For Waterproof Roofing

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Waterproof Roofing (More)

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 06:13




Gunnera tinctoria -
(Molina.)Mirb.


Gunnera















Author(Molina.)Mirb.Botanical references200
FamilyGunneraceaeGenusGunnera
SynonymsGunnera chilensis - Lam.

Gunnera scabra - Ruiz.&Pav.

Known HazardsNone known
RangeS. America - Chile.
HabitatMoist soils by lakes and rivers of the Central Provinces[139].
Edibility Ratingapple icon 1 (1-5)Medicinal Ratingapple icon 1 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics




icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Perennial growing to 2m.
It is hardy to zone 7 and is frost tender. It is in flower from July to
August. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs)
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires moist soil.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Meadow; Bog Garden;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Stem.


Young leaf stalks - peeled and cooked as a vegetable or eaten raw[2, 177, 183]. Acid and refreshing[139].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Astringent.


The whole plant is astringent[139].

Other Uses


Dye; Roofing; Tannin.


A black dye is obtained from the root[139].
The root contains 9% tannin[46, 139].
Leaves are used as a roof covering[139].

Cultivation details



Requires a damp humus rich soil in a sunny position or semi-shade,
sheltered from strong winds. Plants can be grown in quite coarse grass,
which can be cut annually in the autumn[233].
The rootstock is rather tender, surviving to -10°c and requiring some
protection away from the milder parts of Britain. This can be achieved
by piling either bracken or the plants dying leaves around the
crown[187].
The top part of the inflorescence is male, the bottom is female and the
middle is hermaphrodite.
A very ornamental plant with huge leaves, it forms a slowly spreading
dense clump[187].
Members of this genus are rarely if ever troubled by browsing deer[233].

Propagation



Seed - best sown as soon as it is ripe in the autumn in a sandy mix in
a cold frame. The seed can also be sown in a shady position in a
greenhouse in the spring. Germination usually takes place within 2 - 8
weeks at 15°c. When they are large enough to handle, prick the
seedlings out into individual pots and grow them on in the greenhouse
for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent
positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected
frosts.
Division as new growth commences in the spring. The clumps can be
planted out direct into their permanent positions


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For Waterproof Roofing

Post by wannabemountainman on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 06:09






Abies grandis -
(Douglas. ex D.Don.)Lindl.


Grand Fir















Author(Douglas. ex D.Don.)Lindl.Botanical references11, 60, 200
FamilyPinaceaeGenusAbies
SynonymsAbies excelsior - Franco.

Known HazardsNone known
RangeWestern N. America - British Columbia to California, east to Montana and Idaho.
HabitatFound
in a variety of soils, but the best specimens are growing in deep rich
alluvial soils[229] It ranges from the coast to inland elevations of
about 2000 metres if growing by streams[60, 82].
Edibility Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple icon 2 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of decid tree
An evergreen Tree growing to 75m by 8m at a fast rate.

It is hardy to zone 6 and is not frost tender. It is in leaf all year,
and the seeds ripen from September to October. The flowers are
monoecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but both
sexes can be found on the same plant) and are pollinated by Wind.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and can grow in heavy clay soil.
The plant prefers acid and neutral soils.
It can grow in full shade (deep woodland) semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires moist soil.
The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.
It cannot tolerate atmospheric pollution.


Habitats


Woodland Garden; Canopy; Deep Shade;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Inner bark.

Edible Uses: Drink; Gum; Tea.


Inner bark - cooked. It is usually dried, ground into a powder and
then used as a thickening in soups etc or mixed with cereals when
making bread[161]. It is best used in the spring when it is rich and
juicy[213]. An emergency food, it is only used when all else
fails[183].
The gum from the trunk is hardened (probably in cold water[K]) and used
as a chewing gum[257]. It can also be made into a drink[257].
Young shoot tips are used as a tea substitute[183, 257].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antirheumatic; Laxative; Ophthalmic; Skin; Stomachic; TB; Tonic.


A gum that exudes from the bark is used externally as an ointment[245].
It has also been used as a wash for sore and infected eyes and as a
gargle for sore throats[257]. A decoction is laxative and tonic, it is
used to treat stomach problems[257]. Externally, the gum is applied as
a poultice to cuts and sores[257].
A decoction of the root bark or stem is used in the treatment of
stomach problems and TB[257]. A poultice is applied to joints to ease
rheumatism or to the chest to treat lung haemorrhages[257].
A decoction of the leaves is used as a tonic and in the treatment of
colds[257].

Other Uses


Baby care; Dye; Incense; Repellent; Roofing; Wood.


The aromatic leaves are used as a moth repellent[169]. The boughs have
been used in the home as an incense[257].
A pink dye can be obtained from the bark[226].
The dried and hardened pitch can be chewed as a tooth cleanser[257].
A powder made from the dried and crushed leaves was used as a baby
powder by the N. American Indians[226].
The bark can be used as a waterproof covering material for buildings
and canoes[257].
Wood - light, soft, coarse grained, not strong, not very durable. Used
for interior work, cases, etc[46, 61, 82]. Of little value as a lumber,
it is used mainly for pulp and fuel[229, 257].

Scented Plants


Leaves: Fresh Crushed
The crushed leaves have a fruity orange-flavoured aroma. The growing plant exudes a pungent, balsamic fragrance.

Cultivation details



Prefers a good moist but not water-logged soil[1]. Grows well in heavy
clay soils and succeeds in poor sandy soils[185]. Very shade tolerant,
especially when young, but growth is slower in dense shade[81].
Intolerant of atmospheric pollution[1]. Trees succeeds in very exposed
positions, even if the top is blown out by the wind the trees make one
or more new tops and continue growing with no loss of vigour[11, 185].
Prefers slightly acid conditions down to a pH of about 5[200]. Prefers
growing on a north-facing slope[200].
This species thrives exceedingly well in the moister parts of Britain,
where it grows very quickly[11]. It is cultivated for timber in W. and
N. Europe[50]. Trees are slow growing for the first few years but they
are then quite fast with trees growing 60 - 100cm in height and 8cm in
girth per year even when they are quite large[1, 185]. New growth takes
place from early May to July[185]. Trees grow best in the Perthshire
valleys of Scotland and in the far west of Britain[11]. Some trees have
reached heights in excess of 60 metres in 100 years in Wales and
Scotland, making them amongst the tallest trees in Europe[200].
A very ornamental plant[1], it is rarely harmed by disease, insects or
frost[1]. The crushed leaves have a fruity orange-flavoured aroma[185].
Trees should be planted into their permanent positions when they are
quite small, between 30 and 90cm in height. Larger trees will check
badly and hardly put on any growth for several years. This also badly
affects root development and wind resistance[200].
Plants are strongly outbreeding, self-fertilized seed usually grows
poorly[200]. They hybridize freely with other members of this
genus[200].

Propagation



Seed - sow early February in a greenhouse or outdoors in March[78].
Germination is often poor, usually taking about 6 - 8 weeks[78].
Stratification is said to produce a more even germination so it is
probably best to sow the seed in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe in
the autumn[80, 113]. The seed remains viable for up to 5 years if it is
well stored[113]. When large enough to handle, prick the seedlings out
into individual pots and grow them on for at least their first winter
in pots. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring
or early summer, after the last expected frosts.
Alternatively, if you have sufficient seed, it is possible to sow in an
outdoor seedbed. One report says that it is best to grow the seedlings
on in the shade at a density of about 550 plants per square metre[78]
whilst another report says that they are best grown on in a sunny
position[80].



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Posts : 432
Join date : 2009-07-12
Age : 68
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