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Coffee Substitutes

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 02:38

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Ugni molinae - Turcz.
Uñi
Author Turcz. Botanical references 11, 200
Family Myrtaceae Genus Ugni
Synonyms Eugenia ugni - (Molina.)Hook.f.
Myrtus ugni - Molina.
Known Hazards None known
Range S. America - Chile.
Habitat Woodland edges and scrub[11, 184].
Edibility Rating apple iconapple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 5 (1-5) Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of shrub An evergreen Shrub growing to 2m by 1m at a medium rate.
It is hardy to zone 8 and is frost tender. It is in leaf all year, in flower from May to July, and the seeds ripen from August to October. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees. The plant is self-fertile. The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils. It cannot grow in the shade. It requires dry or moist soil and can tolerate drought. The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Hedge;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses: Coffee; Tea.
Fruit - raw or cooked[2, 3]. An absolutely delicious flavour, it is very aromatic and tastes of wild strawberries[11, 15, K]. The fruit is about 15mm in diameter[196] and is freely borne even on small plants[K]. Leaves are a tea substitute[177, 183]. The roasted seeds are a coffee substitute[183].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
None known
Other Uses
Hedge.
Tolerant of trimming, it can be grown as a small hedge in the milder parts of Britain[11].
Cultivation details
Succeeds in any reasonably good soil including[1] dry ones. Prefers a moderately fertile well-drained loam in a sunny position[11, 200]. Fairly tolerant of maritime exposure[K]. Established plants are drought resistant[196]. A very ornamental plant[1], it is only hardy in the milder parts of Britain[3], tolerating temperatures down to about -10°c when fully dormant[184]. The young growth in spring can be damaged by late frosts. Plants grow and fruit very well in Cornwall, indeed, in the past it has been cultivated commercially for its fruit there[11, 59] (it was one of Queen Victoria's favourite fruits), but is now normally only grown as an ornamental plant. This is a much underused plant that highly merits cultivation on a commercial scale for its fruit[K]. Flowers and fruits well even when the plants are young[11, 166]. Plants in this genus are notably resistant to honey fungus[200].
Propagation
Pre-soak the seed for 24 hours in warm water and then sow it in late winter in a greenhouse. Prick out the seedlings into individual pots as soon as they are large enough to handle and grow them on in the greenhouse for at least their first winter. Plant them out into their permanent positions in late spring or early summer, after the last expected frosts[K]. Cuttings of half-ripe wood, 7 - 10cm with a heel, July/August in a frame. Pot up in the autumn and overwinter in a cold frame. Plant out in late spring. High percentage[78]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current seasons growth, 7 - 12cm with a heel, November in a shaded and frost free frame. Plant out in late spring or early autumn. High percentage[78]. Layering.
Links
This plant is also mentioned in the following PFAF articles: The Woodland Edge Garden.
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.
[3] Simmons. A. E. Growing Unusual Fruit. David and Charles 1972 ISBN 0-7153-5531-7
A very readable book with information on about 100 species that can be grown in Britain (some in greenhouses) and details on how to grow and use them.
[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[15] Bryan. J. and Castle. C. Edible Ornamental Garden. Pitman Publishing 1976 ISBN 0-273-00098-5
A small book with interesting ideas for edible plants in the ornamental garden.
[59] Thurston. Trees and Shrubs in Cornwall. 0
Trees and shrubs that succeed in Cornwall based on the authors own observations. Good but rather dated.
[78] Sheat. W. G. Propagation of Trees, Shrubs and Conifers. MacMillan and Co 1948
A bit dated but a good book on propagation techniques with specific details for a wide range of plants.
[166] Taylor. J. The Milder Garden. Dent 1990
A good book on plants that you didn't know could be grown outdoors in Britain.
[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent. Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N. American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other nurseries from around the world.
[184] Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Shrubs. Pan Books 1989 ISBN 0-330-30258-2
Excellent photographs and a terse description of 1900 species and cultivars.
[196] Popenoe. H. et al Lost Crops of the Incas National Academy Press 1990 ISBN 0-309-04264-X
An excellent book. Very readable, with lots of information and good pictures of some lesser known food plants of S. America.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed

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Coprosma lucida - J.R.Forst.&G.Forst.

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 03:12

Coprosma lucida - J.R.Forst.&G.Forst.
Author J.R.Forst.&G.Forst. Botanical references 11, 44, 200
Family Rubiaceae Genus Coprosma
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Range New Zealand.
Habitat Forest and shrubby areas, especially marginal, to the montane zone. Found throughout New Zealand[44, 173].
Edibility Rating apple iconapple icon 2 (1-5) Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of shrub An evergreen Shrub growing to 5m.
It is hardy to zone 8. It is in leaf all year. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant is not self-fertile. The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; South Wall By; West Wall By;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses: Coffee.
Fruit - raw. Sweet and juicy[173], but with little flavour[225]. Dry weight is 3.3% protein, 8.1% sugar and 24.6% lipids[173]. The orange fruit is about 12mm in diameter[200, 225]. The roasted seed is an excellent coffee substitute[173].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
None known
Other Uses
Dye.
A yellow dye is obtained from the wood, it does not require a mordant[153].
Cultivation details
Requires a moist, very well-drained neutral to slightly acid soil in full sun or light shade[200]. Succeeds in most soils[225]. Somewhat intolerant of frost, this species is only likely to succeed outdoors in the milder areas of Britain[200]. Plants have proved to be nearly hardy in an Essex garden[225]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200, 225]. Plants are tolerant of heavy clipping or pruning[225]. Sometimes found as an epiphyte in the wild[44]. Plants are normally dioecious, though in some species the plants produce a few flowers of the opposite sex before the main flowering and a few hermaphrodite flowers are sometimes produced[225]. Male and female plants must usually be grown if seed is required.
Propagation
Seed - probably best sown as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse or cold frame[K]. Sow stored seed in spring in a cold frame[200]. Germination can be slow, often taking more than 12 months even when fresh seed is used[K]. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots. Grow on the plants for at least their first winter in a greenhouse and plant out in late spring or early summer. Give the plants some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors[K]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, autumn in a frame.
Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[44] Allan. H. H. Flora of New Zealand. Government Printer, Wellington. 1961
The standard work, in 3 volumes though only the first two are of interest to the plant project. Very good on habitats.
[153] Brooker. S. G., Cambie. R. C. and Cooper. R. C. Economic Native Plants of New Zealand. Oxford University Press 1991 ISBN 0-19-558229-2
An interesting and readable book on the useful plants of New Zealand.
[173] Crowe. A. Native Edible Plants of New Zealand. Hodder and Stoughton 1990 ISBN 0-340-508302
A very well written and illustrated book based on the authors own experiments with living on a native diet.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[225] Knees. S. The New Plantsman. Volume 2, 1995. Royal Horticultural Society 1995 ISBN 1352-4186
A quarterly magazine, it has articles on Coprosma species,

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Coprosma moorei - Rodway.

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 03:37

Coprosma moorei - Rodway.
Author Rodway. Botanical references 200
Family Rubiaceae Genus Coprosma
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Range Australia - Tasmania, Victoria.
Habitat Wet peaty places in alpine, sub-alpine and montane zones, to 1,200 metres[225].
Edibility Rating apple icon 1 (1-5) Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of shrub An evergreen Shrub growing to 0.1m.
It is hardy to zone 9. It is in leaf all year. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female organs) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; South Wall By; West Wall By;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses: Coffee.
Fruit - raw. Succulent[200]. Sweet, but with little flavour[225]. The bright blue fruit is about 7mm in diameter[200, 225]. The roasted seed is an excellent coffee substitute[153].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
None known
Other Uses
Dye.
A yellow dye is obtained from the wood, it does not require a mordant[153].
Cultivation details
Requires a moist, very well-drained neutral to slightly acid soil in full sun or light shade[200]. Succeeds in most soils, so long as they are well-drained[225]. This species is proving to be very difficult to grow in Britain[225]. Somewhat intolerant of frost, plants are only likely to succeed outdoors in the milder areas of Britain[200]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200, 225]. Unlike most members of this genus, this species is hermaphrodite[200, 225].
Propagation
Seed - probably best sown as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse or cold frame[K]. Sow stored seed in spring in a cold frame[200]. Germination can be slow, often taking more than 12 months even when fresh seed is used[K]. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots. Grow on the plants for at least their first winter in a greenhouse and plant out in late spring or early summer. Give the plants some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors[K]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, autumn in a frame.
Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[153] Brooker. S. G., Cambie. R. C. and Cooper. R. C. Economic Native Plants of New Zealand. Oxford University Press 1991 ISBN 0-19-558229-2
An interesting and readable book on the useful plants of New Zealand.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[225] Knees. S. The New Plantsman. Volume 2, 1995. Royal Horticultural Society 1995 ISBN 1352-4186
A quarterly magazine, it has articles on Coprosma species,

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Coprosma nitida - Hook.f.

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 03:39

Coprosma nitida - Hook.f.
Author Hook.f. Botanical references 11, 200
Family Rubiaceae Genus Coprosma
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Range Australia - Tasmania, Victoria.
Habitat Mountains above 750 metres, becoming very dense and low-growing at high altitudes[11].
Edibility Rating apple iconapple icon 2 (1-5) Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of shrub An evergreen Shrub growing to 2m.
It is hardy to zone 8. It is in leaf all year. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant is not self-fertile. The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; South Wall By; West Wall By;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses: Coffee.
Fruit - raw. Sweetish but not pleasant according to one report[144]. Nice according to another[177]. The orange-red fruit is about 6mm in diameter[200, 225]. The roasted seed is an excellent coffee substitute[153].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
None known
Other Uses
Dye.
A yellow dye is obtained from the wood, it does not require a mordant[153].
Cultivation details
Requires a moist, very well-drained neutral to slightly acid soil in full sun or light shade[200]. Succeeds in most soils[225]. This species is somewhat intolerant of frost, but some provenances should succeed outdoors at least in the milder areas of Britain. A specimen seen at Hilliers Arboretum in April 1999 was 1.5 metres tall. It had been planted in quite heavy dappled shade right next to the trunk of a fairly upright deciduous tree, though with a fairly open aspect to the south. It looked very healthy, though a bit drawn up, with no signs of any cold damage[K]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200, 225]. Plants are tolerant of heavy clipping or pruning[225]. Plants are normally dioecious, though in some species the plants produce a few flowers of the opposite sex before the main flowering and a few hermaphrodite flowers are sometimes produced[225]. Male and female plants must usually be grown if seed is required.
Propagation
Seed - probably best sown as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse or cold frame[K]. Sow stored seed in spring in a cold frame[200]. Germination can be slow, often taking more than 12 months even when fresh seed is used[K]. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots. Grow on the plants for at least their first winter in a greenhouse and plant out in late spring or early summer. Give the plants some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors[K]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, autumn in a frame.
Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[144] Cribb. A. B. and J. W. Wild Food in Australia. Fontana 1976 ISBN 0-00-634436-4
A very good pocket guide.
[153] Brooker. S. G., Cambie. R. C. and Cooper. R. C. Economic Native Plants of New Zealand. Oxford University Press 1991 ISBN 0-19-558229-2
An interesting and readable book on the useful plants of New Zealand.
[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[225] Knees. S. The New Plantsman. Volume 2, 1995. Royal Horticultural Society 1995 ISBN 1352-4186
A quarterly magazine, it has articles on Coprosma species,

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Coprosma petriei - Cheesem.

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 03:40

Coprosma petriei - Cheesem.
Author Cheesem. Botanical references 11, 44, 200
Family Rubiaceae Genus Coprosma
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Range New Zealand.
Habitat Lowland to higher montane grassland, stream margins, rocky places and dry river beds on North and South Islands[44].
Edibility Rating apple icon 1 (1-5) Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of shrub An evergreen Shrub growing to 0.1m by 0.5m.
It is hardy to zone 7. It is in leaf all year, and the seeds ripen in August. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant is not self-fertile. The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Ground Cover; South Wall By; West Wall By;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses: Coffee.
Fruit - raw or cooked. Sweet, but without much flavour[225]. The fruits vary in colour from white to blue or sea-green[225]. The fruit is seldom borne in Britain[208]. The fruit is about 12mm wide[200]. The roasted seed is an excellent coffee substitute[153].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
None known
Other Uses
Dye; Ground cover.
A yellow dye is obtained from the wood, it does not require a mordant[153]. A dense carpeting plant, it can be planted about 25cm apart to form a ground cover[208]. The cultivar 'Violet Drops' is much more vigorous than the type, forming compact mats up to 2 metres across and making a very good ground cover[225].
Cultivation details
Requires a moist, very well-drained neutral to slightly acid soil in full sun or light shade[200]. Succeeds in most soils, so long as they are well-drained[225]. This plant has survived very dry conditions with us and appears to be very drought tolerant[K]. One of the hardiest members of this genus, it succeeds outdoors in the rock garden in many parts of the country[1]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200, 225], though it does not seem to cross with C. pumila, C. atropurpurea or any red-fruited species[225]. There are several named forms selected for their ornamental value[225]. Plants are normally dioecious, though in some species the plants produce a few flowers of the opposite sex before the main flowering and a few hermaphrodite flowers are sometimes produced[225]. Male and female plants must usually be grown if seed is required.
Propagation
Seed - probably best sown as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse or cold frame[K]. Sow stored seed in spring in a cold frame[200]. Germination can be slow, often taking more than 12 months even when fresh seed is used[K]. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots. Grow on the plants for at least their first winter in a greenhouse and plant out in late spring or early summer. Give the plants some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors[K]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, autumn in a frame.
Cultivars

'Violet Drops'
This cultivar is much more vigorous than the type, forming compact mats up to 2 metres across and making a very good ground cover[225].

Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[44] Allan. H. H. Flora of New Zealand. Government Printer, Wellington. 1961
The standard work, in 3 volumes though only the first two are of interest to the plant project. Very good on habitats.
[153] Brooker. S. G., Cambie. R. C. and Cooper. R. C. Economic Native Plants of New Zealand. Oxford University Press 1991 ISBN 0-19-558229-2
An interesting and readable book on the useful plants of New Zealand.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[208] Thomas. G. S. Plants for Ground Cover J. M. Dent & Sons 1990 ISBN 0-460-12609-1
An excellent detailled book on the subject, very comprehensive.
[225] Knees. S. The New Plantsman. Volume 2, 1995. Royal Horticultural Society 1995 ISBN 1352-4186
A quarterly magazine, it has articles on Coprosma species,

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Coprosma propinqua - Cunn.

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 03:46

oprosma propinqua - Cunn.
Author Cunn. Botanical references 11, 44, 200
Family Rubiaceae Genus Coprosma
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Range New Zealand.
Habitat Damp places[11]. Gravelly places throughout New Zealand[225].
Edibility Rating 1 (1-5) Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
An evergreen Shrub growing to 6m.
It is hardy to zone 7. It is in leaf all year, in flower from February to March, and the seeds ripen from August to September. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant is not self-fertile. The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Hedge;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses: Coffee.
Fruit - raw or cooked[173]. Sweet, but with little flavour[225]. The pale to deep violet-blue fruit is about 8mm wide[200, 225]. The roasted seed is an excellent coffee substitute[153].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
None known
Other Uses
Dye; Hedge.
Tolerant of pruning, it makes a good dense hedging plant[225]. A yellow dye is obtained from the wood, it does not require a mordant[153].
Cultivation details
Requires a moist, very well-drained neutral to slightly acid soil in full sun or light shade[200]. An easily grown plant, it succeeds in most soils[225]. Somewhat intolerant of frost, this species is only likely to succeed outdoors in the milder areas of Britain[11, 200]. Another report says that it is fully hardy in Britain[225]. It flowers freely in Britain, fruiting heavily if pollinated[225]. A polymorphic species, it hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200, 225]. Plants are tolerant of heavy clipping or pruning[225]. Plants are normally dioecious, though in some species the plants produce a few flowers of the opposite sex before the main flowering and a few hermaphrodite flowers are sometimes produced[225]. Male and female plants must usually be grown if seed is required.
Propagation
Seed - probably best sown as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse or cold frame[K]. Sow stored seed in spring in a cold frame[200]. Germination can be slow, often taking more than 12 months even when fresh seed is used[K]. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots. Grow on the plants for at least their first winter in a greenhouse and plant out in late spring or early summer. Give the plants some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors[K]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, autumn in a frame.
Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.
[44] Allan. H. H. Flora of New Zealand. Government Printer, Wellington. 1961
The standard work, in 3 volumes though only the first two are of interest to the plant project. Very good on habitats.
[153] Brooker. S. G., Cambie. R. C. and Cooper. R. C. Economic Native Plants of New Zealand. Oxford University Press 1991 ISBN 0-19-558229-2
An interesting and readable book on the useful plants of New Zealand.
[173] Crowe. A. Native Edible Plants of New Zealand. Hodder and Stoughton 1990 ISBN 0-340-508302
A very well written and illustrated book based on the authors own experiments with living on a native diet.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[225] Knees. S. The New Plantsman. Volume 2, 1995. Royal Horticultural Society 1995 ISBN 1352-4186
A quarterly magazine, it has articles on Coprosma species,

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Coprosma pumila - Hook.f.

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 03:49

Coprosma pumila - Hook.f.
Author Hook.f. Botanical references 44, 200
Family Rubiaceae Genus Coprosma
Synonyms Coprosma perpusilla - Colenso.
Coprosma repens - non A.Rich.
Known Hazards None known
Range Australia, New Zealand.
Habitat Higher montane to sub-alpine grassland, North, South and Stewart Islands[44].
Edibility Rating apple icon 1 (1-5) Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of shrub An evergreen Shrub growing to 0.08m.
It is hardy to zone 7. It is in leaf all year. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant is not self-fertile. The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; South Wall By; West Wall By;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses: Coffee.
Fruit - raw or cooked. Sweet, but with little flavour[225]. The orange-red fleshy fruit is about 7mm in diameter, though forms with fruits up to 13mm have been seen[225]. The roasted seed is an excellent coffee substitute[153].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
None known
Other Uses
Dye.
A yellow dye is obtained from the wood, it does not require a mordant[153].
Cultivation details
Requires a moist, very well-drained neutral to slightly acid soil in full sun or light shade[200]. Prefers a permanent moist and peaty soil, but it is not an easy plant to grow in Britain[225]. Somewhat intolerant of frost, this species is only likely to succeed outdoors in the milder areas of Britain[200]. Another report says that it is fully hardy in Britain[225]. Closely related to C. atropurpurea and often confused with that species[225]. It is a very variable plant, hybridizing freely with other members of this genus[200, 225]. Plants are normally dioecious, though in some species the plants produce a few flowers of the opposite sex before the main flowering and a few hermaphrodite flowers are sometimes produced[225]. Male and female plants must usually be grown if seed is required. There is some confusion over the correct name of this species, it could be a part of C. petriei[200].
Propagation
Seed - probably best sown as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse or cold frame[K]. Sow stored seed in spring in a cold frame[200]. Germination can be slow, often taking more than 12 months even when fresh seed is used[K]. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots. Grow on the plants for at least their first winter in a greenhouse and plant out in late spring or early summer. Give the plants some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors[K]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, autumn in a frame.
Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[44] Allan. H. H. Flora of New Zealand. Government Printer, Wellington. 1961
The standard work, in 3 volumes though only the first two are of interest to the plant project. Very good on habitats.
[153] Brooker. S. G., Cambie. R. C. and Cooper. R. C. Economic Native Plants of New Zealand. Oxford University Press 1991 ISBN 0-19-558229-2
An interesting and readable book on the useful plants of New Zealand.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[225] Knees. S. The New Plantsman. Volume 2, 1995. Royal Horticultural Society 1995 ISBN 1352-4186
A quarterly magazine, it has articles on Coprosma species,

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Coprosma repens - A.Rich. Mirror Plant

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 04:12

Coprosma repens - A.Rich.
Mirror Plant
Author A.Rich. Botanical references 44, 200
Family Rubiaceae Genus Coprosma
Synonyms Coprosma baueri - Auct. non Endl.
Known Hazards None known
Range New Zealand.
Habitat Coastal cliffs on North and South Islands, south to latitude 41°50' south[44].
Edibility Rating apple icon 1 (1-5) Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of shrub An evergreen Shrub growing to 2m by 2m.
It is hardy to zone 9. It is in leaf all year, in flower from May to June. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant is not self-fertile. The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; South Wall By; West Wall By;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses: Coffee.
Fruit - raw or cooked[173]. Sweet, but not much flavour[225]. The orange fruit is about 10mm in diameter[200]. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute[153, 173]. It is said to make an excellent coffee, though the seeds are rather small[225].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
None known
Other Uses
Dye.
A yellow dye is obtained from the wood, it does not require a mordant[153].
Cultivation details
Requires a moist, very well-drained neutral to slightly acid soil in full sun or light shade[200]. Succeeds in most soils[225]. Somewhat intolerant of frost, this species is only likely to succeed outdoors in the milder areas of Britain[200, 225]. The purple-leafed forms are somewhat hardier and have succeeded outdoors in a sheltered spot in an Essex garden[225]. There are several named forms, selected for their ornamental value[182, 225]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200, 225]. Plants are tolerant of heavy clipping or pruning[225]. Plants are normally dioecious, though in some species the plants produce a few flowers of the opposite sex before the main flowering and a few hermaphrodite flowers are sometimes produced[225]. Male and female plants must usually be grown if seed is required.
Propagation
Seed - probably best sown as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse or cold frame[K]. Sow stored seed in spring in a cold frame[200]. Germination can be slow, often taking more than 12 months even when fresh seed is used[K]. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots. Grow on the plants for at least their first winter in a greenhouse and plant out in late spring or early summer. Give the plants some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors[K]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, autumn in a frame.
Cultivars

No entries have been made for this species as yet.

Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[44] Allan. H. H. Flora of New Zealand. Government Printer, Wellington. 1961
The standard work, in 3 volumes though only the first two are of interest to the plant project. Very good on habitats.
[153] Brooker. S. G., Cambie. R. C. and Cooper. R. C. Economic Native Plants of New Zealand. Oxford University Press 1991 ISBN 0-19-558229-2
An interesting and readable book on the useful plants of New Zealand.
[173] Crowe. A. Native Edible Plants of New Zealand. Hodder and Stoughton 1990 ISBN 0-340-508302
A very well written and illustrated book based on the authors own experiments with living on a native diet.
[182] Thomas. G. S. Ornamental Shrubs, Climbers and Bamboos. Murray 1992 ISBN 0-7195-5043-2
Contains a wide range of plants with a brief description, mainly of their ornamental value but also usually of cultivation details and varieties.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[225] Knees. S. The New Plantsman. Volume 2, 1995. Royal Horticultural Society 1995 ISBN 1352-4186
A quarterly magazine, it has articles on Coprosma species,

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Coprosma rhamnoides - Cunn.

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 04:14

Coprosma rhamnoides - Cunn.
Author Cunn. Botanical references 44, 200
Family Rubiaceae Genus Coprosma
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Range New Zealand.
Habitat Lowland to lower montane forest and shrubland, North, South and Stewart Islands[44].
Edibility Rating apple icon 1 (1-5) Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of shrub An evergreen Shrub growing to 2m.
It is hardy to zone 8. It is in leaf all year. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant is not self-fertile. The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; South Wall By; West Wall By;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses: Coffee.
Fruit - raw or cooked. Sweet, but with little flavour[225]. The dark red fruit is about 4mm in diameter[200, 225]. The roasted seed is an excellent coffee substitute[153].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
None known
Other Uses
Dye.
A yellow dye is obtained from the wood, it does not require a mordant[153].
Cultivation details
Requires a moist, very well-drained neutral to slightly acid soil in full sun or light shade[200]. Succeeds in most soils[225]. Somewhat intolerant of frost, this species is only likely to succeed outdoors in the milder areas of Britain[200]. Another report says that plants are reasonably hardy in Britain[225]. A polymorphic species[44], it hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200, 225]. Plants are tolerant of heavy clipping or pruning[225]. Plants are normally dioecious, though in some species the plants produce a few flowers of the opposite sex before the main flowering and a few hermaphrodite flowers are sometimes produced[225]. Male and female plants must usually be grown if seed is required.
Propagation
Seed - probably best sown as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse or cold frame[K]. Sow stored seed in spring in a cold frame[200]. Germination can be slow, often taking more than 12 months even when fresh seed is used[K]. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots. Grow on the plants for at least their first winter in a greenhouse and plant out in late spring or early summer. Give the plants some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors[K]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, autumn in a frame.
Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[44] Allan. H. H. Flora of New Zealand. Government Printer, Wellington. 1961
The standard work, in 3 volumes though only the first two are of interest to the plant project. Very good on habitats.
[153] Brooker. S. G., Cambie. R. C. and Cooper. R. C. Economic Native Plants of New Zealand. Oxford University Press 1991 ISBN 0-19-558229-2
An interesting and readable book on the useful plants of New Zealand.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[225] Knees. S. The New Plantsman. Volume 2, 1995. Royal Horticultural Society 1995 ISBN 1352-4186
A quarterly magazine, it has articles on Coprosma species,

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Coprosma robusta - Raoul.

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 04:15

Coprosma robusta - Raoul.
Author Raoul. Botanical references 44, 200
Family Rubiaceae Genus Coprosma
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Range New Zealand.
Habitat Lowland forest and shrubland, especially on alluvial soils, on North, South and Chatham Islands, south to latitude 45°south[44, 225].
Edibility Rating apple icon 1 (1-5) Medicinal Rating apple icon 1 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of shrub An evergreen Shrub growing to 5m.
It is hardy to zone 9. It is in leaf all year. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant is not self-fertile. The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; South Wall By; West Wall By;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses: Coffee.
Fruit - raw or cooked[173]. The fruit is freely borne, it is sweet but has little flavour[225]. The orange fruit is about 9mm long x 5mm wide[200, 225]. The roasted seed is a coffee substitute[153, 173]. It is said to make an excellent coffee, though the seeds are rather small[225].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
Kidney; Vulnerary.
A concoction of boiled leaves and twigs has been used to treat wounds that are not healing[225]. The decoction of the leaves has been drunk in the treatment of kidney troubles[225].
Other Uses
Dye.
A yellow dye is obtained from the wood, it does not require a mordant[153].
Cultivation details
Requires a moist, very well-drained neutral to slightly acid soil in full sun or light shade[200]. Succeeds in most soils[225]. Somewhat intolerant of frost, this species is only likely to succeed outdoors in the mildest areas of Britain[1, 200]. Plants are fairly hardy in Essex according to another report, which says that they are worthy shrubs for a woodland garden[225]. There are some named forms, selected for their ornamental value[225]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200, 225]. Plants are tolerant of heavy clipping or pruning[225]. Plants are normally dioecious, though occasionally the plants produce a few flowers of the opposite sex before the main flowering and a few hermaphrodite flowers are sometimes produced[44, 225]. Male and female plants must usually be grown if seed is required.
Propagation
Seed - probably best sown as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse or cold frame[K]. Sow stored seed in spring in a cold frame[200]. Germination can be slow, often taking more than 12 months even when fresh seed is used[K]. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots. Grow on the plants for at least their first winter in a greenhouse and plant out in late spring or early summer. Give the plants some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors[K]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, autumn in a frame.
Cultivars

No entries have been made for this species as yet.

Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[44] Allan. H. H. Flora of New Zealand. Government Printer, Wellington. 1961
The standard work, in 3 volumes though only the first two are of interest to the plant project. Very good on habitats.
[153] Brooker. S. G., Cambie. R. C. and Cooper. R. C. Economic Native Plants of New Zealand. Oxford University Press 1991 ISBN 0-19-558229-2
An interesting and readable book on the useful plants of New Zealand.
[173] Crowe. A. Native Edible Plants of New Zealand. Hodder and Stoughton 1990 ISBN 0-340-508302
A very well written and illustrated book based on the authors own experiments with living on a native diet.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[225] Knees. S. The New Plantsman. Volume 2, 1995. Royal Horticultural Society 1995 ISBN 1352-4186
A quarterly magazine, it has articles on Coprosma species,

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Coprosma rotundifolia - Cunn.

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 04:16

Coprosma rotundifolia - Cunn.
Author Cunn. Botanical references 44, 200
Family Rubiaceae Genus Coprosma
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Range New Zealand.
Habitat Woodlands throughout both main islands, especially on alluvial soils[44].
Edibility Rating apple icon 1 (1-5) Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of shrub An evergreen Shrub growing to 2.4m.
It is hardy to zone 9. It is in leaf all year. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant is not self-fertile. The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; South Wall By; West Wall By;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses: Coffee.
Fruit - raw or cooked. Sweet, but with little flavour[225]. The red fruit is about 5mm in diameter[200, 225]. The roasted seed is an excellent coffee substitute[153].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
None known
Other Uses
Dye.
A yellow dye is obtained from the wood, it does not require a mordant[153].
Cultivation details
Requires a moist, very well-drained neutral to slightly acid soil in full sun or light shade[200]. Succeeds in most soils[225]. Somewhat intolerant of frost, this species is only likely to succeed outdoors in the mildest areas of Britain[200], where it usually grows well in a woodland garden[1, 225]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200, 225]. Plants are tolerant of heavy clipping or pruning[225]. Plants are normally dioecious, though in some species the plants produce a few flowers of the opposite sex before the main flowering and a few hermaphrodite flowers are sometimes produced[225]. Male and female plants must usually be grown if seed is required.
Propagation
Seed - probably best sown as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse or cold frame[K]. Sow stored seed in spring in a cold frame[200]. Germination can be slow, often taking more than 12 months even when fresh seed is used[K]. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots. Grow on the plants for at least their first winter in a greenhouse and plant out in late spring or early summer. Give the plants some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors[K]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, autumn in a frame.
Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).
[44] Allan. H. H. Flora of New Zealand. Government Printer, Wellington. 1961
The standard work, in 3 volumes though only the first two are of interest to the plant project. Very good on habitats.
[153] Brooker. S. G., Cambie. R. C. and Cooper. R. C. Economic Native Plants of New Zealand. Oxford University Press 1991 ISBN 0-19-558229-2
An interesting and readable book on the useful plants of New Zealand.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[225] Knees. S. The New Plantsman. Volume 2, 1995. Royal Horticultural Society 1995 ISBN 1352-4186
A quarterly magazine, it has articles on Coprosma species,

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Coprosma rugosa - Cheesem.

Post by ThreeperMan on Mon 13 Jul 2009, 04:18

Coprosma rugosa - Cheesem.
Author Cheesem. Botanical references 44, 200
Family Rubiaceae Genus Coprosma
Synonyms
Known Hazards None known
Range New Zealand.
Habitat Lowland to montane and lower sub-alpine grassland, shrubland and forest margins in North and South Islands[44].
Edibility Rating apple icon 1 (1-5) Medicinal Rating 0 (1-5)
Physical Characteristics
icon of man icon of shrub An evergreen Shrub growing to 3m.
It is hardy to zone 7. It is in leaf all year, in flower from January to February, and the seeds ripen from August to October. The flowers are dioecious (individual flowers are either male or female, but only one sex is to be found on any one plant so both male and female plants must be grown if seed is required) and are pollinated by Wind. The plant is not self-fertile. The plant prefers light (sandy) and medium (loamy) soils and requires well-drained soil. The plant prefers acid and neutral soils. It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade. It requires moist soil.
Habitats
Woodland Garden; Sunny Edge; Dappled Shade; Hedge;
Edible Uses
Edible Parts: Fruit.
Edible Uses: Coffee.
Fruit - raw or cooked. Freely produced in Britain, it is sweet but with little flavour[225]. The fruit is white or blue and about 8mm long x 6mm wide[200, 225]. The roasted seed is an excellent coffee substitute[153].
Medicinal Uses
Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants. Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.
None known
Other Uses
Dye; Hedge.
Tolerant of heavy trimming, the plant makes a good hedge[225]. A yellow dye is obtained from the wood, it does not require a mordant[153].
Cultivation details
Requires a moist, very well-drained neutral to slightly acid soil in full sun or light shade[200]. Succeeds in most soils[225]. Somewhat intolerant of frost, this species is only likely to succeed outdoors in the mildest areas of Britain[200]. Another report says that it is quite hardy in Britain[225]. Hybridizes freely with other members of this genus[200, 225]. Plants are tolerant of heavy clipping or pruning[225]. Plants are normally dioecious, though in some species the plants produce a few flowers of the opposite sex before the main flowering and a few hermaphrodite flowers are sometimes produced[225]. Male and female plants must usually be grown if seed is required.
Propagation
Seed - probably best sown as soon as it is ripe in a greenhouse or cold frame[K]. Sow stored seed in spring in a cold frame[200]. Germination can be slow, often taking more than 12 months even when fresh seed is used[K]. When the seedlings are large enough to handle, prick them out into individual pots. Grow on the plants for at least their first winter in a greenhouse and plant out in late spring or early summer. Give the plants some protection from the cold for their first winter outdoors[K]. Cuttings of mature wood of the current year's growth, autumn in a frame.
Links
References
[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[44] Allan. H. H. Flora of New Zealand. Government Printer, Wellington. 1961
The standard work, in 3 volumes though only the first two are of interest to the plant project. Very good on habitats.
[153] Brooker. S. G., Cambie. R. C. and Cooper. R. C. Economic Native Plants of New Zealand. Oxford University Press 1991 ISBN 0-19-558229-2
An interesting and readable book on the useful plants of New Zealand.
[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.
[225] Knees. S. The New Plantsman. Volume 2, 1995. Royal Horticultural Society 1995 ISBN 1352-4186
A quarterly magazine, it has articles on Coprosma species,

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Re: Coffee Substitutes

Post by wannabemountainman on Sun 13 Sep 2009, 06:12

Abelmoschus esculentus -
(L.)Moench.

Okra

Author(L.)Moench.
Botanical references200
FamilyMalvaceae

GenusAbelmoschus
SynonymsHibiscus esculentus - L.


Known Hazardswarning signThe
hairs on the seed pods can be an irritant to some people and gloves
should be worn when harvesting. These hairs can be easily removed by
washing[200].
RangeThe original habitat is obscure.
HabitatNot known in a truly wild situation.

Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 4 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of perennial/biennial/annual
Annual growing to 1m.
It is hardy to zone 0 and is frost tender. It is in flower from July to
September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both male and female
organs) and are pollinated by Bees.

The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay) soils and requires well-drained soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils and can grow in very alkaline soil.
It cannot grow in the shade.
It requires moist soil.


Habitats



Cultivated Beds;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Fruit; Leaves; Root; Seed.

Edible Uses: Coffee; Oil; Pectin.


Immature fruit - cooked on their own or added to soups etc[2, 27].
They can be used fresh or dried[183]. Mucilaginous[133], they are
commonly used as a thickening for soups, stews and sauces[183]. The
fruits are rich in pectin and are also a fair source of iron and
calcium[240]. The fresh fruits contain 740 iu vitamin A[240]. The fruit
should be harvested whilst young, older fruits soon become
fibrous[133]. The fruit can be up to 20cm long[200].
Seed - cooked or ground into a meal and used in making bread or made
into 'tofu' or 'tempeh'[183].
The roasted seed is a coffee substitute[2, 27, 133]. Probably the best
of the coffee substitutes[74].
The seed contains up to 22% of an edible oil[55, 74, 177, 183, 240].
The leaves, flower buds, flowers and calyces can be eaten cooked as
greens[183]. The leaves can be dried, crushed into a powder and stored
for later use[183]. They are also used as a flavouring[133].
Root - it is edible but very fibrous[144]. Mucilaginous, without very
much flavour[144].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Antispasmodic; Demulcent; Diaphoretic; Diuretic; Emollient; Stimulant; Vulnerary.


The roots are very rich in mucilage, having a strongly demulcent
action[4, 21]. They are said by some to be better than marsh mallow
(Althaea officinalis)[4]. This mucilage can be used as a plasma
replacement[240]. An infusion of the roots is used in the treatment of
syphilis[240]. The juice of the roots is used externally in Nepal to
treat cuts, wounds and boils[272].
The leaves furnish an emollient poultice[4, 21, 240].
A decoction of the immature capsules is demulcent, diuretic and
emollient[240]. It is used in the treatment of catarrhal infections,
ardor urinae, dysuria and gonorrhoea[240].
The seeds are antispasmodic, cordial and stimulant[240]. An infusion of
the roasted seeds has sudorific properties[240].

Other Uses


Fibre; Paper; Size.


A fibre obtained from the stems is used as a substitute for jute[57,
61, 74, 169]. It is also used in making paper and textiles[171]. The
fibres are about 2.4mm long[189]. When used for paper the stems are
harvested in late summer or autumn after the edible seedpods have been
harvested, the leaves are removed and the stems are steamed until the
fibres can be stripped off. The fibres are cooked for 2 hours with lye
and then put in a ball mill for 3 hours. The paper is cream
coloured[189].
A decoction of the root or of the seeds is used as a size for
paper[178].

Cultivation details



Prefers a well-drained humus rich fertile soil in full sun and a pH
around 6 to 6.7[200] but it tolerates a wide range of soil types and pH
from 5.5 to 8[200]. It prefers a soil with a high potash content[264].
The plant requires a warm sunny position sheltered from winds[200]. It
likes plenty of moisture, both in the soil and in the atmosphere[133].
Okra is commonly cultivated in warm temperate and tropical areas for
its edible seedpod, there are many named varieties[183, 200]. Most
cultivars require about 4 months from sowing before a crop is produced,
though some early maturing varieties can produce a crop in 50 days in
the tropics[264]. This species is not very hardy in Britain, it
sometimes succeeds outdoors in hot summers but is really best grown in
a greenhouse since it prefers daytime temperatures of 25°c or
more[260]. Plants also dislike low night temperatures[133]. There are
some early-maturing varieties that are more tolerant of cooler
temperate conditions and these could be tried outdoors[200]. These
include 'Clemson's Spineless', 'Emerald Spineless', 'Long Green' and
'Green Velvet'[200].
The flowers are much visited by bees but they may require syringing in
order to improve fertilization when plants are grown in a greenhouse.
Plants resent being transplanted[133].

Propagation



Seed - sow early spring in a warm greenhouse. The seed germinates in 27
days at 15°c or 6 days at 35°c[133]. When large enough to handle, prick
them out into individual pots and plant them out after the last
expected frosts[200].

Cultivars


'Annie Oakley'
The slender, five-angled pods are light green in colour and 18 -
22cm long[183]. They are spineless and remain tender as they grow to a
large size[183].
An F1 hybrid, it ripens earlier than open-pollinated cultivars and can
therefore succeed in cooler climates, though it is still more suited to
protected cultivation in Britain[183, K]. The plants are compact,
uniform and heavy yielding, reaching a height of about 1 metre[183]. A
harvest can be produced within 45 days from sowing the seed[183].
'Blondy'
The spineless, ribbed pods are an attractive creamy-lime in
colour[183]. They are best picked when about 8cm long and are crisp and
firm yet tender and not stringy[183].
A short-season cultivar for cooler regions, it can produce a crop
within 48 days from sowing and has performed well in trials as far
north as Canada[183]. The short, compact plants are up to 90cm tall and
are very productive[183].
'Burgundy'
Growing about 1 metre tall with pods up to 20cm long[264]. It
tolerates cooler weather than many other cultivars, though still
requires warmer temperatures than are usually experienced in Beitish
summers.
'Cajun Queen'
The bright, spineless, tapered pods are about 12cm long with 6
well-defined ridges[183]. They have an intense flavour and a rich
colour, so do not fade into the background when cooked in stews
etc[183].
An early, productive, very hardy cultivar, it grows up to 1 metre tall
and can produce a crop within 50 days from sowing the seed[183].
'Clemson's Spineless'
An early-maturing variety that is more tolerant of cooler temperate
conditions, it is worthwhile trying it outdoors in Britain[200].
'Dwarf Green Longpod'
Plants are up to 90cm tall with pods to 20cm[264]. A fast-maturing plant, it can crop within 50 days from seed[264].
'Emerald Spineless'
An early-maturing variety that is more tolerant of cooler temperate
conditions, it is worthwhile trying it outdoors in Britain[200].
'Green Velvet'
An early-maturing variety that is more tolerant of cooler temperate
conditions, it is worthwhile trying it outdoors in Britain[200].
'Long Green'
An early-maturing variety that is more tolerant of cooler temperate
conditions, it is worthwhile trying it outdoors in Britain[200].
'Pentagreen'
The five-angled, slightly spiny pods are medium-green in colour and
up to 15cm long, though for best quality they should be harvested when
about half that size[183].
An early and high-yielding cultivar, producing sturdy, compact plants
from 45 - 75cm tall[183]. They are very productive, even in areas
usually considered too cool for okras[183]. They can produce a crop
within 55 days from sowing the seed[183].

Links


This plant is also mentioned in the following PFAF articles:
Conservatory Plants.

References

[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.


[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.

[21] Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books 1983 ISBN 0-553-23827-2
Lots of information tightly crammed into a fairly small book.

[27] Vilmorin. A. The Vegetable Garden. Ten Speed Press 0 ISBN 0-89815-041-8
A reprint of a nineteenth century classic, giving details of vegetable varieties. Not really that informative though.


[55] Harris. B. C. Eat the Weeds. Pivot Health 1973
Interesting reading.

[57] Schery. R. W. Plants for Man. 0
Fairly readable but not very comprehensive. Deals with plants from around the world.

[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget
the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a
very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very
brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.


[74] Komarov. V. L. Flora of the USSR. Israel Program for Scientific Translation 1968
An
immense (25 or more large volumes) and not yet completed translation of
the Russian flora. Full of information on plant uses and habitats but
heavy going for casual readers.

[133] Rice. G. (Editor) Growing from Seed. Volume 1. Thompson and Morgan. 1987
Very readable magazine with lots of information on propagation.

[144] Cribb. A. B. and J. W. Wild Food in Australia. Fontana 1976 ISBN 0-00-634436-4
A very good pocket guide.


[169] Buchanan. R. A Weavers Garden. 0
Covers all aspects of growing your own clothes, from fibre plants to dyes.

[171] Hill. A. F. Economic Botany. The Maple Press 1952
Not very comprehensive, but it is quite readable and goes into some a bit of detail about the plants it does cover.

[177] Kunkel. G. Plants for Human Consumption. Koeltz Scientific Books 1984 ISBN 3874292169
An excellent book for the dedicated. A comprehensive listing of latin names with a brief list of edible parts.


[178] Stuart. Rev. G. A. Chinese Materia Medica. Taipei. Southern Materials Centre 0
A translation of an ancient Chinese herbal. Fascinating.

[183] Facciola. S. Cornucopia - A Source Book of Edible Plants. Kampong Publications 1990 ISBN 0-9628087-0-9
Excellent.
Contains a very wide range of conventional and unconventional food
plants (including tropical) and where they can be obtained (mainly N.
American nurseries but also research institutes and a lot of other
nurseries from around the world.

[189] Bell. L. A. Plant Fibres for Papermaking. Liliaceae Press 1988
A
good practical section on how to make paper on a small scale plus
details of about 75 species (quite a few of them tropical) that can be
used.


[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

[240] Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. 1986
Very
terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of
references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for
the casual reader.

[260] Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Conservatory and Indoor Plants Volumes 1 & 2 Pan Books, London. 1998 ISBN 0-330-37376-5
Excellent
photos of over 1,100 species and cultivars with habits and cultivation
details plus a few plant uses. Many species are too tender for outdoors
in Britain though there are many that can be grown outside.


[264] Phillips. R. & Rix. M. Vegetables Macmillan Reference Books, London. 1995 ISBN 0 333 62640 0
Excellent
and easily read book with good information and an excellent collection
of photos of vegetables from around the world, including many unusual
species.

[272] Manandhar. N. P. Plants and People of Nepal Timber Press. Oregon. 2002 ISBN 0-88192-527-6
Excellent
book, covering over 1,500 species of useful plants from Nepal together
with information on the geography and peoples of Nepal. Good
descriptions of the plants with terse notes on their uses.



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Re: Coffee Substitutes

Post by wannabemountainman on Sun 13 Sep 2009, 06:18

Aesculus hippocastanum -
L.

Horse Chestnut



AuthorL.
Botanical references11, 50, 200

FamilyHippocastanaceae
GenusAesculus
Synonyms

Known Hazardswarning signThe
seed is rich in saponins[10, 21, 65]. Although poisonous, saponins are
poorly absorbed by the human body and so most pass through without
harm. Saponins are quite bitter and can be found in many common foods
such as some beans. They can be removed by carefully leaching the seed
or flour in running water. Thorough cooking, and perhaps changing the
cooking water once, will also normally remove most of them. However, it
is not advisable to eat large quantities of food that contain saponins.
Saponins are much more toxic to some creatures, such as fish, and
hunting tribes have traditionally put large quantities of them in
streams, lakes etc in order to stupefy or kill the fish[K].
RangeEurope - N. Greece and Albania. Naturalized in Britain[17].
HabitatMountain woods[50].

Edibility Ratingapple iconapple iconapple icon 3 (1-5)
Medicinal Ratingapple iconapple iconapple iconapple icon 4 (1-5)

Physical Characteristics



icon of man
icon of evergreen tree
A decidious Tree growing to 30m by 15m at a fast rate.
It is hardy to zone 3 and is frost tender. It is in flower in May, and
the seeds ripen in September. The flowers are hermaphrodite (have both
male and female organs) and are pollinated by Bees.
The plant prefers light (sandy), medium (loamy) and heavy (clay)
soils, requires well-drained soil and can grow in nutritionally poor
soil.
The plant prefers acid, neutral and basic (alkaline) soils.
It can grow in semi-shade (light woodland) or no shade.
It requires dry or moist soil.
The plant can tolerates strong winds but not maritime exposure.
It can tolerate atmospheric pollution.


Habitats



Woodland Garden; Canopy;

Edible Uses


Edible Parts: Seed.

Edible Uses: Coffee.

The roasted seed is used as a coffee substitute[2, 7].
Seed - cooked. It can be dried, ground into a powder and used as a
gruel[7, 46, 55, 61]. The seed is quite large, about 3cm in diameter,
and is easily harvested. It is usually produced in abundance in
Britain. Unfortunately the seed is also rich in saponins, these must be
removed before it can be used as a food and this process also removes
many of the minerals and vitamins, leaving behind mainly starch. See
also the notes above on toxicity. The seed contains up to 40% water, 8
- 11% protein and 8 - 26% toxic saponins[218].
The following notes apply to A. californica, but are probably also
relevant here:-
The seed needs to be leached of toxins before it becomes safe to eat -
the Indians would do this by slow-roasting the nuts (which would have
rendered the saponins harmless) and then cutting them into thin slices,
putting them into a cloth bag and rinsing them in a stream for 2 - 5
days[213].

Medicinal Uses


Plants For A Future can not take any responsibility for any adverse effects from the use of plants.
Always seek advice from a professional before using a plant medicinally.

Alterative; Analgesic; Antiinflammatory; Astringent; Bach; Diuretic; Expectorant; Febrifuge; Haemostatic; Narcotic; Tonic; Vasoconstrictor; Vulnerary.


Horse chestnut is an astringent, anti-inflammatory herb that helps to
tone the vein walls which, when slack or distended, may become
varicose, haemorrhoidal or otherwise problematic[254]. The plant also
reduces fluid retention by increasing the permeability of the
capillaries and allowing the re-absorption of excess fluid back into
the circulatory system[254]. This plant is potentially toxic if
ingested and should not be used internally without professional
supervision[254].
Alterative, analgesic, haemostatic and vulnerary[165, 218].
The bark is anti-inflammatory, astringent, diuretic, febrifuge,
narcotic, tonic and vasoconstrictive[4, 7, 222]. It is harvested in the
spring and dried for later use[4]. The plant is taken in small doses
internally for the treatment of a wide range of venous diseases,
including hardening of the arteries, varicose veins, phlebitis, leg
ulcers, haemorrhoids and frostbite[238, 254]. It is also made into a
lotion or gel for external application[254]. A tea made from the bark
is used in the treatment of malaria and dysentery, externally in the
treatment of lupus and skin ulcers[4, 222].
A tea made from the leaves is tonic and is used in the treatment of
fevers and whooping cough[222, 240, 254].
The pericarp is peripherally vasoconstrictive[7].
The seeds are decongestant, expectorant and tonic[7, 21]. They have
been used in the treatment of rheumatism, neuralgia and
haemorrhoids[4]. They are said to be narcotic and that 10 grains of the
nut are equal to 3 grains of opium[213].
An oil extracted from the seeds has been used externally as a treatment
for rheumatism[254].
A compound of the powdered roots is analgesic and has been used to
treat chest pains[257].
The buds are used in Bach flower remedies - the keywords for
prescribing it are 'Failure to learn by experience', 'Lack of
observation in the lessons of life' and hence 'The need of
repetition'[209].
The flowers are used in Bach flower remedies - the keywords for
prescribing it are 'Persistent unwanted thoughts' and 'Mental arguments
and conversations'[209].

Other Uses


Dye; Soap; Starch; Tannin; Wood.


Saponins in the seed are used as a soap substitute[169]. The saponins
can be easily obtained by chopping the seed into small pieces and
infusing them in hot water. This water can then be used for washing the
body, clothes etc. Its main drawback is a lingering odour of horse
chestnuts[K]. The seed contains variable amounts of saponins, up to a
maximum of 10%[240].
A starch obtained from the seed is used in laundering[100].
The bark and other parts of the plant contain tannin, but the
quantities are not given[223].
A yellow dye is obtained from the bark[4].
The flowers contain the dyestuff quercetin[223].
Wood - soft, light, not durable. Of little commercial value, it is used
for furniture, boxes, charcoal[2, 11, 46, 61].

Scented Plants


Flowers: Fresh
The flowers have a delicate honey-like perfume.

Cultivation details



Prefers a deep loamy well-drained soil but is not too fussy tolerating
poorer drier soils[11, 200]. Tolerates exposed positions and
atmospheric pollution[200].
A very ornamental and fast-growing tree[1, 4], it succeeds in most
areas of Britain but grows best in eastern and south-eastern
England[200]. Trees are very hardy when dormant, but the young growth
in spring can be damaged by late frosts. The flowers have a delicate
honey-like perfume[245].
Trees are tolerant of drastic cutting back and can be severely
lopped[200]. They are prone to suddenly losing old heavy branches[98].
The tree comes into bearing within 20 years from seed[98].
Most members of this genus transplant easily, even when fairly
large[11].

Propagation



Seed - best sown outdoors or in a cold frame as soon as it is ripe[11,
80]. The seed germinates almost immediately and must be given
protection from severe weather[130]. The seed has a very limited
viability and must not be allowed to dry out. Stored seed should be
soaked for 24 hours prior to sowing and even after this may still not
be viable[80, 113]. It is best to sow the seed with its 'scar'
downwards[130]. If sowing the seed in a cold frame, pot up the
seedlings in early spring and plant them out into their permanent
positions in the summer.

Links



This plant is also mentioned in the following PFAF articles:
Soap Plants.

References

[K] Ken Fern
Notes from observations, tasting etc at Plants For A Future and on field trips.
[1] F. Chittendon. RHS Dictionary of Plants plus Supplement. 1956 Oxford University Press 1951
Comprehensive
listing of species and how to grow them. Somewhat outdated, it has been
replaces in 1992 by a new dictionary (see [200]).


[2] Hedrick. U. P. Sturtevant's Edible Plants of the World. Dover Publications 1972 ISBN 0-486-20459-6
Lots of entries, quite a lot of information in most entries and references.

[4] Grieve. A Modern Herbal. Penguin 1984 ISBN 0-14-046-440-9
Not so modern (1930's?) but lots of information, mainly temperate plants.

[7] Chiej. R. Encyclopaedia of Medicinal Plants. MacDonald 1984 ISBN 0-356-10541-5
Covers plants growing in Europe. Also gives other interesting information on the plants. Good photographs.


[10] Altmann. H. Poisonous Plants and Animals. Chatto and Windus 1980 ISBN 0-7011-2526-8
A small book, reasonable but not very detailed.

[11] Bean. W. Trees and Shrubs Hardy in Great Britain. Vol 1 - 4 and Supplement. Murray 1981
A classic with a wealth of information on the plants, but poor on pictures.

[17] Clapham, Tootin and Warburg. Flora of the British Isles. Cambridge University Press 1962
A very comprehensive flora, the standard reference book but it has no pictures.


[21] Lust. J. The Herb Book. Bantam books 1983 ISBN 0-553-23827-2
Lots of information tightly crammed into a fairly small book.

[46] Uphof. J. C. Th. Dictionary of Economic Plants. Weinheim 1959
An
excellent and very comprehensive guide but it only gives very short
descriptions of the uses without any details of how to utilize the
plants. Not for the casual reader.

[50] ? Flora Europaea Cambridge University Press 1964
An
immense work in 6 volumes (including the index). The standard reference
flora for europe, it is very terse though and with very little extra
information. Not for the casual reader.


[55] Harris. B. C. Eat the Weeds. Pivot Health 1973
Interesting reading.

[61] Usher. G. A Dictionary of Plants Used by Man. Constable 1974 ISBN 0094579202
Forget
the sexist title, this is one of the best books on the subject. Lists a
very extensive range of useful plants from around the world with very
brief details of the uses. Not for the casual reader.

[65] Frohne. D. and Pfänder. J. A Colour Atlas of Poisonous Plants. Wolfe 1984 ISBN 0723408394
Brilliant. Goes into technical details but in a very readable way. The best work on the subject that I've come across so far.


[80] McMillan-Browse. P. Hardy Woody Plants from Seed. Grower Books 1985 ISBN 0-901361-21-6
Does not deal with many species but it is very comprehensive on those that it does cover. Not for casual reading.

[98] Gordon. A. G. and Rowe. D. C. f. Seed Manual for Ornamental Trees and Shrubs. 0
Very comprehensive guide to growing trees and shrubs from seed. Not for the casual reader.

[100] Polunin. O. Flowers of Europe - A Field Guide. Oxford University Press 1969 ISBN 0192176218
An excellent and well illustrated pocket guide for those with very large pockets. Also gives some details on plant uses.


[113] Dirr. M. A. and Heuser. M. W. The Reference Manual of Woody Plant Propagation. Athens Ga. Varsity Press 1987 ISBN 0942375009
A very detailed book on propagating trees. Not for the casual reader.

[130] ? The Plantsman. Vol. 4. 1982 - 1983. Royal Horticultural Society 1982
Excerpts
from the periodical giving cultivation details and other notes on some
of the useful plants, including Distylium racemosum and some perennial
members of the family Berberidaceae.

[165] Mills. S. Y. The Dictionary of Modern Herbalism. 0
An excellent small herbal.


[169] Buchanan. R. A Weavers Garden. 0
Covers all aspects of growing your own clothes, from fibre plants to dyes.

[200] Huxley. A. The New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. 1992. MacMillan Press 1992 ISBN 0-333-47494-5
Excellent and very comprehensive, though it contains a number of silly mistakes. Readable yet also very detailed.

[209] Chancellor. P. M. Handbook of the Bach Flower Remedies C. W. Daniel Co. Ltd. 1985 ISBN 85207 002 0
Details the 38 remedies plus how and where to prescribe them.


[213] Weiner. M. A. Earth Medicine, Earth Food. Ballantine Books 1980 ISBN 0-449-90589-6
A
nice book to read though it is difficult to look up individual plants
since the book is divided into separate sections dealing with the
different medicinal uses plus a section on edible plants. Common names
are used instead of botanical.

[218] Duke. J. A. and Ayensu. E. S. Medicinal Plants of China Reference Publications, Inc. 1985 ISBN 0-917256-20-4
Details
of over 1,200 medicinal plants of China and brief details of their
uses. Often includes an analysis, or at least a list of constituents.
Heavy going if you are not into the subject.

[222] Foster. S. & Duke. J. A. A Field Guide to Medicinal Plants. Eastern and Central N. America. Houghton Mifflin Co. 1990 ISBN 0395467225
A
concise book dealing with almost 500 species. A line drawing of each
plant is included plus colour photographs of about 100 species. Very
good as a field guide, it only gives brief details about the plants
medicinal properties.


[223] Rottsieper. E.H.W. Vegetable Tannins The Forestal Land, Timber and Railways Co. Ltd. 1946
A fairly detailed treatise on the major sources of vegetable tannins.

[238] Bown. D. Encyclopaedia of Herbs and their Uses. Dorling Kindersley, London. 1995 ISBN 0-7513-020-31
A
very well presented and informative book on herbs from around the
globe. Plenty in it for both the casual reader and the serious student.
Just one main quibble is the silly way of having two separate entries
for each plant.

[240] Chopra. R. N., Nayar. S. L. and Chopra. I. C. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants (Including the Supplement). Council of Scientific and Industrial Research, New Delhi. 1986
Very
terse details of medicinal uses of plants with a wide range of
references and details of research into the plants chemistry. Not for
the casual reader.


[245] Genders. R. Scented Flora of the World. Robert Hale. London. 1994 ISBN 0-7090-5440-8
An
excellent, comprehensive book on scented plants giving a few other
plant uses and brief cultivation details. There are no illustrations.

[254] Chevallier. A. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants Dorling Kindersley. London 1996 ISBN 9-780751-303148
An excellent guide to over 500 of the more well known medicinal herbs from around the world.

[257] Moerman. D. Native American Ethnobotany Timber Press. Oregon. 1998 ISBN 0-88192-453-9
Very
comprehensive but terse guide to the native uses of plants. Excellent
bibliography, fully referenced to each plant, giving a pathway to
further information. Not for the casual reader.

_________________
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“Learning is not compulsory. Neither is survival.” W. Edwards Deming
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Posts : 432
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