Hepatic; Homeopathy; Laxative; Ophthalmic; Purgative; Refrigerant; Stomachic; Tonic.


Barberries have long been used as a herbal remedy for the treatment of
a variety of complaints. All parts of the plant can be used though the
yellow root bark is the most concentrated source of active ingredients.
The plant is mainly used nowadays as a tonic to the gallbladder to
improve the flow of bile and ameliorate conditions such as gallbladder
pain, gallstones and jaundice[254].
The bark and root bark are antiseptic, astringent, cholagogue, hepatic,
purgative, refrigerant, stomachic and tonic[4, 7, 9, 21, 46, 165, 222].
The bark is harvested in the summer and can be dried for storing[4]. It
is especially useful in cases of jaundice, general debility and
biliousness[4], but should be used with caution[165].
The flowers and the stem bark are antirheumatic[218].
The roots are astringent and antiseptic[222]. They have been pulverized
in a little water and used to treat mouth ulcers[213]. A tea of the
roots and stems has been used to treat stomach ulcers[213]. The root
bark has also been used as a purgative and treatment for diarrhoea[213]
and is diaphoretic[222]. A tincture of the root bark has been used in
the treatment of rheumatism, sciatica etc[222]. The root bark is a rich
source of the alkaloid berberine (about 6%)[240].
Berberine, universally present in rhizomes of Berberis species, has
marked antibacterial effects. Since it is not appreciably absorbed by
the body, it is used orally in the treatment of various enteric
infections, especially bacterial dysentery[218]. It should not be used
with Glycyrrhiza species (Liquorice) because this nullifies the effects
of the berberine[218]. Berberine has also shown antitumour
activity[218] and is also effective in the treatment of hypersensitive
eyes, inflamed lids and conjunctivitis[244].
A tea made from the fruits is antipruritic, antiseptic, appetizer,
astringent, diuretic, expectorant and laxative[7, 222]. It is also used
as a febrifuge[213]. The fruit, or freshly pressed juice, is used in
the treatment of liver and gall bladder problems, kidney stones,
menstrual pains etc[9].
The leaves are astringent and antiscorbutic[7]. A tea made from the
leaves is used in the treatment of coughs[222].
The plant (probably the inner bark) is used by homeopaths as a valuable
remedy for kidney and liver insufficiency[244].

Other Uses


Beads; Dye; Fuel; Hedge; Wood.


Plants can be grown as a medium-size hedge in exposed positions but
they cannot tolerate extreme maritime exposure[75]. They are very
tolerant of trimming but can also be left untrimmed if required[K].
A good quality yellow dye is obtained from the roots, bark and stem[4,
13, 46, 100, 244]. As well as being used on cloth, it is also used to
stain wood[244].
The unripe fruit is dried and used as beads[106].
Wood - soft, very hard, fine grained, yellow. Used for carving,
toothpicks, mosaics etc[13, 46, 61]. It is also used as a fuel[146].

Cultivation details



Prefers a warm moist loamy soil but it is by no means fastidious,
succeeding in thin, dry and shallow soils[11, 200]. Prefers a light
rich rather dry soil according to another report[37]. Grows well in
heavy clay soils. Succeeds in full sun or light shade[11. 200] but
requires a moist soil when grown in the shade of trees[14].
Hardy to about -35°c[184].
A very ornamental plant[11], the barberry was at one time cultivated
for its edible fruit, there are several named varieties[11, 200].
'Dulcis' the fruit of which is sweet or slightly sour[200]. 'Asperma'
is a seedless form that was often used in France to make a jam[182,
183].
An alternate host of 'black-stem rust' of wheat so it has been
extensively grubbed up from its habitats[3, 11, 13, 74].
Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[1], though it
usually breeds fairly true to type[80]. Can be pruned back quite
severely, it resprouts well from the base[200].

Propagation



Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in a cold frame, when it should
germinate in late winter or early spring[78]. Seed from over-ripe fruit
will take longer to germinate[78], whilst stored seed may require cold
stratification and should be sown in a cold frame as early in the year
as possible[80]. The seedlings are subject to damping off, so should be
kept well ventilated[113]. When the seedlings are large enough to
handle, prick them out into individual pots and grow them on in a cold
frame. If growth is sufficient, it can be possible to plant them out
into their permanent positions in the autumn, but generally it is best
to leave them in the cold frame for the winter and plant them out in
late spring or early summer of the following year. Germination averages
out at about 90%[98, 113].
Cuttings of half-ripe wood, July/August in a frame.
Cuttings of mature wood of the current season's growth, preferably with
a heel, October/November in a frame[78].
Suckers, removed in late autumn/early winter and planted out in situ or
potted up and planted out in late spring[3, 200].

Cultivars


'Asperma'
A seedless form that was often used in France to make a jam[182, 183]. It is quite possibly lost to cultivation[K].
'Dulcis'
The fruit of this form is sweet or slightly sour[200



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Beads: Used as necklaces, etc.

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 15:42






Arctostaphylos uva-ursi -
(L.)Spreng.


Bearberry



Author(L.)Spreng.
Botanical references11, 17, 200

FamilyEricaceae
GenusArctostaphylos
SynonymsArbutus uva-ursi - L.

Uva-ursi uva-ursi - (L.)Britt.


Known Hazardswarning signThis plant is best not used by pregnant women since it can reduce the supply of blood to the foetus[172].

RangeBritain. Northern N. America. N. Europe. N. Asia.
HabitatDry
open woods, often on gravelly or sandy soils[212]. It is also found on
sand dunes along the coast[212] and is also found on limestone in the
European Alps.
Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 4 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man

icon of shrub
An evergreen Shrub growing to 0.1m by 1m at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone 4 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf all year,
in flower from April to July, and the seeds ripen from July to
September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female
organs) and are pollinated by Bees.
The plant is self-fertile.

The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very acid soil.
It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires moist soil.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Shady Edge; Ground Cover;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Fruit.

Edible Uses: Tea.


Fruit - raw or cooked[3, 7, 8, 62, 161, 257]. Insipid, dry and
mealy[4, 101, 183], it becomes sweeter when cooked[212]. Added to stews
etc, it is a good source of carbohydrates[101]. The fruit can also be
used to make a cooling drink or used for preserves etc[161, 183]. It
can be dried and stored for later use[257]. The fruit is about 6mm in
diameter[200].
A tea is made from the dried leaves[177, 183].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antiseptic; Astringent; Birthing aid; Diuretic; Hypnotic; Kidney; Lithontripic; Poultice; Skin; Tonic; Women's complaints.


Bearberry was commonly used by many native North American Indian tribes
to treat a wide range of complaints and has also been used in
conventional herbal medicine for hundreds of years, it is one of the
best natural urinary antiseptics[254]. The leaves contain hydroquinones
and are strongly antibacterial, especially against certain organisms
associated with urinary infections[238]. The plant should be used with
caution, however, because hydroquinones are also toxic[222].
The leaves are antiseptic, astringent, diuretic, lithontripic, hypnotic
and tonic[7, 9, 21, 102, 165, 172, 192]. The dried leaves are used in
the treatment of a variety of complaints[4]. These leaves should be
harvested in early autumn, only green leaves being selected, and then
dried in gentle heat[4]. A tea made from the dried leaves is much used
for kidney and bladder complaints and inflammations of the urinary
tract such as acute and chronic cystitis and urethritis, but it should
be used with caution and preferably only under the supervision of a
qualified practitioner[4, 21, 46, 172, 222, 254]. The tea is more
effective if the urine is alkaline, thus it is best used in combination
with a vegetable-based diet[254]. Externally, a poultice of the infused
leaves with oil has been used as a salve to treat rashes, skin sores
etc, and as a wash for a baby's head[257]. An infusion of the leaves
has been used as an eyewash, a mouthwash for cankers and sore gums and
as a poultice for back pains, rheumatism, burns etc[257].
The dried leaves have been used for smoking as an alternative to
tobacco[238]. One report says that it is unclear whether this was for
medicinal purposes or for the intoxicated state it could produce[192],
whilst another says that the leaves were smoked to treat headaches and
also as a narcotic[257].
The herb should not be prescribed to children, pregnant women or
patients with kidney disease[238]. Another report says that some native
North American Indian tribes used an infusion of the stems, combined
with blueberry stems (Vaccinium spp) to prevent miscarriage without
causing harm to the baby, and to speed a woman's recovery after the
birth[257].

Other Uses


Beads; Dye; Ground cover; Pioneer; Soil stabilization; Tannin; Waterproofing.


A yellowish-brown dye is obtained from the leaves[57, 101], it does not
require a mordant[168].
A grey-brown dye is obtained from the fruit[257].
The dried fruits are used in rattles and as beads on necklaces etc[99,
257].
The leaves are a good source of tannin[46, 61, 212].
The mashed berries can be rubbed on the insides of coiled cedar root
baskets in order to waterproof them[257].
A good ground-cover for steep sandy banks in a sunny position[188, 200]
or in light shade[197]. A carpeting plant, growing fairly fast and
carpeting as it spreads[208]. It is valuable for checking soil erosion
on watersheds[212]. This is also a pioneer plant in the wild, often
being the first plant to colonize burnt-over areas, especially on poor
soils[155].

Cultivation details



Requires a deep moist well-drained light or medium lime-free loam in
sun or semi-shade[3, 11, 200]. One report says that this species
succeeds in alkaline soils[182] (a rather surprising comment
considering the general needs of the genus - it is more likely that the
plant can grow on limestone so long as the soil remains acid[K]).Shade
tolerant[31] but plants produce less fruit when they are grown in the
shade[200]. Prefers a cool damp position.
A very ornamental plant, it is sometimes cultivated for its medicinal
uses[1]. There are a number of named varieties developed for their
ornamental interest[200]. The form 'Massachusetts' is an especially
prostrate, free-flowering and free-fruiting form[183]. 'Anchor Bay',
'Point Reyes' and 'Vulcan's Peak' have all been mentioned as good
groundcover forms[200].
This is one of the first plants to colonize bare and rocky ground and
burnt over areas[155]. It is often an indicator of poor soils in the
wild[212].
Plants resent root disturbance and should be placed in their final
positions as soon as possible[11, 134].
Hybridizes with other members of this genus, especially A. columbiana.

Propagation



Seed - best sown in a greenhouse as soon as it is ripe. Pre-soak dried
seed in boiling water for 10 - 20 seconds or burn some straw on top of
them and then stratify at 2 - 5°c for 2 months[11, 200]. The seed
usually germinates in 2 - 3 months at 15°c[134]. When large enough to
handle, prick the seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on
in a cold frame or greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant
out in late spring or early summer.
Cuttings of side shoots of the current season's growth, 5 - 8cm with a
heel, August to December in a frame. The cuttings are very slow and can
take a year to root[1, 78].
Division in early spring. Take care because the plant resents root
disturbance. Pot the divisions up and keep them in a lightly shaded
position in a cold frame or greenhouse until they are growing away
actively.
Layering of long branches in early spring[200, 238].



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